英语专八人文知识(37100字)

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专八人文知识(英国文学)

Part 1. Old and medieval

Beowulf 贝尔武甫(the national epic of the English people) stricking feature: alliteration, metaphors and understatements.

William Langland 威廉。兰格伦 Piers the Plowman耕者皮尔斯

Geoffrey Chaucer杰佛利?乔叟1340-1400 长诗:The House of Fame声誉之堂;Troilus and Criseyde特罗勒斯与克丽西德

小说:Canterbury Tales坎特伯雷故事集----英国文学史上现实主义第一部杰作

(他是最早有人文主义思想的作家,现实主义文学的奠基人)

his contribution to English poetry: introduced from france the rhymed couplet of 5 accents in iambic meter (the heroic couplet), is the first great poet who wrote in the English language. Who making the dialect of London the standard for the modern English speech.

Part 2. The English renaissance

Thomas More托马斯。莫尔 Utopia乌托帮

Philip Sidney菲力普。锡德尼 Astrophel and Stella Apology for Poetry诗辩

Edmond Spenser埃德蒙。斯宾塞 The Faerie Queene 仙后 The Shepherds’s Calender 牧羊人日历

Francis Bacon培根1561-1626 Advancement of Learning学术的进展;Novum Organum新工具;New Atlantic新大西岛;Essays论文集(Of Studies论学习;Of Wisdom for a Man’s Self) The founder of English materialist philosophy

Christopher Marlowe克里斯托夫。马洛 Tamburlaine铁木耳大帝 Dr.Faustus浮士德的悲剧 The Jew of Malta马耳他的犹太人 The Passionate Shepherd多情的牧羊人致情人

William Shakespeare莎士比亚1564-1616 The Tempest暴风风雨;The Two Gentlemen of Veronaz维罗纳二绅士;The Mercy Wives of Windsor温莎的风流妇人;Measure for Measure恶有恶报;The Comedy of Errors错中错;Much Ado about Nothing无事自扰;Love’s Labour’s Lost空爱一场;A Midsummer Night’s Dream仲夏夜之梦;The Merchant of Venice威尼斯商人;As You Like It如愿;The Taming of the Shrew驯悍记;All’s Well That Ends Well皆大欢喜;Twelfth Night第十二夜;The Winter’s Tale冬天的故事;The Life and Death of King John/Richard the Second/Henry the Fifth/Richard the Third约翰王/理查二世/亨利五世/理查三世;The First/Second Part of King Henry the Fourth亨利四世(上、下);The First/Second/Third Part of King Henry the Sixth亨利六世(上、中、下);The Life of King Henry the Eighth亨利八世;Troilus and Cressida脱爱勒斯与克莱西达;The Tragedy of Coriolanus考利欧雷诺斯;Titus Andronicus泰特斯?安庄尼克斯;Romeo and Julet罗密欧与朱丽叶;Timon of Athens雅典的泰门;The Life and Death of Julius Caesar;朱利阿斯?凯撒;The Tragedy of Macbeth麦克白;The Tragedy of Hamlet哈姆雷特/王子复仇记;King Lear李尔王;Othello奥塞罗;Antony and Cleopatra安东尼与克利欧佩特拉;Cymbeline辛白林;Pericles波里克利斯;Venus and Adonis维诺斯?阿都尼斯;Lucrece露克利斯;The Sonnets十四行诗

The Great Comedies: A Midsummer Night’s Dream仲夏夜之梦;The Merchant of Venice威尼斯商人;As You Like It如愿;;Twelfth Night第十二夜;

The Great Tragedies: The Tragedy of Hamlet哈姆雷特/王子复仇记; Othello奥塞罗King Lear李尔王; The Tragedy of Macbeth麦克白;

The Later Comedies(romances): Pericles波里克利斯; Cymbeline辛白林; The Winter’s Tale冬天的故事; The Tempest暴风风雨;

Part 3. The English Bourgeois revolution period

John Milton约翰?弥尔顿1608-1674 L‘Allegro欢乐的人;Il Penseroso沉思的人;Comus科马斯;Lycidas列西达斯;Areopagitica论出版自由;Pro Populo Anglicano Defense为英国人民声辩; Pro Populo Anglicano Defense Secunda再为英国人民声辩;Paradise Lost失乐园;Paradise Regained复乐园;Samson Agonistes力士参孙

John Bunyan班扬1628-1688 The Pilgrim’s Progress天路历程;

The Life and Death of Mr Badman培德曼先生的一生

John Donne 约翰。多恩 Songs and Sonnets Devotions upon emergent Occasions (The founder of the Metaphysical school of poetry)

John Dryden All for Love Antony and Cleopatra An Essay of Dramatic Poesy

Part 4. The eighteenth Century

Joseph Addison艾迪生 诗:The Campaign 远征; 剧本:Cato加图 名文;Adventure of A shilling一先令的历险

Richard Steele理查德?斯梯尔1672-1729 The Christian Hero基督教徒的英雄

名文:The Spectator Club旁观者俱乐部

Alexander Pope蒲柏1688-1744 Pastorals田园诗集;An Essay on Criticism批评论;Windsor Forest温莎林;The Rape of the Lock卷发遇劫记;The Duncial愚人志;Moral Essays道德论;An Essay on Man人论;Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot与阿布斯诺博士书

Jonathan Swift斯威夫特1667-1745 The Battle of Books书的战争;A Tale of A Tub一个木桶的故事;The Drapier’s Letters布商的书信;A Modest Proposal一个温和的建议;Guilliver’s Travels格列佛游记(A Voyage to Lilliput/Brobdingnag/Laputa,Balnibarbi,Luggnagg,Glubbdubdriba and Japan/The Country of the Houyhnhnms小人国/大人国/拉普他等地/智马国游记)

Danniel Defoe丹尼尔?迪福1660-1731 (标志着近代英国小说的形成)

Hymn to the Pillory枷刑颂;Robinson Crusoe鲁宾孙飘流记;Captain Singleton辛格顿船长;Moll Flanders莫尔弗兰德斯;A Journal of the Plague Year大疫年日记

Samuel Richardson理查逊 Pamela帕美拉 Clarissa Harlowe克拉瑞莎 Sir Charles Grandison 格兰迪生

Henry Fielding亨利?菲尔丁1707-1754(英国现实主义小说的奠基者) 剧本:The Coffeehouse Politician咖啡屋政客;Don Quixote in England堂?吉诃德在英国;The Historical Register for the Year历史记事

长篇小说:The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews,and of His Friend Mr Abraham Adams约瑟?安德鲁传;The Life of Mr Jonathan Wild the Great大伟人江奈生?魏尔德传;The History of Tom Jones,a Foundling汤姆?琼斯;Amelia阿美利亚

Richard Bringsley Sheridan理查德。谢立丹 The School for Scsanda造谣学校The Rivals情敌 Samuel Johnson塞缪尔?约翰生1709-1784 A Dictionary of the Engligh Language英语语言辞典;Lives of Poets诗人传;Vanity of Human Wishes人类欲望的虚幻;Rasselas拉塞勒斯 名文:Letter to Lord Chesterfield给吉士菲尔伯爵的信

