英语专业八级写作(15000字)

发表于:2020.11.11来自:www.fanwen118.com字数:15000 手机看范文

一. 简介

1. 题目构成

a. 通常用一句或若干句引出写作话题,然后对写作任务进

行限定,如提出要回答的问题,说明写作目的,读者对象等。

b. 提出作文的标题,有时会自拟。

c. 对文章结构,评分标准或答题方式进行说明。

e.g.

All of us would agree that in order to be successful in the present-day society, we university students have to possess certain personal qualities that enable us to realize our aims. What do you think is the most important personal quality of a university student? Write a composition of about 400 words on the following topic: The Most Important Personal Quality of A University Student

In the first part of your writing you should present your thesis statement, and in the second part you should support the thesis statement with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to natural conclusion or a summary.

Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriateness. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.

Write your composition on Answer Sheet Four.

2. 体裁

说明文和议论文为主,三段式为主。

3. 话题范围

教育,网络,个人品格与成功,个人与整体关系,学生经商,求职面试,理想追求,经济地位与友谊,大学生活等。

a. 收集相关知识

b. 收集相关话题的观点

c. 收集相关话题的论据

d. 收集相关话题的表达

二. 评分标准

1. 思想表达满分10分,极差1-2,较差3-4,一般5-6,良好7-8,优秀9-10

段落排列自然合理 0.5分(额外加)

2. 语言运用能力8分,极差1-2,较差3,一般4-5,良好6-7,优秀8

准确性思想内容单词拼写正确 0.5分

内容切题 语法正确表达符号正确1分2分0.5 分

内容充实 句子结构正确大小写正确1分1分0.5 分

书写美观 观点明确/固定搭配正确 卷面整洁 /习语正确 1 0.5分 分/用词准确 1分

丰富性论据支持论点 1分

有独到见解词汇丰富 0.5 分(额外加) 1分 (关键词用同义词,

表达效果 近义词,反义词替代)

表达清晰流畅 句子形式丰富0.51分分 (长短结合,主被动结合,简单句和复合句结合,最好有虚拟语气,强调结构,修辞有说服力 0.5分

篇章组织结构 句,非谓语动词)

每段有主题句得体性/语气恰当 1分1分

句间衔接自然语言地道 1分0.5 分 (不要说chinglish,符合英语的思维和表达习惯)段间过渡自然 1分

流利度 第一部分明确提出观点 1分

最后一部分自然得出结论 1分

完成规定字数 0.5分

3.写作规范,较差0.5,一般1,良好1.5,优秀2.

常见错误:

三. 写作步骤

三步走

1. 写前

a. 读懂题目,明确题目的范围和要求 (写得对)

b. 依据题目的要点,放开思路寻找所有可能有用的想法

(写得多)

c. 在这些想法当中找出最合适最合用的部分,组织文章的

框架 (写得好)

2. 写中

重点解决语言问题,严格按照提纲写!

a. 关键句和衔接:中心句,主题句,段落之间和句子之间

的衔接词和衔接句

b. 语言丰富程度:词汇和句式不单调,多用近义词或同义

词或反义词,句式长短结合,结构丰富。

c. 文体恰当

3. 写后

重点检查两个问题:

a. 文章的连贯

b. 语言的准确与恰当:语法,拼写,标点,文体错误等

四. 结构

1. introduction paragraph (引言段)

a. 第一部分:引言句:吸引读者兴趣

b. 第二部分:话题句:引出文章话题

c. 第三部分:中心句:表明写作目的或观点或暗示正文结

构。

2. body paragraph (论证段、主体段)

a. 分论点一 (要点一):证据1, 证据2,证据3

b. 分论点二 (要点二):证据1,证据2, 证据3

c. 分论点三 (要点三):证据1, 证据2,证据3

3. concluding paragraph (结尾段)

a. 总结文章要点 (summary)

b. 对该话题作最终评论 (final comment)

以20xx年和20xx年真题为例:

2005

Interview is frequently used by employers as a means to recruit prospective employees. As a result, there have

been many arguments for or against the interview as a selection procedure. What is your opinion? Write an essay of about 400 words to state your view.

You should supply an appropriate title for your essay.

