GRE issue写作范文:教育合作(4100字)

发表于:2020.12.26来自:www.fanwen118.com字数:4100 手机看范文

GRE issue写作范文:教育合作

以下是关于教育合作的新GRE issue写作范文实例,通过这些GRE写作范文或是习作,考生可以学习一下里面的短语、句子或思路,给自己的写作找一些思路和灵感。 题目:

Both parents and communities must be involved in the local schools. Education is too important to leave solely to a group of professional educators.

父母和社会都必须参与到地方的学校中。教育太重要了以至于不能把教育完全交给一群职业教育者。

正文:

Education is one of the key issues in modern society. Just as business is promoting our daily living standard, education is promoting the future well-being of the whole society. Therefore, I totally support the author's view that education is too important to leave solely to a group of professional educators. Local schools, which constitute an essencial part of education, require involvement of both parents and communities.

Admittedly, professional educators play a central role in the whole process of education, particularly school education. School education is uniform and regulated, where is the right stage for the knowlege and vocational training of professional educators. They draw out and put in practice school regulations, set up curricula for different grades of students based on their expected level and make plans for teaching, evaluation and extracurricular activities. However, few of their daily obligations involve fave-to-face communication with students, which may ruin the effects of their planning and execution. For example, the planned curriculum load may be too heavy for students to endure, but without a system to adjust it, the professional educators still insist to carry out the plan relying solely on their own professional assumptions. Such case will be detrimental, since students may be fed up with endless information offered in various kinds of fields, or they study so hard to meet the standard that their health may be ruined. It is in such cases that parents and communities need to offer help to supplement

and adjust teaching activities in local schools.

Parents are a major force to supplement and adjust the planning and teaching of professional educators in local schools. For one thing, parents are good assistants of the educators in teaching the students. They can supervise and urge their children to study when they are back home. Also, they can give their children extra knowlege about life besides what they have leant in school. For another thing, parents can adjust the teaching of educators when it is not suitable for their children. Living together and sharing similar genes, parents know their children better than all professional educators, regardless of how excellent the educators are. Parents will consider whether the curriculum fits their children, and if not, they are ready to discuss with the educators to see if any modifications can be made. Even though the uniform standard may not be changed, parents can still set personal goals for their children which best develop their potential. Moreover, parents can keep and eye on the mental health of their children. Since they are sensitive to the feelings of their children, if worry or frustration shadows their children, they are the first to come and cheer them up.

Only parents' help is not enough. Local schools still need communities' hand, which offers an irreplaceable function in educating school children. Communities are the best classroom for students to learn how to communicate with all kinds of people besides classmates and parents, thus help them to socialize. Also, local schools can hold many welfare activities in communities such as visiting sanitariums of the senior people and orphan houses. Students learn to love and take care of others, which should be the top purpose of education.

In sum, I firmly believe that both parents and communities must be involved in the local schools. They play essencial roles in adjusting and supplementing school education carried out by professional educators, teaching children in intellectual,mental and social aspects, all of which cannot be fully achieved without the help of parents and communities.

以上便是关于教育合作的新GRE issue写作范文,各位考生在新GRE写作练习中应加强对思维逻辑的重视,平时注意积累论据论证素材,注意借鉴一些新GRE写作范文,来吸收其精华,提高自己的写作水平。




第二篇:【小站教育】GRE Issue作文付老头讲义 115100字

GRE Issue作文付老头讲义

1. Agree or disagree?

(1)The speaker asserts/considers that __. However, I disagree with the speaker for some reasons.

(2) The discussion of the issue among individuals and in society as a whole has come into vogue during the last decade. In my point of view, I agree/disagree with the speaker for some obvious reasons./on the ground that./There are many instances supporting my view.

(3) The speaker asserts/considers that ____. AT the first glance, this opinion seems to be somewhat appealing/convincing, but further reflection tells me that I cannot agree with it for the following reasons.

(4) The speaker asserts/considers that ___. While this claim seems

plausible in the abstract, it ignores many practical problems.

2.Something should be done?

1) Determining whether something should or should not be done respective point of view. On balance, my view is that___(should be done?)

2) This controversy describes the dilemma faced by many people in this era. 结尾——From what has been discussed above, we see that even though the dilemma still exists. It is not difficult to draw the conclusion that ___.

3 ) The issue of whether ____ should be done is a complex one, since it involves a conflict between ____. In my point of view, the final judgement should depend on a case-by-case analysis of the two situations.

小站教育GREIssue作文付老头讲义

1) First, it goes without saying that___. In order to see this point clearly, let us

see an example.

2) The first reason why I have such a view is that _____. To illustrate this

point clearly, we can see that ___./ For example/For instance…….. 3) The further reason is that ____.

4) Last but not least,___. 1) The first problem with this claim is that _ illustrating this point.

2) There is an example to

3) The second problem is

4) The last thing I want to take a glance at this issue is that to see this point

clearly, let us see an example; 1) In sum, from what has been discussed above, we may finally draw the

conclusion that...

2) In conclusion, it must be explained that these three reasons sometimes

intertwine to form an organic whole, thus becoming more persuasive than anyone of them. So, any thinking person must believe that....

Issue source

When made his decision to drop out from Harvard, he did not care too much of the result. Gates entered Harvard in 1973, and dropped out two years later when he and Alien started the engine of Microsoft. Many people did not understand why Gates gave up such a good opportunity to study in the world's No.l University. However, with size comes power, Microsoft dominates

the PC market with its operating systems, such as MS-DOS and Windows. Now, Microsoft becomes the biggest software company in the world and Bill Gates becomes the richest man in the world.

We can learn from the experience of the great inventor Thomas Edison that sometimes a series of apparent failures is really a precursor to success. The voluminous personal papers of Edison reveal that his inventions typically did not spring to life in a flash of inspiration but evolved slowly from previous woks.

Mother Teresa

Mother Teresa, winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, dedicated the majority of her life to helping the poorest of the poor in India, thus gaining her the name "Saint of the Gutters." The devotion towards the poor won her respect throughout the world and the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979. She founded an order of nuns called the Missionaries of Charity in Calcutta, India dedicated to serving the poor. Almost 50 years later, the Missionaries of Charity have grown from 12 sisters in India to over 3,000 in 517 missions throughout 100 countries worldwide. is remembered and respected by people all over the world more for her beauty, kindness, humanity and charitable activities than for her technical skills. Mandela

Mandela, the South African black political leader and former president, was awarded 1993 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to Nelson Mandela is one of the great moral and political leaders of our time: an international hero whose lifelong dedication to the fight against racial oppression in South Africa won him the Nobel Peace Prize and the presidency of his country. Since his triumphant release in 1990 from more than a quarter-century of imprisonment, Mandela has been at the centre of the most

compelling and inspiring political drama in the world. As president of the African National Congress and head of South Africa's antiapartheid movement, he was instrumental in moving the nation toward multiracial government and majority rule. He is revered everywhere as a vital force in the fight for human rights and racial equality.

, began to lose his hearing in 1801 and was entirely deaf by 1819. However, this obstacle could not keep him from becoming one of the most famous and prolific composers in art history. His music, including 9 symphonies, 5 piano concertos, several senates and so on, forms a transition from classical to romantic composition.

Individual, Companies, Leadership and Internal control

was accused of losing 1.3 billion dollars as a result of a risky derivative investment with the potential of a 27-billon gain. The collapse of in 1995 has been one of the most spectacular events in the banking world in recent years. Banks solvency and liquidity can be significantly threatened if speculative trading in financial derivatives is guided by a lack of adequate internal and external controls. There is evidence that such reasons are responsible for the failure of Barings in February 1995.

Recently, many multi-national companies, such as Cisco and Yahoo, stimulate the employees’ morale by offering stock options to their employees. Stock option provides a chance for employees to become the shareholders of the company. As the result, the interest and profit of the company is tightly connected with the employees' interest and income. government and many other groups for producing products that are harmful to health. The fines and legal fees that have resulted from the legal attacks against the company have cost the company substantial amounts of money.

that the company would cease production of one of its major products, because of the hazardous ingredients it contained. By doing so, the company suffers great loss on profitability, but gains strong public support and understanding, which can contribute to the long-term success of the company.

小站教育GREIssue作文付老头讲义

Pajero, one of the company's major products, before apologized to public: Hundreds of car accidents were directly caused by the brake error. Thus, the company suffered a great goods return, losing not only the market share but also the confidence of consumers. only $310, one-third the price of the original 1908 model.

may cause misunderstanding and unpleasant result.The best example isIn 2000, the Company announced that among notebook computers it produced, one model had serious defect. Users in North America could choose either replacements with an upgraded model or full refund. However, no such offer for users in China. Chinese users were outraged at the company's discrimination and refused to use any of Toshiba's notebook computers. What the company lost is not only the temporary revenue but also the consumer's confidence, which contribute to the long-term success of the company.

Columbus

It took Columbus, the Italian explorer in the service of Spain who determined that the earth is round, over 3 months to sail from Europe to America. However, we can do so by air within one day.

Issue syllabus

Present your perspective on the issue below, using relevant reasons and/or examples to support your views.

1."People often look for similarities, even between very different things, and even when it is unhelpful or harmful to do so. Instead, a thing should be considered on its own terms; we should avoid the tendency to compare it to something else. "(85)

Do people too often look for similarities between things, regardless of whether it is helpful or harmful to do so? Should people avoid comparing anything to something else? "The speaker believes so. In my opinion, people should avoid making wrong and harmful comparison. However, the speaker overlooks a fundamental and compelling reason why people must always try to find similarities between things.

A. On the one hand, insisting on finding similarities between things can

often result in unfair, and sometimes harmful comparisons.

1) by focusing on similarities among all big cities, we overlook the distinctive character, architecture, ethical diversity, and culture of each one.

2) Without evaluating an individual company on its own merits and performance before buying stock of the company, only because this company is in a prosperous industry, the investor risk of choosing a poor performer

3) Education ;

4) Racial discrimination: each individual should be evaluated on the basis of his or her own merits.

On the other hand, looking for similarities between things is the only way that humans can truly learn something and communicate with one another- Developmental psychologists agree that we come to understand each new thing we encounter by comparing it to something with which we are already familiar. For example, if a child encounters a blue ball, the child recognizes as blue only by way of its similarity to the sky. Furthermore, without this association and a label for the concept of blue the child cannot possibly convey the concept to another person. Thus looking for similarities between things is how we make sense of our world, as well as communicate with one another.

To sum up, I agree that finding false similarities and drawing false analogies can be harmful. Nevertheless, human must look for similarities between things in order to learn and to communicate. B. C.