Oliver Goldsmith哥尔斯密1728-1774 The Vicar of Wakefield威克菲尔德牧师传;The Citizen of the World世界公民;The Deserted荒村;She Stoops to Conquer屈身求爱

Thomas Gray托马斯。格雷 Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard墓园挽歌

William Blake布莱克1757-1827 Poetical Sketches素描诗集;Songs of Innocence天真之歌;Songs of Experience经验之歌The French Revolution法国革命;The Marriage of Heaven and Hell天堂与地狱的婚姻;America;Milton;Jerusalem

名诗:London;The Tiger

Robert Burns彭斯1759-1796 Poems Chiefly in the Scottish Dialect苏格兰方言诗集

名诗:The Tree of Liberty自由村;Scots Wha-Hae苏格兰人;The Two Dogs两只狗;Holy Willie’s Prayer威利长老的祈祷;My Heart’s in the Highlands我的心呀在高原;A Red,Red Rose一朵红红的玫瑰;John Anderson约翰?安德生,My Jo;A Man’s A Man for A’That不管身在何处都须保持尊严;Robert Bruce’s March to Bannockburn

Part 5. Romanticism in England

William Wordsworth威廉?华兹华斯1770-1850 An Evening Walk黄昏漫步;Lyrical Ballads抒情歌谣集(与柯勒律治合编);Lucy Poems露西组诗(She Dwett Among the Untrodden Ways;To the Cuckoo杜鹃颂;I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud;The Solitary Reaper孤寂的刈麦人);Ode on Intimations of Immorality不朽颂;Ode to Duty义务颂;The Excursion远足;The Prelude序曲 Samuel Taylor Coleridge柯勒律治1772-1834 Lyrical Ballads;The Fall of the Bastille巴士底狱的毁灭;The Rime of the Ancient Mariner老船夫;Kubla Khan忽必烈汗;Biographia Literaria文学传记

Robert Southey骚塞 Joan of Arc Wat Tyler

George Gordon Byron乔治?拜伦1788-1824 Hours of Idliness懒散的时刻;English Bords and Scottish Reviewers英国诗人与苏格兰评论家;Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage,Cantos I and II,Canto III 1818恰罗德?哈罗德游记;Ode to the Framers of the Frame-bill编织机法案编制者颂;Oriental Tales东方叙事诗(The Bride of Abydos阿比道斯的新娘;The Corsa海盗;The Siege of Corinth柯林斯之围);Manfred曼弗雷德;The Age of Bronze青铜世纪;Don Juan唐?璜

名诗:She Walks in Beauty;The Isles of Greece

Percy Bysshe Shelley波西?比希?雪莱1792-1822 Queen Mab麦布女王;Prometheus Unbound解放了的普罗米修斯;Adonais阿东尼斯;The Cenci钦契;Song to the Men of England致英国人民;England in 1819;The Masque of Anarchy专制魔王的化装游行;Ode to the West Wind/a Skylark西风/云雀颂;A Defence of Poetry诗辩

John Keats约翰?济兹1795-1821 Endymion恩底弥翁;Isabella伊莎贝拉;The Eve of Sanit Agnes圣爱尼节前夜;Ode on a Grecian Urn希腊古瓮颂;Ode to a Nightingale夜莺颂;To Autumn秋颂;Hyperion赫披里昂(未完成)

20、Charles Lamb查尔斯?兰姆1775-1834 Tales from Shakespeare莎士比亚故事集;Alburn Verses诗集;Essay of Elia伊利亚散文集(Dream Children梦中儿女;A Dissertation unpon Roast Pig烤猪论;Old China古瓷;New Year’s Eve除夕;The Praise of Chimney Sweepers扫烟囱童工赞;The Superannuated Man领取养老金的人;A Bachelor’s Complaint of the Behavior of Married People单身汉对结过婚的人的行为的抱怨)

Walter Scott瓦尔特?司各特1771-1832 诗:The Minstrlsy of the Scottish Border苏格兰边区歌谣集;Marimion玛里恩;The Lady of the Lake湖上夫人

小说:Waverley威弗利;Guy Mannering盖?曼纳令;Rob Roy罗布罗伊;The Heart of Midlothian米德洛西恩监狱;Ivanhoe艾凡赫;Kenilworth坎尼尔华斯;Woodstock皇家猎馆;Queentin Durward昆廷?达沃

Part 6. English Critical Realism

Thomas Hood胡德1799-1845 The Song of the Shirt衬衫之歌;The Bridge of Sighs悲叹之桥;Miss Kilmansegg and Her Precious Leg基尔曼塞格小姐和她贵重的腿

Ernest Jones琼斯1819-1869 小说:The Women’s Wrongs妇女们的委屈

名诗:The Song of the Lower Class;The Song of the Future

Charles Dickens狄更斯1812-1870 The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club匹克威克外传;Oliver Twist奥利弗?退斯特;American Notes美国札记;Martin Chuzzlewit马丁?朱述尔维特;The Old Curiosity Shop老古玩店;Dombey and Son董贝父子;David Copperfield大卫?科波

菲尔;Hard Times艰难时世;A Tale of Two Cities双城记;Great Expectation远大前程

William MakepeaceThackery萨克雷1811-1863 The Book of Snobs势利者集;Vanity Fair名利场;History of Pendennis潘丹尼斯的历史;The History of Henry Esmond亨利?艾斯芒的历史;The Newcomes纽可谟一家;The Virginians弗吉尼亚人

Jane Austin简?奥斯丁1775-1817 Pride and Prejudice傲慢与偏见;Sense and Sensibility理智与情感;Emma爱玛;Mansfield Park曼斯菲尔德公园;Persuasion好事多磨;Northanger Abbey诺桑觉寺

Charlote/Emily/Anne Bronte夏洛蒂/爱米丽/安妮?勃郎特1816-1855 Jane Eyre简爱;Shirley雪丽/

Wuthering Height呼啸山庄/

Agones Grey艾格尼斯?格雷

Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell盖斯凯尔1810-1865 Mary Barton玛丽?巴顿;Ruth露斯;Cranford克兰弗德;North and South北与南;Life of Charlote Bronte夏洛蒂勃郎特传

George Eliot爱略特(Mary Ann Evans)1819-1880 Adam Bede亚当?贝德;The Mill on the Floss弗洛斯河上的磨坊;Silas Marner织工马南;Middlemarch米德尔马契;Felix Holt,the Radical

Part 7. Prose-writers & Poets of the Mid & Late 19th century

Thomas Carlyle卡莱尔1795-1881 Sartor Resartus衣裳哲学/旧衣新裁;The Life of Schiller席勒传;The French Revolution;Heroes and Hero-worship论英雄与英雄崇拜

Afred Tennyson丁尼生1809-1892 Poems of Two Brothers壎篪;Timbuctoo提姆巴克图;The Pricess公主;In Memoriam H H悼念哈拉姆;Maud毛黛;Enoch Arden伊诺克?阿登;Idylls of the King国王之歌

名诗:Ulysses;The Eagle;Break,Break,Break

Robert Browning 勃朗宁1812-1889 Paracelsus巴拉塞尔士;Strafford斯特拉福;Pippa Passes比芭走过;Dramatic Lyrics戏剧抒情诗;Dramatic Romances and Lyrics戏剧传奇与抒情诗(Home Thoughts;From Abroad;Prospice向前看);Dramatic Personae登场人物;Men and Women男男女女

Elizabeth Barrel Browning 1806-1861 Sonnets from the Portuguese葡萄牙十四行诗;The Cry of the Children

William Morris莫里斯1834-1896 诗:The Earthly Paradise地上乐园;Chants of Socialism社会主义歌集;Pilgrims of Hope希望的探求者

小说:A Dream of John Ball梦见给翰?保尔;News from Nowher乌有乡消息

William Hazlitt威廉?赫兹里特1778-1830 Characters of Shakespeare’s Plays莎剧中的人物;A View of the English Stage英国舞台一瞥;Lecture on the English Poets论英国诗人;The Spirit of the Age时代精神;Sketches and Essays素描与随笔;Table Talk桌边文谈

名文:On Familiar Style

George Gissing吉辛1857-1903 小说:Demos民众;New Crub Srreet新穷士街;Born in Eile在流放中诞生;The Private Papers of Henry Ryecroft拉伊克罗夫特的日记(散文);Charles Dickens:A Critical Study狄更斯研究

Robert Couis Stevenson史蒂文生1850-1894 小说:New Arabian Nights新天方夜谭;Treasure Island宝岛;The Strange Case of Dr Jeykell and Mr Hyde化身博士;Kidnapped诱拐

游记:An Inland Voyage内陆游记;Travels with a Donkey in the Cevennes骑驴旅行;A Child’s Garden of Verses儿童诗园

Oscar Wilde王尔德1856-1900 长篇小说:The Picture of Dorian Gray道林?格雷的画像 童话:The Happy Prince and Other Tales快乐王子

诗集:De Prafundis惨痛的呼声;The Ballad of Reading Gaol累丁狱之歌

剧作:Lady Windermere’s Fan温德米尔夫人的扇子;A Woman of No Importance一个无足轻重的妇女;An Ideal Husband理想丈夫;The Importance of Being Earnest埃耐斯特的重要性 20th century English literature

Joseph Rudyard Kipling罗德雅德?吉卜林1865-1936 诗集:Barrak Room Ballad营房诗集;The Seven Seas七海;Recession and Other Poems赞美诗及其他;The Five Nations五国

长篇小说:Kim基姆;Captain Courageous勇敢的船长

短篇小说:Plain Tales from the Hills;Soldiers There;The Story of the Gadsby;Life Handcap生命的阻力;The Jungle Book;The Second Jungle Book林莽之书;The Lost Legion

Samuel Butler勃特勒1835-1902 The Way of All Flesh如此人生;Erewhon埃瑞璜;Erewhon Revisited重游埃瑞璜

Joseph Conrad康拉德1859-1924 长篇小说:Almayer’s Folly奥尔迈耶的愚蠢;The Nigger of the Narcissus水仙号上的黑鬼;Lord Jim吉姆老爷;Nostromo诺斯特罗莫;The Secret Agent间谍;Chance机缘;Victory胜利

短篇小说:An Outpost of Progress文明的前哨;Heart of Darkness黑暗的中心;Youth青春 Henry James Daisy Miller The portrait of a Lady The Wings of the Dove The ambassadors The Golden Bowl

Thomas Hardy哈代1840-1928 Under the Greenwood Tree绿茵下;Far from the Madding Crowd远离尘嚣;The Return of the Native还乡;The Mayor of Casterbridge卡斯特桥市长;Tess of the D’urbervilles德伯家的苔丝;Jude the Obscure无名的裘德

诗集:Wessex Poems 威塞克斯诗集 史诗剧:The Dynasts统治者三部曲

John Galworthy高尔斯华绥1867-1933 From the Four Winds天涯海角(The Man of Property有产业的人;In Chancery骑虎难下;To Let出租→The Forsyte Saga福尔塞世家);(The White Monkey白猿;The Silver Spoon银匙;Swan Song天鹅曲→A Modern Comedy现代喜剧) 剧作:The Silver Box银匣;Strife斗争

George Bernard Shaw萧伯纳1856-1950 长篇小说:An Unsocial Socialist业余社会主义者 评论:Quintessence of Ibsenism

剧本:Widoer’s Houses鳏夫的房产;Mrs Warren’s Profession华伦夫人的职业The Devil’s Disciple魔鬼的门徒;Man and Superman人与超人;John Bull’s Other Island英国佬的另一个岛;Major Barbara巴巴拉少校;Pygmalion劈克美梁;Heartbreak House伤心之家;The Apple Cart苹果车;Too True to be Good真相毕露

William Butler Yeats叶芝1865-1939 诗:Respondibilities责任;The Tower塔;The Winding Stair盘旋的楼梯

名诗:A Deap Sworn Vow;Easter 1916

剧本:The Land of Heart’s Desire理想的国土;The Hour Glass时漏;Dedidre黛德尔 Autobiographies自传三部曲;Essays and Introduction

Thomas Stearns Eliot艾略特1888-1965 诗集:Prufrock and Other Observation普鲁夫洛克及其他;The Waste Land荒原;The Hollow Men空虚的人们;Ash-Wednesday圣灰星期三;Four Quarters

诗剧:Murder in the Cathedral大教堂里的谋杀案;The Family Reunion团圆

评论集:The Sacred Wood圣林;Homage to John Dryden向约翰?德莱顿致敬;For Lancelot Andrews纪念兰斯洛特?安德鲁斯

David Herbert Lawrence劳伦斯1885-1930 The White Peacock白孔雀;Sons and Lovers儿子与情人;The Reinbow虹;Women in Love恋爱中的妇女;Lady Chatterley’s Lover查泰莱夫人的情人

James Joyce乔伊斯1882-1941 短篇小说:Dubiners都柏林人

长篇小说:A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man青年艺术家的画像;Ulysess尤利西斯;Finnegans Wake芬尼根的觉醒

Virginia Woolf沃尔芙1882-1941 长篇小说:Mrs Dalloway达洛威夫人;To the Lighthouse到灯塔去;Orlando奥兰多传;The Waves浪;Flush弗乐希;Between the Acts幕间

散文集:The Common Readers;The Death of the Moth and Other Essays;A Room of One’s Own;Three Guineas三个基尼亚

名文:Modern Fiction现代小说 日记:A Writer’s Diary

专八人文知识(美国文学)

Part 1. Colonial America

Thomas Paine托马斯?潘恩1737-1809 The Case of the Officers of Excise税务员问题;Common Sense常识;American Crisis美国危机;Rights of Man人的权利:Downfall of Despotism专制体制的崩溃;The Age of Reason理性时代

Philip Freneau菲利普?弗伦诺1752-1832 The Rising Glory of America蒸蒸日上的美洲;The British Prison Ship英国囚船;To the Memory of the Brave Americans纪念美国勇士-----同类诗中最佳;The Wild Honeysuckle野生的金银花;The Indian Burying Ground印第安人殡葬地 Jonathan Edwards The Freedom of the Will The Great Doctrine of Original Sin defended The Nature of True Virtue

Benjamin Franklin本杰明?富兰克林1706-1790 A Modest Inquiry into the Nature and Necessity of a Paper Money;Poor Richard’s Almanack穷查理历书;The Way to Wealth致富之道;The Autobiography自传