2. "People are mistaken when they assume that the problems they confront arc more complex and challenging than the problems faced by their predecessors. This illusion is eventually dispelled with increased knowledge and experience." (86)

The speaker over-generalized the nature of contemporary problems, some of which are more complex and challenging than any problems earlier societies ever confronted, with others not,

A. On the one hand, the speaker overlooks certain societal problems

unique to today's world, which are complex and challenging in ways unlike any problems that earlier societies ever faced. The increasing interdependence—political, military, economic and environmental makes problems far more complex than analogous problems for individual nations.

B. On the other hand, human face certain universal and timeless problems,

which are neither more nor less complex and challenging for any generation than for preceding ones. Most of these problems are the ones that spring from the tailings of human nature.

小站教育GREIssue作文付老头讲义

3. "The best way to teach—whether as an educator, employer, or parent—is to praise positive actions and ignore negative ones."

4. " Moderation in all things is ill-considered advice. Rather, one should say, "Moderation in most things, since many areas of human concern require or at

least profit from intense focus."

Should we strive for moderation in all things, as the adage suggests? My point of view is that moderation has undeniable virtues in general circumstances; however, worthwhile endeavors sometimes require intense focus at the expense of moderation.

A. Lack of moderation leads to a life out of balance. Psychologists and medical

practitioners have known all along: we are at out best as humans only when we strike a proper balance between the mind, body, and spirit. The call for a balanced life is essentially a call for moderation in all things. Example: Stress associated with a high-pressure job increased one's vulnerability to heart

disease and other disorders, thereby jeopardizing one's job and career.

B. However, under some circumstances, and for some people, abandoning

moderation might be well justified. Creative work necessarily involves a large measure of intense focus— a single-minded, obsessive pursuit of perfection.

5. "Although innovations such as video, computers, and the Internet seem to offer schools improved methods for

instructing students, these technologies all too often distract from real learning."

6. "Most people prefer restrictions and regulations to absolute freedom of choice,

even though they might deny such a preference." In order for any democratic society to thrive, it must strike a balance between freedom and order.

A. Freedom is precondition of any democratic society, and the desire for

freedom spring from our fundamental nature as human beings. History informs us that any attempt to quell basic individual freedom— of expression, of opinion and belief, and to come and go as we please— invariably fails.

B. Reasonable constraints on freedom are needed to protect and

preserve that freedom. Some self-imposed rules and

regulations are needed to keep the freedom.

C. Without constraints and rules, we could not keep the democratic way of

living, we would live in continual fear for our physical safety, the security of our property, and our personal reputation and dignity.

7. "Most people are taught that loyalty is a virtue. But loyalty—whether

to one's friends, to one's school or place of employment, or to any institution—is all too often a destructive rather than a positive force."

As is the golden rule; Do unto others, as you would have others do unto you, loyalty is part of a universal ethos that we commonly refer to. Apart from its consequences, loyalty is clearly a virtue that all humans should strive to develop.

A. Relationship between spouses and other exclusive pairs require some

degree of trust in order to endure. Loyalty is part-and-parcel of that trust.

B. Employment relationships depend on some measure of mutual loyalty,

without which job attrition would run so rampant that society's economic productivity would virtually come to a halt.

C. With some mutual loyalty between a sovereign state and its citizenry

there can be no security or safety from either revolt or invasion. The society would quickly devolve into anarchy or into a despotic state ordered by brute force.

D. Admittedly, misguided or overextended loyalty can amount to a divisive and even

destructive force.

8. "Conformity almost always leads to a deadening of individual creativity and

energy."

9. "Much of the information that people assume is 'factual'

actually turns out to be inaccurate. Thus, any piece of information referred to as a 'fact' should be mistrusted since it may well be proven false in the future."

Position 1:

We should not passively accept whatever is passed off as fact, otherwise,

human knowledge would never advance, although undue skepticism might be counterproductive ,and even harmful.

A. In the areas of natural science, the very notion of scientific

progress is predicated on such scrutiny. Indeed the history of science is in large measure a history of challenges to so-called "scientific facts"—challenges which have paved the way for

scientific progress.

Examples: Copernicus paved the way for the corroborating observations of Galileo a century ago, and ultimately for Newton's principles of gravity upon which all modem science depends.

B. When it comes to the social sciences we should always be skeptical about

what is presented to us as historical fact.

Examples: Textbooks can paint distorted pictures of historic events, and of their causes and consequences,

C. Admittedly, undue skepticism can be counterproductive, and even harmful. Position 2:

The speaker goes too far when he recommends any piece of information referred to as a 'fact' should be mistrusted.

A. We must accept current notions about the constancy of gravity and

other basic laws of physics; otherwise, we would live in continual

fear that the world around us would literally come crashing down on

us.

B. Undue skepticism can also be psychologically unhealthy when

distrust borders on paranoia.

C. Undue skepticism would impede any progress when every notion or

fact was distrusted. There would be no premise to be based on.

D. Psychological knowledge informs us that young people should first

develop a foundation of knowledge before they are encourage to

think critically about what they are told is fact

10. "The true value of a civilization is reflected in its artistic creations

rather than in its scientific accomplishments."

The speaker's claim that a civilization's value lie more in its artist accomplishments than its scientific ones is problematic. Scientific accomplishments are equally valuable as artist creation, if not more valuable.

A. The first problem with the claim is that the comparative value of art and

science lies largely in individual's priority. A person who is more emotional, or who has heightened aesthetic sensibilities, will tend to agree with the speaker. On the other hand, a person who is more analytical or cognitive by nature might tend to disagree.

B. If the value of civilization is determined by the civilization itself, then the

speaker's claim begs the question. If a civilization choose to concern itself primarily with science, scientific accomplishments must be of greater value to the civilization than artistic creations.

C. If value of civilization means the extent to which artist or scientific

accomplishments contribute to the quality of humans' lives, the claim flies in the face of history. It is undeniable that better living is achieved primarily through science.

11. "We can usually learn much more from people whose

views we share than from people whose views contradict our own."; disagreement can cause stress and inhibit learning."

12. "No field of study can advance significantly unless outsiders bring their

knowledge and experience to that field of study."

I agree with the assertion that significant advances in knowledge require expertise form various fields.

A. No area of intellectual inquiry operates in a vacuum, that is, sciences in

various fields are inextricably related. To advance our knowledge in any area we must understand the interplay among them all. The world around us presents a complex interrelated web, which interact in ways that can be understood only in the context of a variety disciplines.

Scientific breakthrough in one certain area may be great contribute to advancement in another or several other fields. B.

C. New scientific fields often emerge in the interaction among different disciplines.

D. Sciences of other areas are indispensable for a certain creation in a field

to be viable and perfect.

Related example:

1) Radioactivity is the starting point for cancer treatment, for the dating techniques used on ancient objects, rocks and the universe, and for molecular biology and modem genetics; it is also the source of nuclear energy and the atomic bomb.

2) In invention of telescope initiated in the magnifying tube, a great advancement in optics. Thus began the age of telescopic astronomy

3) Computer—nearly all the scientific areas

小站教育GREIssue作文付老头讲义

13. "A nation should require all its students to study the same national

curriculum until they enter college rather than allow schools in different parts of the nation to determine which academic courses to offer."

Some common core curriculum would serve useful purposes for any nation. At the same time, however, individual part of a nation should have some freedom to augment any such curriculum suitable for distinctive situations.

A. By providing all children with fundamental skills and knowledge, a

common core curriculum would help ensure that our children grow up to become reasonably informed, productive members of society.

B. A common core curriculum would provide a predictable foundation upon

which college administrators and faculty could more easily build curricula and select course materials for freshmen that are neither below nor above their level of educational experience.

C. A core curriculum would ensure that all school children are taught core

values upon which any democratic society depends to thrive, values such as tolerance of others with different viewpoint, and respect for other.

D. However, an exclusive common curriculum would pose certain

problems, which might outweigh the benefits. Each distinct part of a nation should have the freedom to augment some curricula according to the respective particular situation.

14. "The video camera provides such an accurate and convincing record

of contemporary life that it has become a more important form of documentation than written records."

Although a video provides a more objective and accurate record of an event's spatial aspects, there is far more to document in life than what we see and hear.

A. For the purpose of documenting temporal spatial events and experiences,

a video record is usually more accurate and more convincing than a written record.

Video surveillance cameras are objective witnesses with perfect memories, thus play a vital evidentiary role in legal proceedings, such as those involving robbery and motor vehicle violations. Whenever, moving images are central to an event the video camera is superior to the written word,

C For certain other purposes written records are advantageous to and

more appropriate than video records. To the extent that personal B.

interpretation adds dimension and richness to the record, written documentation is actually more important than video.

15. "It is often necessary, even desirable, for political leaders to

withhold information from the public."

I agree with the speaker that it is sometimes necessary, and even desirable, for political leaders to withhold information from the public. Nevertheless, we must not allow our political leaders’ undue freedom to withhold information.

A. When it comes to the private information, the political leader should have

the freedom to withhold it from the public.

B. Complete forthrightness is a sign of vulnerability and naivete, which will

harm the effective public leadership.

C. Fully disclosing to the public certain types of information would threaten

public safety and perhaps even national security. Withholding information from the public is often necessary to serve the interests of that public.

D. Legitimate political leadership nevertheless requires forthrightness with the

citizenry as to the leader's motives and agenda and all the information that constitution demands.

16. "Governments must ensure that their major cities receive the

financial support they need in order to thrive, because it is primarily in cities that a nation's cultural traditions are preserved and generated."

The speaker's claim is actually threefold:1) ensuring the survival of large cities and cultural traditions is a proper function of government; 2) government support is needed for the cultural traditions to survive and thrive; 3)cultural traditions are preserved and generated primarily in our large cities. I disagree.

A. Subsidizing cultural traditions is neither a proper nor a necessary role of

government.

B. Government cannot possibly play an evenhanded role as cultural patron.

C. Large cities do not necessarily serve as the primary breeding ground and

sanctuaries for a nation's cultural traditions. Large cities may serve as centers for "high art", a nation's distinct cultural traditions—folk art,

crafts, traditional songs, customs and ceremonies-burgeon instead in small towns and rural regions.

17. "All nations should help support the development of a global university

designed to engage students in the process of solving the world's most persistent social problems."

18. "Many of the world's lesser-known languages are being lost as fewer

and fewer people speak them. The governments of countries in which these languages are spoken should act to prevent such languages from becoming extinct."

A. In today's high-tech world of satellite communications, global mobility,

and especially the Internet, language barriers serve primarily to impede

cross-cultural communication, which in turn impedes international

commerce and trade.

B.

D. Language barriers naturally breed misunderstanding, a certain distrust and, as a result, discord and even conflict among nations. It is a natural and inexorable process that many languages extinct as

fewer and fewer people speak them. Thus by intervening to preserve a

dying language, a government might be deploying its resources to fight

a losing battle, rather than to combat more pressing social problems,

such as hunger, homelessness, disease that plague nearly every society

today.