Part 2. American Romanticism

Washington Irving华盛顿?欧文1783-1859 A History of New York纽约的历史-----美国人写的第一部诙谐文学杰作;The Sketch Book见闻札记The Legend of Sleepy Hollow睡谷的传说-----使之成为美国第一个获得国际声誉的作家;Bracebridge Hall布雷斯布里奇田庄;Talks of Travellers旅客谈;The Alhambra阿尔罕伯拉

James Fenimore Cooper詹姆斯?费尼莫尔?库珀1789-1851 The Spy间谍;The Pilot领航者;The Littlepage Manuscripts利特佩奇的手稿;Leatherstocking Tales皮裹腿故事集:The Pioneer拓荒者;The Last of Mohicans最后的莫希干人;The Prairie大草原;The Pathfinder探路者;The Deerslayer杀鹿者

Part 3.New England Transcendentalism

Ralf Waldo Emerson拉尔夫?沃尔多?爱默生1803-1882 Essays散文集:Nature论自然-----新英格兰超验主义者的宣言书;The American Scholar论美国学者;Divinity;The Oversoul论超灵;Self-reliance论自立;The Transcendentalist超验主义者;Representative Men代表人物;English Traits英国人的特征;School Address神学院演说

Concord Hymn康考德颂;The Rhodo杜鹃花;The Humble Bee野蜂;Days日子-首开自由诗之先河

Henry David Threau亨利?大卫?梭罗1817-1862 Wadden,or Life in the Woods华腾湖或林中生活;Resistance to Civil Government/Civil Disobedience抵制公民政府;A Week on the Concord

and Merrimack Rivers

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow亨利?沃兹沃思?朗费罗1807-1882 The Song of Hiawatha海华沙之歌----美国人写的第一部印第安人史诗;Voices of the Night夜吟;Ballads and Other Poens民谣及其他诗;Belfry of Bruges and Other Poems布鲁茨的钟楼及其他诗;Tales of a Wayside Inn路边客栈的故事---诗集:An April Day四月的一天/A Psalm of Life人生礼物/Paul Revere’s Ride保罗?里维尔的夜奔;Evangeline伊凡吉琳;The Courtship of Miles Standish迈尔斯?斯坦迪什的求婚----叙事长诗;Poems on Slavery奴役篇---反蓄奴组诗

Nathaniel Hawthorne纳撒尼尔?霍桑1804-1864

Twice-told Tales尽人皆知的故事;Mosses from an Old Manse古屋青苔:Young Goodman Brown年轻的古德曼?布朗;The Scarlet Letter红字;The House of the Seven Gables有七个尖角阁的房子--------心理若们罗曼史;The Blithedale Romance福谷传奇;The Marble Faun玉石雕像 Herman Melville赫尔曼?梅尔维尔1819-1891 Moby Dick/The White Whale莫比?迪克/白鲸;Typee泰比;Omoo奥穆;Mardi玛地;Redburn雷得本;White Jacket白外衣;Pierre皮尔埃;Piazza广场故事;Billy Budd比利?巴德

Walt Whitman沃尔特?惠特曼1819-1892 Leaves of Grass草叶集:Song of the Broad-Axe阔斧之歌;I hear America Singing我听见美洲在歌唱;When Lilacs Lost in the Dooryard Bloom’d小院丁香花开时;Democratic Vistas民主的前景;The Tramp and Strike Question流浪汉和罢工问题;Song of Myself自我之歌

Emily Dickinson埃米莉?迪金森1830-1886 The Poems of Emily Dichenson埃米莉?迪金森诗集-----“Tell all the truth and tell it slant”迂回曲折的,玄学的

Edgar Allan Poe埃德加?爱伦?坡1809-1849(以诗为诗;永为世人共赏的伟大抒情诗人-----叶芝) Tales of the Grotesque and Arabesque怪诞奇异故事集;Tales故事集;The Fall of the House of Usher厄舍古屋的倒塌;Ligeia莱琪儿;Annabel Lee安娜贝尔?李-----歌特风格;首开近代侦探小说先河,又是法国象征主义运动的源头

Tamerlane and Other Poems帖木儿和其他诗;Al Araaf,Tamerlane and Minor Poems艾尔?阿拉夫,帖木儿和其他诗;The Raven and Other Poems乌鸦及其他诗:The Raven乌鸦;The City in the Sea海城;Israfel 伊斯拉菲尔;To Hellen致海伦

Harriet Beecher Stowe哈丽特?比彻?斯托1811-1896 Uncle Tom’s Cabin汤姆叔叔的小屋;A Tale of the Great Dismal Swamp德雷德阴暗大沼地的故事片;The Minister’s Wooing牧师的求婚;The Pearl of Orr’s Island奥尔岛的珍珠;Oldtown Folks老城的人们

Part 4. The age of Realism

William Dean Howells 威廉?狄恩?豪威尔斯1837-1920 The Rise of Silas Lapham赛拉斯?拉帕姆的发迹;A Modern Instance现代婚姻; A Hazard of Now Fortunes时来运转;A Traveller from Altruia从利他国来的旅客;Through the Eye of the Needle透过针眼----乌托邦小说;Criticism and Fiction;Novel-Writing and Novel-Reading小说创作与小说阅读

23、Henry James享利?詹姆斯1843-1916 小说:Daisy Miller苔瑟?米乐;The Portrait of a Lady贵妇人画像;The Bostonians波士顿人;The Real Thing and Other Tales真货色及其他故事;The Wings of the Dove鸽翼;The Ambassadors大使;The Golden Bowl金碗

评论集:French Poets and Novelists法国诗人和小说家;Hawthorne霍桑;Partial Portraits不完全的画像;Notes and Reviews札记与评论;Art of Fiction and Other Essays小说艺术

Part 5. Local Colorism

Mark Twain马克?吐温(Samuel Longhorne Clemens)---美国文学的一大里程碑 The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County加拉维拉县有名的跳蛙;The Innocent’s Abroad傻瓜出国记;The Gilded Age镀金时代;The Adventures of Tom Sawyer汤姆?索耶历险记;The Prince and

the Pauper王子与贫儿;The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn哈克贝利?费恩历险记;A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court亚瑟王宫中的美国佬;The Tragedy of Pudd’nhead Wilson傻瓜威尔逊;Personal Recollections of Joan of Arc冉?达克;The Man That Corrupted Hadleyburg败坏哈德莱堡的人

How to Tell a Story怎样讲故事---对美国早期幽默文学的总结

Part 6. American Naturalism

Stephen Crane斯蒂芬?克莱恩1871-1900 Magic:A Girl of the Streets街头女郎梅姬(美国文学史上首次站在同情立场上描写受辱妇女的悲惨命运);The Red Badge of Courage红色英勇勋章;The Open Boat小划子;The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky新娘来到黄天镇

Frank Norris弗兰克?诺里斯1870-1902 Moran of the Lady Letty茱蒂夫人号上的莫兰(romantic);Mc-Teague麦克提格(naturalistic);The Epic of the Wheat(realistic)小麦诗史(The Octopus章鱼,The Pit小麦交易所);A Deal in Wheat and Other Stories of the Old and New West小麦交易所及其他新老西部故事

Theodore Dreiser西奥多?德莱塞1871-1945 Sister Carrie嘉莉姐妹;Jennie Gerhardt珍妮姑娘;Trilogy of Desire欲望三部曲(Financer金融家,The Titan巨人,The Stoic);An American Tragedy美国的悲剧(被称为美国最伟大的小说);Nigger Jeff黑人杰弗

Edwin Arlington Robinson鲁宾逊1869-1935 Captain Craig克雷格上尉---诗体小说;The Town Down the River河上的城镇;The Man Against the Sky衬托着天空的人;Avon’s Harvest沃冯的收成;Collected Poems诗集

40、Jack London杰克?伦敦1876-1916 The Son of the Wolf狼之子,The Call of the Wild野性的呼唤;The Sea-wolf海狼;White Fang白獠牙;The People of the Abyss深渊中的人们;The Iron Heel铁蹄;Marti Eden马丁?伊登;How I become a Socialist我怎样成为社会党人;The War of the Classes阶级之间的战争;What Life Means to Me生命对我意味着什么;Revolution革命;Love of Life热爱生命;The Mexican墨西哥人;Under the Deck Awings在甲板的天蓬下

Upton Sinclair厄普顿?辛克莱尔1878-1968 Spring and Harvest春天与收获;The Jungle屠场(揭发黑幕运动的代表作家);King Coal煤炭大王;Oil石油;Boston波士顿;Dragon’s Teeth龙齿 Part 7. The 1920s

Imagism Ezra Pound艾兹拉?庞德1885-1972 The Spirit of Romance罗曼司精神;The Anthology Des Imagistes意像派诗选;Cathay华夏(英译中国诗);Literary Essays文学论;Hugh Swlwyn Mauberley;A Few Don’ts by Imagiste意像派戒条;Personage面具;Polite Essays文雅集;The Cantos of Ezra Pound庞德诗章(109首及8首未完成稿)

Thomas Stearns Eliot托马斯?艾略特1888-1965 Prufrock and Other Observations普罗夫洛克(荒原意识);The Waste Land荒原(The Burial of the Dead死者的葬礼;A Game of Chess弈棋;The Fire Sermon火诫;Death by Water水边之死;What the Thunder Said雷电之言); 名诗:Ash Wednesday圣灰星期三;Four Quarters四个四重奏

诗剧:Murder in the Cathedral大教堂谋杀案;Family Reunion大团圆;Cocktail Party鸡尾酒会 Wallace Stevens华莱士?史蒂文斯1879-1955 Harmonium风琴;The Man With the Blue Guitar弹蓝吉他的人;Notes Toward a Supreme Fiction关于最高虚构的札记(Peter Quince at the Clavier彼得?昆斯弹风琴;Sunday Morning礼拜天早晨);The Auroras of Autumn秋天的晨曦;Collected Poems诗集

William Carlos Williams威廉?卡罗斯?威廉斯1883-1963 收入Des Imagistes意像派(意像派的第一部诗选)

诗集:Sour Grapes;Spring and All春;The Desert Music;The Journey of Love爱的历程;Collected Poems;Complete Poems;Collected Later Poems;Pictures from Brueghel布留盖尔的肖

像;Paterson佩特森(5卷长诗);Asphodal,That Green Flower常青花日光兰(长诗)

名诗:Red Wheelbarrow红色手推车;The Widow’s Lament in Spring寡妇的春怨;The Dead Baby;The Sparrow ,to My Father麻雀—致父亲;Proletarian Portrait无产阶级画像(from An Early Martyr先驱);

The Great American Novels伟大的美国小说;In the American Grain美国性格;Autobiography自传

Robert Frest罗伯特?弗罗斯特1874-1963 A Boy’s Wish少年心愿;North of Boston波士顿之北(Mending Wall修墙,After Apple-picking摘苹果之后);Mountain Interval山间(成熟阶段)(The Road Not taken没有选择的道路);

West-running Brook西流的溪涧;A Further Range又一片牧场;A Witness Tree一株作证的树 Carl Sandburg卡尔?桑德堡1878-1967 Always the Young Stranger永远是陌生的年轻人s;In Reckless Ecstasy肆无忌惮的狂热;The Prairie Years草原的年代一、二;The War Years战争的年代(林肯传记);The American Songbag美国歌袋;The People,Yes人民,好;Honey and Salt蜜与盐;Corn-huskers辗米机(Fog雾);Smoke and Steel烟与钢

E Cumings肯明斯1894-1962 Tulips anddd Chimneys郁金香与烟囱;The Enormous Room大房间;XLI Poems诗41首;Viva万岁;No, Thanks不,谢谢;Collected Poems诗集;Eimi爱米(访苏游记)

F Scott Fitzgerald弗朗西斯?菲茨杰拉德1896-1940(迷惘的一代) The Side of Paradise人间天堂;The Beautiful and the Damned美丽的和倒霉;The Great Gatsby了不起的盖茨比;Tender in the Night夜色温柔;The Last Tycoon最后的巨头

短篇小说:Flappers and Philosophers姑娘们和哲学家们;Tales of the Jazz爵士时代的故事;Taps at Reveille早晨的起床号→The Ice Palace冰宫;May Days五一节;The Diamond as Big as the Ritz像里茨饭店那样大的钻石;Winter Dreams冬天的梦;The Rich Boy富家子弟;Babylon Revisted重访巴比伦敦 The Crack-up崩溃(自传体文集)

Ernest Hemingway欧内斯特?海明威1899-1961(“迷惘的一代”的代表人物) In Our Time在我们的年代里;The Torrents of Spring春潮;The Sun Also Rises太阳照样升起;Farewell to Arms永别了,武器;For Whom the Bell Tolls丧钟为谁而鸣

短篇小说:Men Without Women没有女人的男人;The Winners Take Notheing胜者无所获;The Fifth Column and First Forty-nine Stories第五纵队与首次发表的四十九个短篇

政论:To Have and Have Not贫与富 回忆录:A Moveable Feast到处逍遥

William Faulkner威廉?福克纳1897-1962 The Marble Faun云石林神(诗集);Soldiers’ Pay兵饷(小说)

短篇小说:Dry September干燥的九月;The Sound and the Fury愤怒与喧嚣;As I lay dying当我垂死的时候;Light in August八月之光;Absalom,Absolam押沙龙,押沙龙(家世小说)

Sherwood Anderson舍伍德?安德森1876-1941 Windy McPherson’s Son饶舌的麦克斐逊的儿子;Marching Men前进中的人们;Mid-American Chants美国中部之歌;Winesburg,Ohio/The Book of the Grotesque俄亥俄州的温斯堡/畸人志;Poor White穷苦的白人;Many Marriages多种婚姻;Dark Laughter阴沉的笑声

The Triumph of the Egg and Other Stories鸡蛋的胜利和其他故事;Death in the Woods and Other Stories林中之死及其他故事;I Want to Know Why我想知道为什么

Sinclair Lewis辛克莱?刘易斯1885-1951(美国第一个获诺贝尔奖) Dur Mr Wrenn我们的雷恩先生;The Job求职;The Main Street大先进;Babbitt巴比特;Arrowsmith艾罗史密斯;Elmer Gantry艾尔默?甘特里;Dodsworth多兹沃斯;It can’t Happen Here事情不会发生在这里;Kingsblood Royal王孙梦