E However, with the extinction of some languages ,we may lose the way to

interpret the literature written in such language and it may be hard for us

to understand it’s culture in the future since folk customs and native

culture often have tight relationship with and can be reflected by that

nation’s language.(本人观点)

19. "Although many people think that the luxuries and conveniences of

contemporary life are entirely harmless, they in fact, prevent people from developing into truly strong and independent individuals."

On the contrary, with the facility of contemporary life make people stronger and more independent.

A. Modem facilities make humans more independent. Take automobile as an

example :in some aspect, the automobile serves to enhance such

independence. Cars make it possible for people in isolated areas without

having to bearing the stuffiness of public transportation, and to become

more independent by pursuing employment far from their communities.

B. We work more and more effectively and efficiently with the aid of such

facilities as automobile and computer. We feel stronger than ever.

C. The facility by the automobile and computer has made it possible for

people have more time to engage themselves in other meaningful

activities or to spend with their families.

20. "Most cultures encourage individuals to sacrifice a large part of their

own personalities in order to be like other people. Thus, most people are afraid to think or behave differently because they do not want to be excluded."

21. "There are two types of laws: just and unjust. Every individual in a

society has a responsibility to obey just laws and, even more importantly, to disobey and resist unjust laws." ??

A. The fairness of any law depends on one's personal value system, or one's

personal interest in the legal issue at hand. 1) This is especially true when it comes to personal freedom. Example: the controversial issue of abortion; 2) The chief function of laws is to strike a balance among competing interests. Example: regulation about the toxic effluents

B. Another fundamental problem with the statement is that by justifying a

violation of one sort of law we risk sanctioning all types of illegal behavior, including egregious criminal conduct.

C. The statement recommends an effective and potentially harmful means of

legal reform

22. "Anyone can make things bigger and more complex. What requires real effort and courage is to move in the opposite direction—in other words, to make things as simple as possible."

Humans seem naturally driven to make things bigger and more complex, thus refraining from doing so, or reversing this natural process, takes considerable effort and courage.

A. Today's high-tech firms seem compelled to boldly go to what effort is

required to devise increasingly complex products, for the ostensible

purpose of staying ahead of their competitors.

B. In the ever-growing and increasingly complex digital world, it will take

more effort and courage to ease and simplify the service in net ,such as

the searching of information than to add to the complexity of the

internet.

Humans' natural tendency to create things bigger and more complex is

manifested in the "big government"—unwieldy bureaucracies.

D. Lending even more credence to the statement is the increasing C.

complexity of law system.

E. Adding further credibility to the statement is the tendency of most people

to complicate their personal lives. The greater our mobility, the greater our number of destinations each day. The more convenient to obtain information, the inefficient to get.

23. "Most people would agree that buildings represent a valuable record of any society's past, but controversy arises when old buildings stand on ground that modern planners feel could be better used for modern purposes. In such situations, modem development should be given precedence over the preservation of historic buildings so that contemporary needs can be served."

In such a controversial situation, neither of them automatically take precedence over the other one. Which interest should take precedence should be determined on a case-by-case basis, and should account not only for practical considerations but also aesthetic and historic ones. The best alternative is to modernize the city while preserving as much as possible its symbols of the past.

A. In some circumstances, the historic value of the building might pale in

comparison to the value of a new structure that meets a compelling

practical needs.

B. Competing with a community's utilitarian-needs is an interest preserving

the historic record—the old building might be associated with some

historic events.

C. Also competing with a community's utilitarian needs is the aesthetic and

architectural value of the building itself. Historic capitals or cultural

centers, which were carefully designed and meticulously constructed,

should be preserved as wholesomely as possible, because they represent historic peak of cultural and artistic sophistication.

D. Finally, with advanced building technologies, city planers can even move

the old buildings and put them to a specially designed place.

24. "Students should memorize facts only after they have studied the

ideas, trends, and concepts that help explain those facts. Students who have learned only facts have learned very little."

I agree wholeheartedly that students who learn only facts learn very little. However, by concluding that students should always learn about concepts, ideas

and trends before they memorize facts, the speaker unfairly generalizes about the learning process.

A. With a conceptual framework already in place a student is better able to

understand the meaning of a fact, and to appreciate its significance. As a result, the student is more likely to memorize the fact, and less likely to forget it as time passes.

B. By focusing on facts first, students risk equating the learning process with

the assimilation of trivia; in turn, students risk learning nothing of much use in solving real world problems.

C. I disagree that students should always learn about concepts, ideas and

trends before they memorize facts. The speaker unfairly generalizes about the learning process. In some circumstances, memorizing a fact can

precede learning about its meaning and significance—-as long as me

student does not stop at rote memorization. And with learning facts first a student can make his initiative full play! He will learn how to observe, how to think and so on

25. "Unfortunately, the media tend to highlight what is sensational at the moment. Society would be better served if the media reported or focused more fully on events and trends that will ultimately have the most long-term significance."

26. "Public figures such as actors, politicians, and athletes should expect people to be interested in their private lives. When they seek a public role, they should expect that they will lose at least some of their privacy."

Although it is understandable that people have intense interest in the private lives of public figures, undue public scrutiny surely has some detrimental effects on individuals involved as well as on the society as a whole.

A. The reason that I generally agree with the statement has

something to do with human nature and the forces that

motivate the mass media.

1) People have a psychological tendency to learn others' privacy, out of

human nature of curiosity or insatiable desire for unknown things.

2) To cater for what the public demand, that is a voyeuristic look into the

private lives of public figure, the media try their best to pry into privacy of public figures.

B. Political figure has less reason to expect privacy than other public figures

such as actors and athletes, for private affairs of public servants become our business when those affairs adversely affect our servants' ability to serve us effectively, or when our servants betray our trust.

C. Undue public scrutiny of the personal lives of public Figures can carry harmful

consequences, for the public figure as well as the society as a whole. Related materials:

Case of Bill Clinton involved in the sexual scandal.

Independent counsel: Starr.

Starr Report laid the grounds for possible impeachment of the

president, accusing Clinton of perjury, obstruction of justice and other offenses in connection with his sexual affair with former White House intern Monica Lewinsky.

D. However, undue public scrutiny has detrimental effect on individual and

society.

27. "The primary goal of technological advancement should be to

increase people's efficiency so that everyone has more leisure time."

28. "Money spent on research is almost always a good investment, even

when the results of that research are controversial."

I agree that money spend on research is generally a sound investment, because it is an

investment in the advancement of human knowledge and in human imagination and

spirit.

A.

B. Research is the exploration of the unknown for true answers to our questions, and for lasting solutions to our enduring problems. Research is also the chief means by which we humans attempt to satisfy

our insatiable appetite for knowledge, and our craving to understand ourselves and the world around us.

C. Many researches may be controversial and the results of them may bring

to people some harm, after all they are of greater benefit in the short or long term.

1) Every new research breakthrough help reduce human suffering.

2) Establish a new field of scientific research,

3) Others

Related Examples:

1) Research of atomic energy,

2) Research of radioactivity: the starting point for cancer treatment, for the dating techniques used on ancient objects, rocks and the universe, and for molecular biology and modem genetics.

3) Copemicus's heliocentric theory; Galileo's research in astronomy.

4) Technique of cloning

29. "Creating an appealing image has become more important in contemporary society than is the reality or truth behind that image." I agree that image has become a more central concern of our society, however in the long term, image ultimately yields to substance and fact.

A. The importance of the role of an image is particularly evident in the business

world.

B. The growing significance of image is also evident in the political realm.

C. In the long term, however, the significance of image gave way to the truth

and reality of the image.

30. "Most of the people we consider heroic today were, in fact, very

ordinary people who happened to be in the right place at the right time."

If we look around at the sorts of people we choose as our heroes, we realize that heroism has far less to do with circumstance than with how a hero responds to it.

A. Admittedly, circumstance often serves as a catalyst for heroism. After all,

without wars there would be no war heroes. Yet this does not mean that we should lionize every member of the armed forces. Various people have different response to the same situation.

B. Consider the sports hero, whom society chooses not merely by

virtue of athletic strength. Some accomplished athletes we

consider heroes because they have overcome significant

obstacles to achieve their goals.

Consider the military heroes, who gain heroic stature by way of courage in battle, or by otherwise facing certain defeat.

Consider the social political heroes, the champion of social causes who inspire and incites society to meaningful political and social change. People appreciate and adore them for the great contribution to the society and their personality charm. C. D.

31. "The greatness of individuals can be decided only by those who live

after them, not by their contemporaries." really great.

A. When it comes to the natural science research, greatness must be tested

over time before it can be confirmed.

Concerning the arts and literature, the greatness lies in their enduring influence to those of later generations.

In the realm of business, in some cases great achievement is recognizable immediately, while in other cases it is not. B. C.

32. "In the age of television, reading books is not as important as it

once was. People can leam as much by watching television as they can by reading books."

33. "Scholars and researchers should not be concerned with whether

their work makes a contribution to the larger society. It is more important that they pursue their individual interests, however unusual or idiosyncratic those interests may seem."

34. "Such nonmainstream areas of inquiry as astrology, fortune-telling,

and psychic and paranormal pursuits play a vital role in society by

Although astrology, fortune-telling, and psychic and paranormal pursuits respond to certain basic human needs, the potential harm they can inflict on their participants and on society far outweighs their psychological benefits.

A. Admittedly, these non-mainstream areas of inquiry address certain human

needs, which mainstream science and other areas of intellectual inquiry inherently cannot. Faced with infinite choices, we experience uncertainty, insecurity, and confusion; and we feel remorse, regret, and guilt when our choice turn out to be poor ones. To prevent these bad feelings many people try to shift the burden of making difficult choices and decision to some nebulous authority outside themselves. Two other such needs have to do with our awareness that we are mortal.

B. While the sort of pursuits might help some people feel better about

themselves an about their choices and circumstances, they are not useful to any individual or society.

C. First they are not rooted in reason ,Second, With any sure way to evaluate

the legitimacy of these avenues of inquiry participants become vulnerable to self-deception, false hopes, fantastic ideas, and even delusion that will hurt themselves.

D. So-called insights gained from these pursuits can easily serve as convenient

excuse

for irrational and unreasonable actions that harm others.

35. "To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethic and moral standards."

In addressing the issue it is helpful to consider three distinct forms of leadership business, political, and social-spiritual. An effective leader should at least maintain public ethic and moral.

A. In the business realm, effective leaders are those who maximize profits

while fulfilling the highest public or professional moral or ethical obligation, to customer, to employee and to society respectively.

B. In political realm, one useful approach is to draw a distinction between

personal morality and public morality. The former is far less related to effective political leadership than the latter. Modern politics is replete with examples of what most people would consider personal failings, yet few would disagree that these personal moral choices adversely affected his ability to lead.

C. In contrast, social-spiritual leadership requires both personal and public

ethic and

morality.

36. "While some leaders in government, sports, industry, and other areas attribute their success to a well-developed sense of competition, a society can better prepare its young people for leadership by instilling in them a sense of cooperation."

37. "Society does not place enough emphasis on the

intellect—that is, on reasoning and other cognitive skills."

38. "The study of history places too much emphasis on individuals. The

most significant events and trends in history were made possible not by the famous few, but by groups of people whose identities have long been forgotten."

History informs us that it is almost always a key individual who provide the necessary impetus for what otherwise might be a group effort. Moreover, learning about key historical figures inspires us to achieve great things ourselves — far more so than learning about the contributions of groups of

people.

A. it is individuals who have been ultimately responsible for the most significant

scientific developments in human history.

B. When it comes to sociopolitical events, the speaker's claim finds even less

support from the historical record. History informs us that groups rally only when incited and inspired by key individuals

C. Key individuals almost invariably provide the initial spark for sociological

trends, considered to be instigated by the masses.

39. "Imaginative works such as novels, plays, films, fairy tales, and legends than do factual accounts. Because the creators of fiction shape and focus reality rather than report it literally, their creations have more lasting significance." ??

Although factual accounts may be more accurate, imaginative works can present human experience more meaningfully and are of more lasting significance than bare facts of history.

A. One the one hand, factual accounts are more accurate than fictional works,

for they are more objective.

B. In contrast, most fictional works embrace value, understanding and priority

of their

authors and sometimes even amount to pure fantasy.

C. On the other hand, imaginative works provide a more meaningful picture of

the human experience for only imaginative works can bring an historical period alive, by way of creative tools such as imagery and point of view.

D. Bare facts about historical eras are easily forgettable, whereas creative

stories and portrays can be quite memorable indeed.

40. "In order to improve the quality of instruction at the college and university level, all faculty should be required to spend time working outside the academic world in professions relevant to the courses they teach."

41. "In any academic area or professional field, it is just as important to recognize the limits of our knowledge and understanding as it is to acquire new facts and information."

42. "The concept of 'individual responsibility' is a necessary fiction. Although societies must hold individuals accountable for their own actions, people's behavior is largely determined by forces not of their

own making."

43. "Universities should require every student to take a

variety of courses outside the student's field of study because acquiring knowledge of various academic disciplines is the best way to become truly educated."

44. "People work more productively in teams than individually. Teamwork requires cooperation, which motivates people much more than individual competition does."

45. "Colleges and universities should offer more courses on popular

music, film, advertising, and television because contemporary culture has much greater relevance for students than do arts and literature of the past."

Although courses in popular culture do play a legitimate role in higher education, formal study of the present culture at the expense of studying past culture can be disservice to students and to society.

A. Admittedly, course work in popular culture is legitimate and valuable.

B. Emphasizing the study of popular culture at the expense of studying

classical art and literature can carry harmful consequences for students, as well as for society. Only by studying the classics can an individual develop fair standards for judging popular works.

C. Many popular culture emerges from the mediocrity, yet the classical works

have been subjected enduring test.

D. Emphasizing on the formal study of popular culture is unnecessary It is

readily available outside the classroom.

46. "A person's own habits and attitudes often limit that person's freedom more than do restrictions imposed by others."

47. "In any realm of life—whether academic, social, business, or political—the only way to succeed is to take a practical, rather than an idealistic, point of view. Pragmatic behavior guarantees survival, whereas idealistic views tend to be superceded by simpler, more immediate options."

48. "The study of history has value only to the extent that it is relevant to our daily lives."

小站教育GREIssue作文付老头讲义

49. "It is primarily through formal education had a culture tries to perpetuate the

ideas it favors and discredit the ideas it fears."

The speaker asserts that a culture perpetuate the ideas it favors while discrediting those it fears primarily through formal education. The speaker misunderstands the role of higher education, and overlooks other equally important means by which a culture achieves these ends.

A. I agree with the speaker with respect to the stages before higher education.

In these stages of education, the students are generally indoctrinated with the values, ideas, and principles of mainstream society..

B. The mission of our colleges and universities is to afford students cultural

perspective and a capacity for understanding opposing viewpoint, and to encourage and nurture the skills of critical analysis and skepticism—not to indoctrinate students with certain ideas while quashing others.

C. The speaker's assertion ignores two significant other means by which our

culture perpetuates ideas it favors and discredits ideas it fears.

1) The first means is law.

2) Second such means is the mainstream media.

50. "In many countries it is now possible to turn on the television and

view government at work. Watching these proceedings can help people understand the issues that affect their lives. The more kinds of government proceedings—trials, debates, meetings, etc.—that are televised, the more society will benefit."

51. "The purpose of many advertisements is to make

consumers want to buy a product so that they will 'be like' the person in the ad. This practice is effective because it not only sells products but also helps people feel better about themselves."

52. "When we concern ourselves with the study of history, we become

storytellers. Because we can never know the past directly but must construct it by interpreting evidence, exploring history is more of a creative enterprise than it is an objective pursuit. All historians are storytellers."

I agree that it is the proper and necessary role of historians to construct history by interpreting evidence. Nevertheless, the speaker's characterization of this role as storytelling carries certain unfair implication, which should be address.

A. One reason why I agree with the speaker's claim lies in the distinction

between the role of historian and the roles of archivist and journalist. The former one's task is to document and preserve evidence of the past events. Journalist—record, by writing, film or some other media, factual events for the purpose of creating evidence of those events. -not to tell a story.

Another reason why I agree with the speaker's characterization of the historian's proper function is that our understanding of history is richer and fuller as a result. By granting the historian license to interpret evidence—to construct history—we allow for difference viewpoints among historians. The disagreement, debate and divergent interpretations among historians contribute to a fuller and more incisive understanding of history. B.

53. "Some educational systems emphasize the development of students' capacity for reasoning and logical thinking, but students would benefit more from an education that also taught them to explore their own emotions."

54. "It is primarily through our identification with social groups that we define ourselves."

Position:

I agree that we define ourselves primarily through our identification with social groups, as the speaker asserts.

1. Maslow's Needs theory: social needs(acceptance , affection, affiliation with a social group)—people have the psychological tendency of identifying with a certain social groups. Any developmental psychologist would agree that socialization with other children plays a critical role in any child's understanding and psychological development of self.

2. The people of different race, different religion or different nationality have their distinct behavior style and collective psychology. People tend to define themselves as part of a certain social group— that of certain race, religion and nationality. The deteriorating conflicts are the testimony of the claims.

3. Even within a country, people divide into political parties and several

social strata, holding different political opinion with different living style.

55. "Humanity has made little real progress over the past century or so. Technological innovations have taken place, but the overall condition of humanity is no better. War, violence, and poverty are still with us. Technology cannot change the condition of humanity."

小站教育GREIssue作文付老头讲义

56. "It is through the use of logic and of precise, careful measurement that we

become aware of our progress. Without such tools, we have no reference points

to indicate how far we have advanced or

retreated." sample

Do we need careful measurements and logic to determine whether and to what extent we are progressing or regressing? I agree that in certain endeavors quantitative measurements and logical analysis of data are essential for this purpose. However, in other realms objective data provides little guidance for determining progress. My view applies to individuals as well as society as a whole.

As for monitoring individual progress, the extent to which careful measurement and logical analysis of data are required depends on the specific fields. In the area of personal finance, objective measurements are critical. We might feel that we are' I advancing financially when we buy a new car or a better house, or when we get a salary i rise. Yet these signs of personal economic success can be deceptive. Cars depreciate quickly in value, and residential real estate must appreciate steadily to offset ownership expenses. Even a pay raise is no sure sign of personal financial, the cost of living should be taken into consideration. In the area of one's physical well-being, however, quantitative measurement might be useful yet insufficient. Quantitative data such as blood pressure, cholesterol level, and body weight are useful objective indictors of physical health. Yet quantitative measurement and logic can only take us so far when it comes to physical well-being. Levels of physical discomfort and pain, the most reliable indicators of physical well-being, cannot be quantified. And of course our emotional and psychological well-being, which can have a profound impact on our physical health, defy objective measurement altogether.

On a social level, as on a personal level, the extent to which careful measurement and logic are needed to determine progress depends on the endeavor. In macro-economics, as in personal finance, objective measurements are critical. For example, a municipality, state, or nation might sense that things are improving economically when its rate of unemployment declines. Yet if new jobs are in poor-paying positions involving unskilled labor, this apparent advance might actually be a retreat. And, a boom in retail sales might amount to regress if the goods sold are manufactured by foreign firms, who benefit from the boom at the expense of domestic business expansion. Technological progress also requires careful measurement. Advances in computer tech can

only be determined by such factors of data assessed, and so forth. And, advances in biotechnology are determined by statistical measurements of the effectiveness of new drugs and other treatments, and by demographic statistics regarding the incidence of the ailments that the tech seeks to ameliorate.

In contrast, social-political progress is less susceptible to objective measurement. For instance, progress in social welfare might be measured by the number of homeless people, incidence of domestic violence, or juvenile crime rate. Yet would an increase in the number of single mothers on welfare indicate that our society is becoming more compassionate and effective in helping its victims, or would it indicate regress by showing that our private sector and education systems are failing? Moreover, when it comes to our legal system and to politics, progress has little to do with numbers, or even logic. For example, to what extent, if any, would more lenient gun ownership laws indicate progress, considering the competing interests of individual freedom and public safety? Do anti-abortion laws indicate a sociological advance or retreat? Or, when a political party gains greater control of a legislature by sweeping a particular election, is this progress or regress?

In sum, although the statement has merit, it unfairly generalizes. In areas such as finance, economics, and computing technology, all of which involve nothing but quantifiable data, nothing but careful measurement and logic suffice to determine the extent of progress. In other areas, such as health care and social welfare, determining progress requires both objective measurement and subjective judgment. Finally, progress in politics and law is entirely subjective matter— depending on each individual's value, priorities and interests.

57. "With the growth of global networks in such areas as economics and communication, there is no doubt that every aspect of society—including education, politics, the arts, and the sciences—will benefit greatly from international

influences."

58. "When research priorities are being set for science, education, or any other

area, the most important question to consider is: How many people's lives will

be improved if the results are

successful?" sample

Should researchers focus on areas that are likely to result in the greatest benefit to the most people, as the speaker suggests? I agree insofar as areas of research certain to result in immediate and significant benefits for society should continue to be a priority. Yet, strictly followed, the speaker's recommendation would have a harmful effect on research and new knowledge. This is particularly true in the physical sciences, as discussed below.