Villa Sibert Cather维拉?凯塞1873-1947 O,Pioneers啊,先驱们;My Antonia我的安东尼亚;The Professor’s House教授之家;Death Comes for the Archibishop大主教之死

Thomas Wolfe托马斯?沃尔夫1900-1938 Look Homeward,Angel天使,望乡→(续)Of Time and the River时间与河流;The Web and the Rock蛛网与岩石;You Can’t Go Home Again有家归不得;The Hills Beyond远山(未完成)

短篇小说:From Death to Morning从死亡到早晨

名诗:Red Wheelbarrow红色手推车;The Widow’s Lament in Spring寡妇的春怨;The Dead Baby;The Sparrow ,to My Father麻雀—致父亲;Proletarian Portrait无产阶级画像(from An Early Martyr先驱);

The Great American Novels伟大的美国小说;In the American Grain美国性格;Autobiography自传

Robert Frest罗伯特?弗罗斯特1874-1963 A Boy’s Wish少年心愿;North of Boston波士顿之北(Mending Wall修墙,After Apple-picking摘苹果之后);Mountain Interval山间(成熟阶段)(The Road Not taken没有选择的道路);

West-running Brook西流的溪涧;A Further Range又一片牧场;A Witness Tree一株作证的树 Carl Sandburg卡尔?桑德堡1878-1967 Always the Young Stranger永远是陌生的年轻人s;In Reckless Ecstasy肆无忌惮的狂热;The Prairie Years草原的年代一、二;The War Years战争的年代(林肯传记);The American Songbag美国歌袋;The People,Yes人民,好;Honey and Salt蜜与盐;Corn-huskers辗米机(Fog雾);Smoke and Steel烟与钢

E Cumings肯明斯1894-1962 Tulips anddd Chimneys郁金香与烟囱;The Enormous Room大房间;XLI Poems诗41首;Viva万岁;No, Thanks不,谢谢;Collected Poems诗集;Eimi爱米(访苏游记)

F Scott Fitzgerald弗朗西斯?菲茨杰拉德1896-1940(迷惘的一代) The Side of Paradise人间天堂;The Beautiful and the Damned美丽的和倒霉;The Great Gatsby了不起的盖茨比;Tender in the Night夜色温柔;The Last Tycoon最后的巨头

短篇小说:Flappers and Philosophers姑娘们和哲学家们;Tales of the Jazz爵士时代的故事;Taps at Reveille早晨的起床号→The Ice Palace冰宫;May Days五一节;The Diamond as Big as the Ritz像里茨饭店那样大的钻石;Winter Dreams冬天的梦;The Rich Boy富家子弟;Babylon Revisted重访巴比伦敦 The Crack-up崩溃(自传体文集)

Ernest Hemingway欧内斯特?海明威1899-1961(“迷惘的一代”的代表人物) In Our Time在我们的年代里;The Torrents of Spring春潮;The Sun Also Rises太阳照样升起;Farewell to Arms永别了,武器;For Whom the Bell Tolls丧钟为谁而鸣

短篇小说:Men Without Women没有女人的男人;The Winners Take Notheing胜者无所获;The Fifth Column and First Forty-nine Stories第五纵队与首次发表的四十九个短篇

政论:To Have and Have Not贫与富 回忆录:A Moveable Feast到处逍遥

William Faulkner威廉?福克纳1897-1962 The Marble Faun云石林神(诗集);Soldiers’ Pay兵饷(小说)

短篇小说:Dry September干燥的九月;The Sound and the Fury愤怒与喧嚣;As I lay dying当我垂死的时候;Light in August八月之光;Absalom,Absolam押沙龙,押沙龙(家世小说)

Sherwood Anderson舍伍德?安德森1876-1941 Windy McPherson’s Son饶舌的麦克斐逊的儿子;Marching Men前进中的人们;Mid-American Chants美国中部之歌;Winesburg,Ohio/The Book of the Grotesque俄亥俄州的温斯堡/畸人志;Poor White穷苦的白人;Many Marriages多种婚姻;Dark Laughter阴沉的笑声

The Triumph of the Egg and Other Stories鸡蛋的胜利和其他故事;Death in the Woods and Other

Stories林中之死及其他故事;I Want to Know Why我想知道为什么

Sinclair Lewis辛克莱?刘易斯1885-1951(美国第一个获诺贝尔奖) Dur Mr Wrenn我们的雷恩先生;The Job求职;The Main Street大先进;Babbitt巴比特;Arrowsmith艾罗史密斯;Elmer Gantry艾尔默?甘特里;Dodsworth多兹沃斯;It can’t Happen Here事情不会发生在这里;Kingsblood Royal王孙梦

Villa Sibert Cather维拉?凯塞1873-1947 O,Pioneers啊,先驱们;My Antonia我的安东尼亚;The Professor’s House教授之家;Death Comes for the Archibishop大主教之死

Thomas Wolfe托马斯?沃尔夫1900-1938 Look Homeward,Angel天使,望乡→(续)Of Time and the River时间与河流;The Web and the Rock蛛网与岩石;You Can’t Go Home Again有家归不得;The Hills Beyond远山(未完成)

短篇小说:From Death to Morning从死亡到早晨

Part 8. The 1930s

John Dos Passos帕索斯1896-1970 The Three Soldiers;Manhattan Transfer;U.S.A(The Forty-second Parallel;1919;The Big Money);District of Columbia哥伦比亚大区(The Adventures of a Young Man一个年轻人的冒险;Number One第一号;The Grand Design伟大的计划);Orient Express东方特别快车(游记)

John Steinbeck约翰?斯坦贝克1902-1966 Cup of Gold金杯;Tortilla Flat煎饼房;In Dubious Battle胜负未定;Of Mice and Men鼠和人;The Grapes of Wrath愤怒的葡萄;The Moon is Down月亮下去了;Cannery Row罐头厂街;The Pearl珍珠

短篇小说:The Red Pony小红马(The Gift,The Great Mountains大山;The Promise许诺,The Leader of the People人们的领袖)

Part 9. Black American Literature

Frederick Douglass弗莱德里克?道格拉斯1817-1895 Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass an American Slave弗莱德里克?道格拉斯,一个美国黑人的自述/My Bondage and My Freedom我的枷锁与我的自由/The life and Time of Frederick Douglass弗莱德里克?道格拉斯的生平与时代

Booker T. Washington

William E?B Dubois威廉?艾伯?杜波依斯1868-1963 Souls of Black Folk黑人的灵魂(Of Booker T Washington and Others);The Suppression of the African Slave Trade into the USA制止非洲奴隶贸易进入美国;The Philadephia Negro;John Brown;The Black Flame黑色的火焰(三部曲)

James Langston Hughes詹姆斯?兰斯顿?休斯1902-1969 Mulatto混血儿(剧本);The Weary Blues疲倦的歌声;Dear Lovely Death亲爱的死神;Shakespear in Harlem哈莱姆的莎士比亚;I Wonder as I Wander我漂泊我思考;The Best of Simple辛普尔精选