Admittedly, scientific research whose societal benefits are immediate, predicable, and profound should continue to be a high priority. For example, biotechnology research is proven to help cure and prevent diseases; advances in medical technology allow for safer, less invasive diagnosis and treatment; advances in genetics help prevent birth defects;advances in engineering and chemistry improve the structural integrity of our buildings, roads, bridges, and vehicles; information technology enables education; and communication technology facilitates global peace and participation in the democratic process. To demote any of these research areas to a lower priority would be patently foolhardy, considering their proven benefits to so many people. However, this is not to say that research whose benefits are less immediate or clear should be. given lower priority. For three reasons, all avenues of scientific research should be afforded equal priority.

First of all, if we strictly follow the speaker's suggestion, who would decide which areas of research are more worthwhile than others? Researchers cannot be left to decide. Given a choice, they will pursue their own special areas of interest, and it is highly unlikely that all researchers could reach a fully informed consensus as to what areas are most likely to help the most people. Nor can these decision be left to regulators and legislators, who would bring to bear their own notions about what is worthwhile, and whose susceptibility to influence-peddlers renders them untrustworthy in any event.

A telling example of the inherent of setting "official" research priorities involves the soviet government's attempt during the 1920s to not only control the direction and the goals of its scientists' research but also to distort the outcome of that research-ostensibly for the greatest good of the greatest number of people. During the 1920s the soviet government quashed certain areas of scientific inquiry, destroyed entire research! facilities and libraries, and caused the sudden disappearance of many scientists who! were viewed as threats the state's authority. Not surprisingly, during this time period no! significant scientific advances occurred.

Secondly, to compel all researchers to focus only on certain areas would be to force many to waste their true talents. For example, imagine relegating today's preeminent astrophysicist Stephen Hawking to research the effectiveness of behavioral modification techniques in the reform of violent criminals. Admittedly, this example borders on hyperbole. Yet the aggregate effect of realistic cases would be to waste the intellectual talents of our world's researchers. Moreover, lacking genuine interest or motivation a researcher Thirdly, it is difficult to predict which research avenues will ultimately lead to the ', greatest contributions to society. Research areas whose benefits are certain often break ;

little new ground, and in the long term research whose potential benefits are unknown often prove most useful to society. One current example involves terra-forming—creating biological life and a habitable atmosphere where none existed before. This unusual research area does not immediately address society's pressing social problems. Yet in me longer term it might be necessary to colonize other planets in order to ensure the survival of the human race,; and after all, what could be a more significant contribution to society than preventing its extinction?

In sum, when it comes to setting priorities for research, at least in the sciences, the speaker goes too far by implying that research whose benefits are unknown. In the final analysis, the only objective of research should be to discover truths, whatever they might be— not to implement social policy.

59. "So much is new and complex today that looking back for an

understanding of the past provides little guidance for living in the present." would be unlikely to contribute meaningfully to his or her "assigned" field.

Position:

The speaker claims that since so much in today's world is new and complex the past provides little guidance for living in the present. It is true that history offers few foolproof panaceas for living today. However, I disagree with the speaker's claim that today's world is so unique that the past is irrelevant, m my opinion, history can provide examples, perspectives and insights that are directly relevant to contemporary

challenges.

A. Understanding the pag,t can show us inspirational examples of

success.

B. Studying history can also help us avoid repeating mistakes

C. The study of past is important because the relevant historical antecedents can help us fully appreciate our present challenges.

60. "At various times in the geological past, many species have become

extinct as a result of natural, rather than human, processes. Thus, there is no justification for society to make extraordinary efforts, especially at a great cost in money and jobs, to save endangered species."

61. "Facts are stubborn things. They cannot be altered by our wishes,

our inclinations, or the dictates of our passions." Position;

If by "facts" the speaker means such phenomena as political, economic, social, or legal status quo, then I concede that we can alter facts. When it comes to certain aspect of our personal'lives, and to historical events and scientific truths, we cannot change external reality.

A. On an individual level, we all engage in futile attempts to alter facts—by

pretending that certain things are not the way they are because they are inconsistent with our wishes or personal interests.

B. Nor can we alter facts by virtue of our inclinations or passions when it comes

to history.

C. Similarly, when it comes to science our wishes and desires ultimately yield to

the stubbornness of facts—by which I mean empirical scientific evidence and the laws and principles of the physical world.

62. "It is often asserted that the purpose of education is to free the

mind and the spirit. In reality, however, formal education tends to restrain our minds and spirits rather than set them free."

63. "How children are socialized today determines the destiny of

society. Unfortunately, we have not yet learned how to raise children who can help bring about a better society."

Position:

I find the speaker's dual claims to be specious on both counts. The claim that society "s destiny hinges on how children are socialized, while appealing in some respects, is an over-statement . And the claim that we have not yet learned how to raise children who can create a better society is poorly supported by empirical evidence.

A. Consider first the speaker's assertion that society's destiny depends on

how children are socialized. Socialization is only one factor influencing the extent to which an individual will ultimately contribute to a better society. And it is not the most important one.

B. Consider next the speaker's claim that we have not yet learned how to

raise children who can better society. If we define a "better" society as one characterized by greater tolerance of differing viewpoints and people who are different form ourselves, greater respect for individual rights, and greater cooperation across cultural and national boundaries, then the children of the most recent half century are creating a better society, increasing sensitivity in our society toward ensuring public health by policing the food and drug industries and by protecting our natural environment.--more sensitive and respectful of the rights of women, various ethnic and racial groups, homosexual etc.--ample evidence of increasing international cooperation.

64. "The arts (painting, music, literature, etc.) reveal me otherwise

hidden ideas and impulses of a society."

65. "The absence of choice is a circumstance that is very, very rare." Position:

I strongly agree with the contention that absence of choice is a rare circumstance, primarily because this contention accords with common sense and our everyday experience as human beings.

A. Our life experience is that we make choices and decisions every day —on a

continual basis. Common sense tells us that humans have free will, and therefore the true absence of choice is very rare. The only possible

exceptions —solitary imprisonment or a severe mental or physical

deficiency.

B. Besides, the reverse claim—that we do not have free choice—serves to

undermine the notions of moral accountability and human equality, which prerequisite the survival of any democratic society.

C. People often claim that life's circumstances leave them with "no choice." One

might feel trapped in a job or marriage. However, in reality they may have a lot of choices, it is just because they are only considering those choices that are not viable or attractive.

D. People may take the unappealing, even self-defeating as no choice.

66. "Only through mistakes can there be discovery or progress."

67. "What society has thought to be its greatest social, political, and

individual achievements have often resulted in the greatest discontent."

68. "Contemporary art (painting, music, literature, etc.) is absent from

the lives of most people, since it is primarily created only for the enjoyment of other artists. Art should instead be created purely for popular understanding and appreciation."

69. "Most people recognize the benefits of individuality, but the fact is that '

Personal economic success might be due either to one's investment strategy or to one's Work or career. With respect to the former, non-conformists with enough risk tolerance and patience invariably achieve more success than do conformists. With respect to the latter, while non-conformists are more likely to succeed in newer industries where markets and technology are in constant flux, conformists are more likely to succeed in traditional service industries ensconced in systems and regulations.

A. Regarding the sort of economic success that results from investing one's wealth, the principles of investing dictate that those who seek risky investments in areas that are out of favor with the majority of investors ultimately reap higher returns than those who follow the crowd.

B. In consumer-driven industries, where innovation, product differentiation and creativity arc crucial to lasting success, non-conformists who take unique approaches tend to recognize emerging trends and to rise above their peers.

C. However, in traditional service industries-such as finance, accounting, insurance, legal services, and health care—personal economic success comes not to non-conformists but rather to those who can work most effectively within the constraints of established practices, policies and regulation.

70. "The well-being of a society is enhanced when many of its people question i authority."

71. "It is the artist, not the critic,* who gives society something of lasting value." a person who evaluates works of art, such as novels,

films, music, paintings, etc.

position:

the critic contribute to the artists' creating valuable things for the society.

A. critics can help us understand and interpret art; a critic who is familiar with

a particular artist and his or her works might have certain insights about those works that the layperson would not.

B. A critic's evaluation of an art work serves as a filter, which helps us

determine which art is worth our time and attention.

C. A critic can provide feedback for artists; and constructive criticism, if taken

to heart, can result in better work.

2. "People who are the most deeply committed to an idea or policy arc the most ' critical of it." Example:

The speaker claims that people who are the most firmly committed to an idea or policy re the same people who are the most critical of that idea or policy. While I find this claim paradoxical on its face, the paradox is explainable, and the explanation is well supported empirically. Nevertheless, the claim is an unfair generalization in that it fails to account for other empirical evidence serving to discredit it.

One possible explanation for the paradox is that individuals most firmly committed to an idea or policy are often the same people who arc most knowledgeable on the subject, and therefore are in the best position to understand and appreciate the problems with the idea or policy. Another possible explanation is that those who are committed to an idea or policy would be more concerned and loyal to it, so they tend to be critical of it with the earnest inclination to improving it.

There are many relevant examples that can lend credence to this explanation for the paradox nature of the speaker's claim. For instance, Edward Teller, the so-called "father of the atom bomb", was firmly committed to America's policy of gaining military superiority over the Japanese and the Germans; yet at the same time he attempted fervently to dissuade the US military from employing his technology for destruction, while becoming the most visible advocate for various peaceful and productive applications of atomic energy. Another example is George Washington, who was quoted as saying that all the world's denizens should abhor war whenever they may find it. Yet it was the same general who played a key role in the Revolutionary War between Britain and USA. A third

example was Einstein, who while committed to' the mathematical soundness of his theories about relativity could not reconcile them with the equally compelling quantum theory which emerged later in Einstein's life. In fact, Einstein spent the last twenty years of his life criticizing his own theories and struggling to determine how to reconcile them with newer theories.

In the face of historical examples supporting the speaker's claim are innumerable influential individuals who were committed to certain ideas and policies but who were not critical of them, at least not outwardly. Could anyone honestly claim, for instance, that Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King, history's two leading advocates of civil disobedience as a means to social reform, had serious doubts about the ideals to which they were so demonstrably committed?

To sum up, while at first glance a deep commitment to and incisive criticism of the same idea or policy would seem mutually exclusive, it appears they are not. Thus the speaker's claim has some merit. Nevertheless, for every historical case supporting the speaker's claim are many others serving to refute it. In the final analysis, then, the correctness of the speaker's assertion must be determined on a case-by-case basis.

73. "Tradition and modernization are incompatible. One must

choose between them."

74. "Because of television and worldwide computer connections,

people can now become familiar with a great many places that they have never visited. As a result, tourism will soon become obsolete." Position:

Although I agree that these technologies might eventually serve to reduce travel for certain purposes other than tourism. However, I strongly disagree that tourism will become obsolete, or that it will even decline, as a result.