Ralph Ellison拉尔夫?埃利林1914- 长篇小说:Invisible Man看不见的人

散文集:Shadow and Act影子与行动;Going to the Territory步入文学界

James Baldwin詹姆斯?鲍德温1924-1987 散文集:Note of a Native Son土生子的笔记;Nobody Knows My Name;Fire Next Time下一次烈火;No Name in the Street他的名字被遗忘;The Devil Finds Work魔鬼找到工作

小说:Go Tell it on the Mountain向苍天呼吁;Giovanni’s Room乔万尼的房间;Another Country另一个国度;Tell Me How Long the Train’s Been Gone告诉我火车已开多久;If Beale Street Could Talk假如比尔能说话;Just Above My Head就在我头上

短篇小说集:Going to Meet the Man去见这个人

剧本:The Amen Corner阿门角;Blues for Mister Charley为查理先生唱布鲁斯/黑人怨;One Day

When I was Lost有一天当我迷失的时候/迷路前后

Gwendolyn Brooks

Part 10. American Drama

Eugene Oneil尤金?奥尼尔1888-1953 独幕剧:Bound East to Cardiff东航卡迪夫;The Long Voyage Home归途迢迢;The Moon of the Carribbeans加勒比人之月

多幕剧:Beyond the Horizon天边外(其成名作);Anna Christie安娜?克里斯蒂;The Emperor Jones琼斯皇;The Hairy Ape毛猿;All the God’s Children Got Wings上帝的儿女都有翅膀The Great God Brown大神布朗;The Strange Interlude奇异的插曲;Mourning Becomes Electr素娥怨/悲悼a;The Iceman Cometh送冰的人来了;The Long Days Journey Into Night进入黑夜的漫长旅程/日长路远夜常深沉

Clifford Odets

J D Salinger杰罗姆?大卫?塞林格1919- 短篇小说:The Young Folks年轻人 短篇小说集:Nine Stories故事九篇

中篇小说:Franny弗兰尼;Zooey卓埃;Raise High the Roof Beam,Carpenters木匠们,把屋梁升高;Seymour:An Introduction西摩其人

长篇小说:The Cather in the Rye麦田守望者

Tennessee William田纳西?威廉斯1911-1983 American Blues美国的布鲁斯;Battle of Angels天使的战斗;The Glass Menagerie玻璃动物园;The Streetcar Named Desire欲望号街车;Cat on a Hot Tin Roof热铁皮屋顶上的猫;The Night of The Iguana鬣蜥之夜;Summer and Smoke夏与烟;The Rose Tattoo玫瑰纹;Sweet Bird of Yout可爱的青春鸟

Arthur Miller阿瑟?米勒1915- Situation Normal情况正常;The Man Who Had All the Luck吉星高照的人;All My Sons都是我的儿子;The Death of a Salesman推销员;The Crucible严峻的考验/萨姆勒的女巫;A View from the Bridge桥头眺望;A Memory of Two Mondays两个星期一的回忆;After the Fall堕落之后;Incident at Vichy维希事件 ;The Price代价;The Creation of the World and Other Business创世及其他;The Archbishop’s Ceiling大主教的天花板;The American Clock美国时钟

Edward Albee爱德华?阿尔比1928- The Zoo Story动物园的故事;The Death of Bessie Smith贝西?史密斯之死;The Sandbox沙箱;The American Dream美国梦;Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf?谁害怕弗吉尼亚?伍尔夫;Tiny Alice小爱丽丝;A Delicate Balance脆弱的羊群;Seascape海景;The Lady from Dubuque来自杜布克的女人;The Man With Three Arms在臂人

Part 11. The Post-War Scene: The Novel . Poetry

Saul Bellow索尔?贝娄1915- 长篇小说:Dangling Man晃来晃去/挂起来的人;The Victim受害者;The Adventure of Augie March奥基?马奇历险记;Henderson the Rain King雨王汉德逊;Herzog赫索格;Mr Summlar’s Planet塞姆勒先生的行星;Humboldt’s Gift洪堡的礼物 中篇小说:Seize the Day且乐今朝

Norman Mailer诺曼?米勒1923- (垮掉的一代;文学恐怖主义者/亡命之徒) 裸者与死者;Barbary Shore巴巴里海滨;The Deer Park廘苑;An American Dream一场美国梦;The White Negro白色黑人;Advertisement for Myself为自己做广告;Why Are We in Vietnam?我们为什么要去越南;The Executioner’s Song刽子手之歌;The Armies of the Night夜色幕下的大军(History as a Novel/The Novel as History)—非虚构小说;New Journalism新新闻报道

Joseph Heller约瑟夫?海勒1923- 长篇小说:Catch-22第二十二条军规;Something Happened出了毛病;As Good as Gold像高尔德一样好 剧本:We Bombed in New Haven我们轰炸纽黑文;Catch-22;Clevinger’s Trial克莱文杰受审(据Catch-22第八章)

John Barth约翰?巴思1930- 长篇小说:The Floating Opera漂浮的歌剧;The End of the Road穷途末路;The Sot-weed Factor烟草代理商;Letters书信集;Giles Goat-boy山羊孩子贾尔斯;Lost in the Funhouse迷失在开心馆里(Title题目);Chimera客迈拉; Sabbatical学院的轮休假;The Friday Book:Essays and Other Nonfictions星期五的书:论文及其他非小说

Thomas Pynchon托马斯?品钦1937- (后现代主义) Geography of a Horse Dreamer马塞梦测者的地理;Angel City天使城;The Tooth of Crime罪恶的牙齿;Family家庭 (Curse of the Starving Class饥饿阶级的诅咒;Buried Child被埋葬的孩子;True West真正的西部);Fool for Love情痴;A Lie of the Mind心灵的谎言;Paris/Texas德州的巴黎

Poetry: Stanley Kunitz

Richard Wilbur

Elizabeth Bishop

Howard Nemerov

专八人文知识必背

1. A Tale of Two Cities was written by Charles Dickens.

2. Phonology: The study of speech sounds in language or a language with reference to their distribution and patterning and to tacit rules governing pronunciation. 音位学; 在语言或一门语言中,对有关其分类和模式以及为大家所默认的发音规则的研究音韵学, 音系学

3. Syntax: The study of the rules whereby words or other elements of sentence structure are combined to form grammatical sentences. 句法,研究词或其它句子成分如何联合起来形成合乎语法的句子规则的学科

4. Semantics: The study or science of meaning in language forms.语义学,以语言形式表示意思的研究或科学

5. acronym : 首字母组合词,首字母缩略词,比如,NATO, UNESCO, BASIC,它们可以连拼,但VOA是 Initialism。

6. Metonymy: A figure of speech in which one word or phrase is substituted for another with which it is closely associated, as in the use of Washington for the United States government or of the sword for military power. 换喻或转喻,一种,一个词或词组被另一个与之有紧密联系的词或词组替换的修辞方法,如用华盛顿代替美==或用剑代替军事力量,对面来了三个“红领巾”也是,以红领巾指代少先队员。

7. Simile: A figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as, as in How like the winter hath my absence been or So are you to my thoughts as food to life (Shakespeare).明喻, 一种修辞手法,把两种基本不相像的东西进行比较,通常在由 like或 as引导的短语中,如 “我的离开好象是冬天来临”或“你对我的思想就象食物对于生命一样重要”(莎士比亚)

8. Metaphor: A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison, as in a sea of troubles or All the world's a stage(Shakespeare) 隐喻一种语言表达手法,通常用指某物的词或词组来指代他物,从而暗示它们之间的相似之处,如 “忧愁之海”或“整个世界一台戏”(莎士比亚) the ship of desert 沙漠之舟

9. Oxymoron: A rhetorical figure in which incongruous or contradictory terms are combined, as in a deafening silence and a mournful optimist. 矛盾修饰法, 一种把互相矛盾或不调和的词合在一起的修辞手法,如在 震耳欲聋的沉默和悲伤的乐观 cruel kindness

10. The affection name given to the clock tower of the Houses of Parliament, Westminster is

Big Ben.

11. John Milton the poet wrote of Adam and Eve’s expulsion from the Garden of Eden in Paradise Lost. Paradise Regained was also written by him.

12. Sonnet: A 14-line verse form usually having one of several conventional rhyme schemes. 十四行诗体, 一种由十四行组成的诗歌形式,通常有一种传统的押韵形式, 莎士比亚用过此诗体。

13. Slang: A kind of language occurring chiefly in casual and playful speech, made up typically of short-lived coinages and figures of speech that are deliberately used in place of standard terms for added raciness, humor, irreverence, or other effect. 俚语主要出现在非正式的、游戏性的话语中的一种语言,基本由存在时间很短的派生词和修辞构成,它们被故意地用来取代标准的词语以达到生动、幽默、无礼或其它效果

14. Catch Phrase: A phrase in wide or popular use, especially one serving as a slogan for a group or movement. 警句,妙句,吸引人的词句广泛使用的或流行的用语,尤指用作集团或运动的口号的用语。

15. Jargon: The specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, or similar group. 行话, 一个行业、职业或类似的团体中使用的专业的或技术的语言.

16. Platitude: A trite or banal remark or statement, especially one expressed as if it were original or significant. 陈腔滥调, 陈腐的或平庸的评论或陈述,尤指某人表述它时好象它是新颖的或有意义的

17. Hyperbole: A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used for emphasis or effect, as in I could sleep for a year or This book weighs a ton. 夸张法,一种比喻,使用夸张来强调或产生某种效果,比如在我能睡一年或这书有一吨重

18. onomatopoeia: The formation or use of words such as buzz or murmur that imitate the sounds associated with the objects or actions they refer to. 象声词, 词的构成或用法,例如 buzz或 nurmur模仿事物或行动的声音.

19. hypotaxis: 从属关系

20. parataxis: 并列结构,指 短语或分句间不用连词, 如:I came, I saw, I conquered.

21. Transcendentalism: A literary and philosophical movement, associated with Ralph Waldo Emerson and Margaret Fuller, asserting the existence of an ideal spiritual reality that transcends the empirical and scientific and is knowable through intuition. 超验主义, 一种文学和哲学运动,与拉尔夫?沃尔多?爱默生和玛格丽特?富勒有关,宣称存在一种理想的精神实体,超越于经验和科学之处,通过直觉得以把握

22. Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote the Scarlet Letter. 美国

23. Morphology: The study of the structure and form of words in language or a language, including inflection, derivation, and the formation of compounds.词法,词态学,形态音位学, 语言或某一语言中对于单词的结构和形式的研究,包括词尾变化、派生和合成词的构成

24. affricate: A complex speech sound consisting of a stop consonant辅音 followed by a fricative摩擦; for example, the initial sounds of child and joy. 塞擦音由闭塞音伴随着摩擦音而形成的复杂的语音;例如 child和 joy的第一个音Also called: affricative.

25. Vanity Fair 名利场 was written William Makepeace Thackray

来源 26. Neil Armstrong was the first person to walk on the moon. Edwin Aldrin, Michael Collins

尼尔.阿姆斯特朗、埃德温.奥尔德林、迈克尔.柯林斯

27. The title of the national anthem 国歌 of Canada is O Canada. 此种类型题同学们可自己多找几个国家。

28. Henry David Thoreau’s work, Walden, has always been regarded as a masterpiece of New England Transcendentalism.

29. etymology: the history of a word. 词源学

30. The dominant accent in the United States is General American. 除纽约市、南方、新英格兰

31. John Lennon is a member of the band of Beatles 披头士或甲壳虫乐队in the 1960s.

32. In Gulliver’s Travels格列佛游记, Jonathan Swift describes the island of the Houyhnhnms as the world’s most perfect society. 有理智和人性的马 Houyhnhnms are horses in fact.

33. Ceoffrey Chaucer wrote Canterbury Tales in fourteenth century.

34. morpheme: A meaningful linguistic unit consisting of a word, such as man, or a word element, such as -ed in walked, that cannot be divided into smaller meaningful parts. 词素, 一种含有一个单词的有意义的语言单位,如 -ed在单词 walked中,不能被划分为更小的有意义单位

35. The name of the famous stadium露天体育场 in the north of London is Wembley.

36. Wimbledon温布尔登[英国英格兰东南部城市](位于伦敦附近, 是著名的国际网球比赛地)

37. Toad in the hole is a Traditional English recipe食谱, originating from Yorkshire, a county in the north of England. 烤面拖牛肉,,面拖烤香肠

38. Boycott: To act together in abstaining from using, buying, or dealing with as an expression of protest or disfavor or as a means of coercion(强制). 联合抵制, 联合起来拒绝使用、购买或经销以示抗议、不满或作为强制的手段

39. Segregation: The policy and practice of imposing the social separation of races, as in schools, housing, and industry, especially so as to practice discrimination against people of color in a predominantly white society. 种族隔离, 强制实行种族的社会分离政策及实践,如在学校、居住和工业中,尤指在白人居多的社会中实行有色人种歧视的政策

40. Apartheid: An official policy of racial segregation practiced in the Republic of South Africa, involving political, legal, and economic discrimination against nonwhites. 种族隔离制, 南非共和国实行的一种官方的种族隔离政策,包括在政治、法律和经济诸方面对非白色人种的歧视.

41. Integration: The bringing of people of different racial or ethnic groups into unrestricted and equal association, as in society or an organization; desegregation. 种族或宗教融合, 在社会或组织中,使不同的种族或宗教派别的人处于无限制的平等的关系中;取消种族隔离

42. The majority of French-speaking Canadians live in Quebec.

43. Sir Thomas More coined the word “Utopia”, it means nowhere land in Greek.

44. The Hemingway Code heroes are best remembered for their indestructible spirit.

45. Phoneme: any one of the set of smallest distinctive speech sounds in a language that distinguish one word from another 音位,音素, 语言中最小的语音单位,如英语里 mat中的 m和 bat中的 b

46. polysemy: 一词多义

47. patron saint:保护圣徒, 守护神

48. Parentese: 父母语

49. back formation: 逆构词 脱落一词的词缀以构成新词 typewriter → typewrite

50. allomorph: Any of the variant forms of a morpheme. For example, the phonetic s of cats, z of dogs, and z of horses and the en of oxen are allomorphs of the English plural morpheme. 语素变体, 语素的一种变体形式,如语音学的中之 s在 cats中,z在 dogs中,和 iz在 horses中,还有 en在 oxen中都是英语复数语素的语素变体



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