A. As for the claim that television will render tourism obsolete, we already have

sufficient empirical evidence that this will simply not happen.

B. On the contrary television may have actually served to spark people's

interest in visiting other places.

C. The speaker unfairly assumes that the purpose of tourism is simply to obtain

information about other people or places and the scenes on the internet can replace travelling to the real places.

D. Moreover, in my view tourism will continue to thrive for the same reason that

people still go out for dinner or to the movies: we all need to get away from our routines and surroundings from time to time. Computer cannot alter this

basic human needs.

E. Admittedly, travel for purposes other than tourism might eventually decline,

as the business world becomes increasingly dependent on the Internet.

75. "High-speed electronic communications media, such as

electronic mail and television, tend to prevent meaningful and thoughtful communication."

76. "No amount of information can eliminate prejudice because

prejudice is rooted in emotion, not reason."

The speaker actually raise two distinct issues here:(l) whether information can eliminate, or at least help reduce, prejudice; and (2)if not, whether this is because prejudice is rooted in emotion rather than reason. Despite the evidence to the contrary, I fundamentally agree with the speaker's essential claim that prejudice is here to stay because it is firmly rooted in emotion rather than reason.

A. Regarding the first assertion, it seems at first that prejudice is declining as a

result of our becoming a more enlightened and better informed society.

B. Much of these progress is forced upon us legislatively.

C. Moreover, signs of prejudice are all around us today.

D. The speaker's second assertion —that prejudice is rooted in emotion in also

compelling as well.

77. "The only responsibility of corporate executives, provided they stay within the law, is to make as much money as possible for their companies."

78. "Students should bring a certain skepticism to whatever they study. They should question what they are taught instead of accepting it passively."

79. "Both parents and communities must be involved in the local

schools. Education is too important to leave solely to a group of professional educators." (38) Position:

I agree with the speaker, based on a parent's legal authority over, familiarity with,

and interest in his or her own children.

A. parents hold the ultimately legal authority to make key decisions about what

and how their own children learn—including choice of curriculum and text books, pace and schedule for learning, and the extent to which their child should learn alongside other children.

B. Only a parent can truly know the unique needs of a child—including what

educational choices are best suited for the child.

C. Parents are more motivated—by pride and ego—than any other person to

take whatever measures are needed to ensure their children receive the best possible education.

D. With the communities' participation, local schools wilt do better in

instructing the children, especially in the respect of moral instruction. SX-h I disagree with the speaker's assertion. A compelling argument can be made that, except for major decisions such as choice of school, a child's education is best left to professional educators.

a) In a perfect world, parents would always make their children's

education one of their highest priorities. Yet, in fact many parents do not.

b) Parents are not necessarily best equipped to know what is best for their

children when it comes to education.

c) Parents are too subjective to always know what is truly best for their

children. They may try to overcome their own shortcomings and failed self-expectations through their children's accomplishments and other decision detrimental to children's development.

d) too many parties become involved in making decision about day-to-day

instruction, the school education would be interfered and intervened.

80. "There is no such thing as purely objective observation. All observation is subjective; it is always guided by the observer's expectations or desires."

The speaker claims that all observation is subjective—colored by desire and expectation. While it would be tempting to concede that we all see things differently, careful scrutiny of the speaker's claim reveals that it confuses observation with interpretation.

A. Everyday experience inform us that different people have different opinion

when they observe the same object. For example;

B. However, these sorts of subjective "observations " are actually subjective

"interpretations" of what we observe.

C. As the speaker's assertion, there is no such thing as truth and we cannot

truly know anything. It runs against the grain of all scientific discovery and knowledge gained in the human history.

D. According to the psychological discipline, given the same spatial perspective

and sensory acuity and awareness, just as the video camera does, our

observations would all be essentially in accord—that is, observation can be objective.

81. "The human mind will always be superior to machines because machines are only tools of human minds."

82. "The most essential quality of an effective leader is the ability to remain consistently committed to particular principles and objectives. Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by shifts in popular opinion will accomplish little."

Whether effective leadership requires that a leader consistently follow his or her principle and objectives is a complex issue—one that is tied up in the problem of defining effective leadership in the first place. In addressing the issue it is helpful to consider, in turn, three distinct forms of leadership: business, political and social-spiritual.

A. In the business realm, effective leadership is generally defined as that which achieves the goal of profit maximization in the long term by taking reasonable steps to minimize the social and environmental harm their businesses caused. Thus the two definitions merge, and the statement at issue is ultimately correct.

B.In the political realm the issue is no less complex, (strong but keep pace with the social development)

Example: two British prime ministers

Neville Chamberlain and Churchill

In 1938, British Prime Minister Chamberlain signed the Munich Pact with Adolf Hitler, an agreement that gave Czechoslovakia away to Nazi conquest while bringing, as Chamberlain promised, "peace in our time."

C. Consider social-spiritual leadership. Few would disagree that through their ability to inspire others and lift the human spirit Mahatma Gandhi and Martin Luther King were eminently effective in leading others to effect social change through civil disobedience. This brand of leadership, in order to be effective, inherently requires that the leader remain steadfastly committed to principle.

83. "'In this age of intensive media coverage, it is no longer possible

for a society to regard any woman or man as a hero. The reputation of anyone who is subjected to media scrutiny will eventually be diminished."

In general, I agree with the assertion that intense media scrutiny nearly always

serves to diminish the reputation of society's heroes or would-be heroes.

A. Media viewers, readers and listeners find information about the misfortunes

and misdeeds of others, especially heroic public figures, far more compelling than information about their virtues and accomplishments.

B. Mass media generally consist of profit-seeking entities, whose chief

objective is to maximize profits. Catering to the audience's needs, media tend to focus on the sensational issue.

C. Intense media scrutiny raises a presumption, at least in the public's

collective mind, that their hero is guilty of some sort of character flaw or misdeed.

D. Demographic studies show that the vast majority of people relying on

mainstream media for their information, lack the sort of critical thinking skills and objectivity to see beyond what the media feeds them and to make a fair and informed judgement about a public figure—heroic or not.

E. Even the media made a mistake and the victims can have any chance to

vindicate themselves and even get damage awards, a damage award is no indication that the public has expunged from its collective memory a perception that the fallen hero is guilty of the alleged flaws.

84. "Sometimes imagination is a more valuable asset than

experience. People who lack experience are free to

imagine what is possible and thus can approach a task without constraints of established habits and attitudes."

85. "In any given field, the leading voices come from people who are

motivated not by conviction but by the desire to present opinions and ideas that differ from those held by the majority."

I agree with the statement insofar as our leading voices tend to come from people whose ideas depart from the status quo. However, I do not agree that what motivates these iconoclasts is a mere desire to be different. In my opinion, they are driven primarily by their personal convictions.

A. Examples abound in all areas of human endeavor-including politics, the arts

that strong support the claim that those iconoclasts take a lead in their respective field.

B. As for the science, innovation and progress can only result from challenging

conventional theories, that is the status quo.

C. Nevertheless, what motivates these iconoclasts is a mere desire to be

different. On the contrary, they are driven primarily by their personal convictions.

86. "It is impossible for an effective political leader to tell the truth all the time. Complete honesty is not a useful virtue for a politician." New

I agree with the statement wholeheartedly.

A. It will be impossible for an effective political leader to maintain his or her

good figure while be complete honest to the public. Public scrutiny always has a tendency to diminish one’s reputation.. For this reason, the most efficient way to keep others’ trust is to be honest while remain some

reservation.

B. However, as to some cardinal politics, the political leader should always be

complete honest to the public even doing so may cause detriment to himself.

87. "What is called human nature is really a reflection of the human

condition: if all people had a reasonable share of territory and resources, such products of 'human nature' as war and crime would become extremely rare." ??

The speaker claims that the products of human nature such as war and crime are actually caused by the human condition that human beings lack of resources and territory. I disagree with the claim. In my view, human aggression is the product of our nature as humans, but not of our circumstances. There is ample evidence to support this point of view.

A. The claim runs contrary to my personal observation about individual

behavior, especially when it comes to males.

B. Claim makes little sense in the context of human history.

C. The scientific research about genetically determined human traits reveals

mat to a great extent we have inherited our genetic predisposition from our non-human ancestors.

D. The claims is somewhat misleading. The whole notion seems tantamount to

communism insofar as all territory and resources are shared according to the needs of each individual.

88. "Critical judgment of work in any given field has little value unless it

comes from someone who is an expert in that field."

89. "Those who treat politics and morality as though they were

separate realms fail to understand either the one or the other." Politics and morality should not be treated as though they are mutually exclusive. An overly narrow definition of morality might require complete forthrightness in dealing with others. However, the morality of public politics

embraces far broader concerns involving the welfare of society, and recognizes compromise as a necessary and legitimate means of addressing those concerns,

A. It is wrong to equate moral behavior in politics with the simple notions of

honesty and putting the other fellow's needs ahead of one's own. We must understand that the political rhetoric is necessary and does not harm the society, as long as it does not escalate to outright lying.

B. In order to gain the opportunity for moral leadership politicians must engage

in certain compromises along the way. Some degree of pandering to the electorate is necessary to maintain that position.

C. Effective politicians need concern themselves with morality. Successful

political leadership .requires a certain measure of public morality, serving the society with its best interests as the leader's overriding concern.

D. In the short term amoral or immoral public behavior might serve a political

leader's interest in preserving power, yet in the long term such behavior invariably results in that leader's downfall.

90. "Great advances in knowledge necessarily involve the rejection of

authority."

Position:

To the extent that political authority impedes such advances, I agree with this claim, Otherwise, in my view most advances in knowledge actually embrace certain forms of

authority, rather than rejecting.

A. On the one hand, political authority may impede advance in knowledge

stubbornly. One striking example is about status of Earth.

B. On the other hand , given a political climate that facilitates free thought and

honest intellectual inquiry, great advances in knowledge can be made by actually embracing certain forms of authority.

91. "The surest indicator of a great nation is not the achievements of its

rulers, artists, or scientists, but the general welfare of all its people."

Position:

I find this claim problematic in two respects. First, it fails to define "general welfare."

Second, it assumes that the sorts of achievements that the speaker cites have nothing to

do with a nation's general welfare.

A. It is our scientists, artists, and political leaders—or so-called rulers—who by

way of their achievements bring the aim of people's welfare into fruition. When we speak of "promoting the general welfare," we refer to the following

index: public health and safety, security against military invasion, individual autonomy and freedom, cultural richness, and a high standard of living.

B. Scientific achievements serve to enhance a nation's general welfare.

a) Advances in the health science have enhanced our physical well-being,

comfort, and life span.

b) Advances in technology have enabled us to travel to more places,

communicate with more people from different walks of life, and learn more about the world much more effectively.

c) Advances in physics and engineering make our buildings safer, and

enable us to travel to more places, more distant places, with greater safety and speed.

C. Artistic achievement is also needed to make a nation a better place for

humans overall.

D. The military and diplomatic accomplishments of a nation's leaders provide

an integral contribution to the general welfare of any nation's populace.

92. "International relations can never be completely harmonious

because many cultures do not share the same values."

YES

93. "People who pursue their own intellectual interests for purely

personal reasons are more likely to benefit the rest of the world than are people who try to act for the public good." ??

Position:

The speaker asserts that people who make the greatest contributions to society are those

who pursue their personal intellectual interests. I agree with the speaker's claim.

A. By human nature, we are motivated to pursue activities in which we excel.

To compel people to focus their intellectual interests on certain assigned

areas would be to force many to waste their true talents.

B. There are a lot of scientific researches that are of fundamental significance

to human beings but does not immediately addressing society's pressing social problems. Yet in the longer term it might be necessary to ensure the survival of the human race.

C. It is dangerous to afford ultimate decision-making power about what

intellectual pursuits are worthwhile to a handful of regulators, legislators in the name of public good. History informs us well of the danger inherent in setting official research priorities. Example: the Soviet government's attempts during the 1920s to not only control the direction and the goals of its scientists' research but also to distort the outcome of that research—ostensibly for the good of the greatest number of people. In the 1920s the Soviet government quashed areas of scientific inquiry, destroyed entire research facilities and libraries, and caused the sudden disappearance of many scientists who were viewed as threats to the state's authority. Not surprisingly, during this time period no significant scientific advances occurred.

94. "Originality does not mean thinking something that was never thought before; it means putting old ideas together in new ways."

95. "Laws should not be stationary and fixed. Instead, they should be flexible enough to take account of various circumstances, times, and places."

Generally, I agree with the speaker assertion that laws should not be stationary and fixed. However, some measure of consistency and stability in the laws is critical for any society to function.

A. Laws should be flexible to be effective in various circumstances, times, and

places. The situations in different part of a nation may be vast different; As the development of the society, people may find urgent demand to modify laws for the society function.

B. Rigid laws can result in fairness if applied inflexibly in all places at all times.

C. Without flexible laws, the society can survive but cannot thrive.

D. However, a certain measure of consistency, stability and predictability in our

laws is required in order for us to understand our legal obligations and rights as we go about our day-to-day business as a society.

96. "It is always an individual who is the impetus for innovation; the

details may ' be worked out by a team, but true innovation results from

Position:

The speaker claims that individual enterprise, energy, and commitment, and not teamwork, provide the impetus for innovation in every case. In my view, although the claim is not without merit, it overlooks the synergetic relationship between individual effort and teamwork, particularly with respect to scientific innovations.

A. With respect to business innovation, I agree that it is the vision and

commitment of key individuals-such as a firm's founder or chief

executive—from which businesses burgeon and innovative products,

services, and marketing and management strategies emerge.

B. Teamwork and individual enterprise can operate synergistically to bring

about innovation. Teamwork and individual enterprise are not necessary inconsistent, as the speaker assumes. If directed toward the firm's goals, the traits can motivate other team members, thereby facilitating innovation.

C. In today's world, scientific innovation requires not only individuals of intense

enterprise and unique perception but also extensive teams of researchers.

97. "The function of science is to reassure; the purpose of art is to

upset. Therein lies the value of each."

Position:

The speaker maintains that the function of art is to "upset" while the function of science is to "reassure," and that it is in these functions that the value of each lies. In my view, the speaker unfairly generalizes about the function and value of art and science.

A. The final objective of science, in my view, is to discover truths about our

world, our universe, and ourselves. Sometimes these discoveries serve to reassure, other times they serve to upset. On the one hand, many scientific discoveries serve to reassure. For example, many would consider reassuring the various laws and principles of physics which provide unifying

explanations for what we observe in the physical world. These principles provide a reassuring sense of order, even simplicity, to an otherwise

mysterious and perplexing world.

B. On the other hand, many scientific discoveries have clearly "upset"

conventional notions of people.

C. In many cases artists set about to reassure, not to upset.

D. However, in other cases, artists set about to upset.

98- "The study of an academic discipline alters the way we perceive the world. After studying the discipline, we see the same world as before, but with different eyes."

99. "Many problems of modem society cannot be solved by laws and the legal system because moral behavior cannot be legislated."

100. "The way students and scholars interpret the materials they work with in their academic fields is more a matter of personality than of training. Different interpretations come about when people with different personalities look at exactly the same objects, facts, data, or events and see different things." Sample:

The speaker asserts that ___. In my opinion, whether the materials be facts, events, data, or observations, the key factor in their interpretation is their training and educational background.

Admittedly, whether an individual tends to be an optimist or a pessimist might have some bearing on interpretation. For instance, an archeology student with a optimistic outlook toward life might respond to a lengthy yet unsuccessful search for certain artifacts a discovery and progress— insofar as certain possibilities have been eliminated, bringing us closer to affirmative discoveries. In contrast, an archeology student with a generally pessimistic outlook might conclude that the same effort was in vain and that nothing has been learned or gained. Yet it strikes me that these different responses are emotional ones that have nothing to do with intellectual interpretation.

In sharp contrast, one's educational background and training can serve as a strong influence on how one interprets historical events involving human affairs, statistical data, and especially art. With respect to human affairs, consider the centuries-old imperialism policies of Great Britain. A student of political science might interpret it as a manifestation of that nation's desire for political power and domination over others. A student of economics might see it as a strategy to gain control over economic resources and distribution channels for goods. A sociology or anthropology student might see it as an assimilation of culture. And , a student of theology or religion might interpret the same phenomenon as an attempt, well intentioned, to impose certain beliefs, rituals, and customs on others.

Educational training and background also affect's how students and scholars interpret seemingly objective statistical data. It is crucial here to distinguish between numbers themselves, which are not subjective to varying interpretations, from what the numbers signify. Consider, for example, a

hypothetical increase in the rate of juvenile crime in a particular city. Although the percent change itself might be subject to only one reasonable meaning, what the change signifies is open to various interpretations. A sociologist might interpret this data as an indication of deteriorating family unit or community. A student of public policy or government might see this statistic as an indication that current legislation fails to implement public policy as effectively as it could. And a student of law or criminal justice might interpret the same statistic as a sign of overburdened courts or juvenile-detention facilities.

Finally, when it comes to how students and scholars interpret art, training and educational background play an especially significant role. After all, while facts and figures are to some extent objective, the meaning of art is an inherently subjective, and highly personal, matter. A business student might interpret a series of art works as attempts by the artist to produce viable products for sale in the marketplace. However, a theology student might eschew such a cold and cynical interpretation, seeing instead an expression of praise, a celebration of life, a plea for grace, or a struggle with mortality. Even art students and scholars can interpret the same art differently, depending on their training. A student of art history might see a particular work as the product of certain artistic influences, while a student of art theory, composition, and technique might view the same work as an attempt to combine color for visual impact, or as an experiment with certain brush-stroke techniques.

To sum up, our working "materials"—facts, data, objects, and events—are open to subjective interpretation in terms of what they teach us. However, what our materials teach us is a function of what we've already learned, and has little if anything to do with our personal emotions and moods —personality.

101."We live under the illusion that we know what we want, when actually we merely want what we are supposed to want."

new

102."As we acquire more knowledge, things do not become more comprehensible, but more complex and more

mysterious." ??

103."It is a grave mistake to theorize before one has data."

I agree with the speaker's assertion insofar as to theorize before collecting sufficient data is to risk tainting the process of collecting and interpreting further

data.

A. A theory conjured up without the benefit of data amounts to little more than

the theorist's hope surmise and desire—what he or she want to be true or suppose to be true.

B. The theorist will tend to seek out evidence that supports the theory, and

overlook or ignore the evidence that refute it-C. By theorizing before

collecting data the theorist also runs the risk of interpreting that data in a manner which makes it appear to lend more credence to the theory than it actually does.

104."Scandals—whether in politics, academia, or other areas—can be

useful. They focus our attention on problems in ways that DO speaker or reformer ever could."

I agree that in many cases, scandals can serve to reveal larger problems that a community or society should address. On the other hand, scandals can sometimes distract us from more important societal issues.

A. On the one hand, scandals can sometimes serve to call our attention to

pervasive social or political problems that we would otherwise neglect. The paradigmatic modem example is the Watergate scandal. No public speaker or reformer could have called the nation's attention to the problem of presidential misconduct unless the scandal had surfaced.

B. On the other hand, scandals can sometimes serve chiefly to distract us from

more pressing community or societal problems.

105."Practicality is now our great idol, which all powers and talents

must serve. Anything that is not obviously practical has little value in today's world."

106. "It is easy to welcome innovation and accept new ideas. What

most people find difficult, however, is accepting the way these new ideas are put into practice."

I agree with the speaker's assertion that it is easy to accept innovation and new ideas, yet difficult to accept how they are put to use. Evidence abound in the social and political, scientific and technological areas.

A. In the areas of politics and social issues, new ideas and imagination are often

appealing and welcome but what is most difficult is to put them into practice when the vested interests are broken.

B. In the areas of natural science and technology. Biological science and cloning

tech is constructive and welcome, so is the internet technology. However, when it comes to the practical use of cloning human being or taking

advantage the IT for intention of crime, they are controversial or guarded.

107."Success, whether academic or professional, involves an

ability to survive in a new environment and—, eventually, —to change it."

108. "The function of art is not to keep pace with science and

technology but rather to provide an escape from these forces."

I strongly disagree with this statement. First, art embraces the current state of science and tech more often than it rejects or opposes it. Second, I find the speaker's suggestion that the function of art relates to science and tech to be misguided.

A. Art is more likely motivated by an interest in keeping pace with science and

tech than by a desire to break down. Example: particularly m architecture, where engineering is part-and-parcel of the art, new creations take full advantage of new technologies. The burgeoning steel industry of the

industrial age made possible for the first time the erection of skyscrapers. Rather than avoiding the technology , architects embraced it. And in

contemporary sculpture one find the widespread use of the new materials of modem chemistry—from plastics to synthetic fabrics.

B. It makes far more sense to view the relationship between art and science as

one in which the technologies are tools which artists use to augment their palettes. To suggest that the function of art of architecture or sculpture is to keep pace with science is wrongheaded. In the above examples, did the artists who designed our modem buildings view their function as keeping pace with tech? Not. Instead, the tech simply provided a larger canvas and an expanded array of tools with which to create their art.

C. The speaker's concern for whether art's function is to embrace or to oppose

science and technology begs the question, for the final objective of art lies instead in its ability to convey a society's value, ideals, and concerns.

Example: the pyramids and the great cathedrals of Renaissance Europe, including the murals and sculpture in and around them, reflected a societal preoccupation with

transcending the human condition.

小站教育GREIssue作文付老头讲义

109."As long as people in a society are hungry or out of work or lack the basic skills needed to survive, the use of public resources to support the arts is inappropriate—and, perhaps, even cruel—when one considers all the potential uses of such money."

The speaker overlooks certain economic and other societal benefits that accrue when

government assumes an active role in supporting the arts.

A. The first reason that I disagree with the assertion is that to postpone pubic

arts funding until we completely eliminate unemployment and hunger would be to postpone arts funding forever.

B. The second arguments that public support for the arts is desirable is that by

allocating public resources to me arts we actually help to solve these social problem.

C. Last but not least argument has to do with the function and ultimate

objectives of arts. Arts contribute to a more charitable society—more willing to give help to those who are in need in the ways that the speaker is

concerned.

110-"The goal of politics should not be the pursuit of an ideal, but rather the search for common ground and reasonable consensus." ?? The assertion ignores the fact that a political ideal might be consensus itself, or require some measure of consensus, and it flies in the face of the nature of politics and history.

A. Reasonable consensus and a political ideal need not be mutually exclusive. Example: peace among nations. In order to gain the opportunity to pursue their ideals politicians must build some measure of consensus along the way.

B. The assertion flies in face of the history.

C. Idealists are better able to steer clear of short-term thinking, near-sighted

goals, and self-serving maneuverings. Lacking idealism a political leader will tend to seek compromise and unprincipled consensus for its own sake. Most politicians seem driven today by their interest in being elected and

reelected—that is, in short-term survival—rather than by any sense of mission, or even obligation to their people and country.

111 -"Technology creates more problems than it solves, and may

threaten or damage the quality of life."

112. "The material progress and well-being of one country are necessarily connected to the material progress and well-being of all other countries."

Each nation's progress and well-being are now tied to the progress and well-being of other nation. In the pursuit of its citizens' economic and social welfare, as well as environment, health and scientific progress, each nation today creates a ripple effect in other nations.

A. the economic pursuits of any nation today are not only connected to but

actually interwoven with those of other nations.

B. Nations have also become interconnected in the pursuit of scientific and

technological progress. It may be either detrimental or beneficial effects: global computer connectivity has served to heighten national-security concerns of all connected nations. Nuclear weapon etc.

C. The world's nations have become especially interconnected in terms of their

public health. The environmental problem links the world together.

Greenhouse effect, Depletion of ozone, sandstorm etc. It is evident that so-called industrial "progress' has carried deleterious environmental

consequences worldwide. The depletion of atmospheric ozone, which has warmed the earth to the point that it threatens the very survival of the human beings. The deforestation caused the more frequent sandstorms have more and more endanger the people.

113."The purpose of education should be to provide students with a value system, a standard, a set of ideas— not to prepare them for a specific job."

114. "The best way to understand the character of a society is to examine the character of the men and women that the society chooses as its heroes or its heroines."

I disagree with the speaker's claim-mat the character of a society's heroes and heroines reflects the character of that society.

A. A society chooses certain people as it heroes not because they mirror the

society but rather because the society's members appreciate, wish they could emulate those traits of character.

重复

B. Consider the sports hero, whom society chooses not merely by virtue of

athletic strength. Some accomplished athletes we consider heroes because they have overcome significant obstacles to achieve their goals.

C. Consider the military heroes, who gain heroic stature by way of courage in

battle, or by otherwise facing certain defeat.

D. Consider the social political heroes, the champion of social causes who

inspire and incites society to meaningful political and social change. People appreciate and adore them for the great contribution to the society and their personality charm.

115."Rituals and ceremonies help define a culture. Without them, societies or groups of people have a diminished sense of who they are." One purpose of ritual and ceremony is to preserve cultural identity. However, this is not their only purpose, nor are ritual and ceremony the only means of preserving cultural identity.

A. I agree with the speaker insofar as one purpose of ritual and ceremony in

today's world is to preserve cultural identity.

B. Preserving cultural identity cannot be the mere purpose of ritual and

ceremony. In fact, isolated cultures that do not need to distinguish

themselves to preserve their identity nevertheless engage in their own

distinct rituals and ceremonies. The initial purpose of ritual and ceremony is rooted not in cultural identity but rather superstition and spiritual belief.

C. Ritual and ceremony are not the only means of preserving cultural identity.

116."The way people look, dress, and act reveals their

attitudes and interests. You can tell much about a society's ideas and values by observing the appearance and behavior of its people."

117."Progress is best made through discussion among people who have contrasting points of view."

In all realms of human endeavor, including the natural science as well as government and law, debate and disagreement form the foundation for progress.

A. The examples of progress through debates abound in the history of natural

science. Our scientific method is essentially a call for progress through opposition. Any new theory must withstand rigorous scientific scrutiny. Moreover, the history of theoretical science is essentially a history of

opposing theories.

B. In government and politics, progress in human rights comes typically

through dissention from and challenge to the status quo; in fact, without disagreement among factions with opposing viewpoints, political oppression

and tyranny would go unchecked.

C. History informs us of the chilling effect suppression of free discourse and

debate can

have on progress. Example of the Soviet in 1920s.

118."Most people choose a career on the basis of such pragmatic considerations as the needs of the economy, the relative ease of finding a job, and the salary they can expect to make. Hardly anyone is free to choose a career based on his or her natural talents or interest in a particular kind of work."

119. "If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it is justifiable."

120."Society should identify those children who have special talents and abilities and begin training them at an early age so that they can Positions1;

I agree that we should attempt to identify and cultivate our children's talents.

A. Unless certain innate talents are nurtured and cultivated in the right period of development, that is during early childhood the potential talent can be no longer meaningful. Theory of Developmental psychology. After all, how can a child who is musically gifted ever see those gifts come to fruition without access to a musical instrument?

B. If offered no chance for the talent to show, gifted children with special talents may live and learn in the same situation as the other common children, the special talent can be unnoticed and become dormant forever. That is great loss for the children and for the society.

C. Regarding to educational effectiveness, it is more fair and effective for all the children when they some children with special talents are identified .selected and received distinctive education.

Positions2;

This suggestion carries certain social , psychological implications that might turn out to be more harmful than beneficial—not just to children but to the entire society.

A. It seems to recommend that certain children receive special attention at the

expense of other children. There are many problems such as who and how the talents should be identified, how much attention should be given.

B. A public policy whereby some children receive preferential treatment carries

dangerous sociological implication. The selectivity tend society into two

factions: talented and all other.

C. We should not ignore the psychological damage that a preferential policy

might inflict on all the children, both on those with special talents and others. The children identified to be talented may feel themselves superior to others. This may be surely detrimental to the further development of their talent.

121. "Too much time, money, and energy are spent developing new and more elaborate technology. Society should instead focus on maximizing the use of existing technology for the immediate benefit of its citizens."

122.*'Most important discoveries or creations are accidental: it is usually while

seeking the answer to one question that we come across the answer to another." Sample:

The speaker contends that most important discoveries an creations are accidental—that they come about when we are seeking answers to other questions. I concede that this contention finds considerable support from important discoveries of the past. However, the contention overstates the role of accident.

Admittedly, discoveries often occurs when we unexpectedly happen upon something in our quest for something else—such as an answer to unrelated question or a solution to an unrelated problem. A variety of geographical, scientific, and anthropological discoveries aptly illustrate this point. In search of a trade route to India, discovered instead an inhabited continent unknown to Europeans; and during the course of an unrelated experiment Fleming accidentally discovered penicillin. out purposefully. For instance, in their efforts to find new celestial bodies astronomers using increasingly powerful telescopes do indeed find them. Biochemists often discover important new vaccines and other biological and chemical agents for the curing, preventing, and treating diseases not by stumbling upon them in search of something else but rather through methodical search for these discoveries. in today's world discovery in becoming increasingly an anticipated result of careful planning and methodical research, for the reason that scientific advancement now requires significant resources that only large corporations and governments possess. These entities demand clear strategies and objectives so that they can see a return on their

investments. their creators' purposeful design. Consider some key creations, such as the printing press, the internal combustion engine, and semi-conductor technology. Each of these inventions sprung quite intentionally from the inventor's imagination and objectives. It is crucial to distinguish here between a creation and the byproducts from that creation, which the original creator may or may not foresee-In sum, the speaker has overlooked a crucial distinction between the nature of discovery and the nature of creation. Although accident has often played a key role in many important discoveries, at least up till now, purposeful intent is necessary the key human creation.

123."In order for any work of art— whether film, literature, sculpture, or a song—to have merit, it must be understandable to most people."

124."The chief benefit of the study of history is to break down the

illusion that people in one period of time are significantly different from people who lived at any other time in history."

Although the basic human nature has not changed over recorded history, there are marked differences between people of different time periods, and studying history carries other equally important benefits as well.

A. On the one hand, we learn that basic human nature—our desires and

motives, as well as our fears and other basic characteristics—has remained constant over recorded time. Through this realization, we can benefit as a society in dealing more effectively with our enduring social problems.

B. It is equally beneficial to understand and appreciate significant differences

between peoples of different time periods— in terms of cultural mores, customs, values, and ideals.

a) the ways in which societies have treated women, ethnic minorities,

animals, and the environment have continually evolved over the course of human history.

b) Society's attitudes toward artistic expression, literature, and scientific

and intellectual inquiry are also in continual state of evolution.

C. Another problem with this statement is that it undervalue other, equally

important

benefits of studying history.

125. "Imprisonment for violent crimes should be made as unpleasant as possible in.

更多类似范文
┣ GRE作文ISSUE满分范文 3800字
┣ GRE(Issue)全部满分官方范文分析 59300字
┣ GRE考试Issue写作范文详解 110400字
┣ GRE Issue范文 3300字
┣ 更多gre issue 范文
┗ 搜索类似范文

更多相关推荐:
新GRE北美范文 ISSUE篇(三)400字

6月份GRE考试即将拉开序幕同学们需进入下轮GRE备考中备考GRE首先要选择好的资料GRE北美范文对备考GRE写作有一定的指导作用下面为大家汇总了最完整版的GRE北美范文主要是关于GREISSUE作文范文供大家...

GRE作文ISSUE素材范文详列110300字

IssuequotThereputationofanyonewhoissubjectedtomediascrutinywilleventuallybediminishedquotSampleEssayThein...

新GRE作文ISSUE新题库加中文翻译28000字

ETS官网公布的ISSUE新题库ThispagecontainstheIssuetopicsfortheAnalyticalWritingsectionoftheGRErevisedGeneralTestWhe...

专栏推荐
大家在关注

地图地图CC