2002

All of us would agree that in order to be successful in the present-day society, we university students have to possess certain personal qualities that can enable us to realize our aims. What do you think is the most important personal quality of a university student? Write a composition of about 400 words on the following topic:

The Most Important Personal Quality of A University Student

1. 引言段的写作方法

a. 第一部分:吸引读者兴趣(统计数据/设问/引语)

方法一:统计数据 (真实可信,可以适当夸大)

Every day millions of job-hunters in the world write letters of application, wishing that they would be given a chance of interview. (2005)

Nowadays tens of thousands of university students are graduated from their schools and they all want to be successful in this modern world. (2002)

Now in our society what do you have to do if you want to find a good job? What lies between you and an ideal job? (下句回答:That is interview. ) 2005

Do you know any university graduate who does not want to succeed in the society? What does it take for a university graduate to succeed in the modern society? 2002

方法三:用引语

“Success comes not only from perspiration and inspiration, but also from satisfactory performance in interviews,” commented Dr. Kenly in his book. (这里最好提众所周知的人或介绍下此人以示权威) 2005

According to traditional Chinese thoughts, a talent must be excellent at ability and morality. 2002

b. 第二部分:引出文章话题 (开门见山/收网式/驳论式)

方法一:开门见山

Nowadays interview is becoming more and more important in recruitment. 2005

In the modern society, almost all university students look forward to success. 2002

方法二:收网式(由一个宽泛,读者认同的事实开始,逐步将读者的注意力引向文章主题)

With the development of market economy in China, more and more companies have come into being. When they need to take up more people, employers usually select through interviews. Similarly, when people need to find a job, they also need to perform well in interviews. Therefore, interview is becoming more and more important in modern society. 2005

One feature of the modern society is the more respect given to individual values. When fighting for personal

values and success, students need to catch good opportunities, but they also need to possess some essential personal qualities. 2002

方法三:驳论式 (先说出一个与本文观点相反但读者可能会同意的观点,然后转折指出这个观点是错误的,同时提出自己的观点,可以短时间给读者以冲击,印象深刻)

Many of us may agree that China is a society relying heavily on guanxi, or relationship. We may all have the experience of having to resort to certain relationship in order to get something done, to find a good job, for example. / But, with development of market economy, recruitment is conducted more and more on the basis of interview rather than on various personal connections. 2005

As the modern society puts more emphasis on personal difference and personal values, it provides more opportunities for students to seek success. /However, the fact is that not everyone can succeed. Success calls for certain opportunities, but more importantly, calls for many personal qualities.

c. 第三部分:表明观点或写作目的,暗示正文结构 (观

点+阐释)

2005

I believe that interview is very beneficial. (直接但太宽泛) Obviously, interview has been crucial to ensure the quality of employees. (具体但缺乏层次)

In my opinion, interview has become very important for both employees and employers. (观点明确,同时暗示了下文的内容将从两个方面展开)

2002

In my opinion, the most important quality one needs in the modern society is adaptability.

I think to succeed in the modern society, one has to have adaptability because of its importance in study, in career, as well as in failures.

2. body paragraph (论证段、主体段)

分论点一 (要点一):证据1, 证据2,证据3

分论点二 (要点二):证据1,证据2, 证据3

分论点三 (要点三):证据1, 证据2,证据3

段落的基本构成:主题句+支持句(2-3个)+段落结尾句(重述本段内容)

2005

Thesis: I believe that interview can be very beneficial.

Topic sentences: Interview provides information for both parties involved.

Interview offers a broad selection for both interviewers and interviewees.

Interview embodies an important principle of the modern society: fairness.

Tips: 分论点中不要转化topic, 这样容易造成文章不连贯,主题不一致

错误案例:

Thesis: I believe that interview can be very beneficial.

Topic sentences: Both parties involved can get crucial information.

Both interviewers and interviewees can get a broad selection from interview.

An important principle of the modern society, fairness, can be seen in interview.

2002

Thesis: I think to succeed in the modern society, one has to have adaptability because of its importance in study, in career, as well as in failures.

Topic sentences: Good adaptability can help one become a successful student.

Good adaptability can help one succeed in one’s career.

Good adaptability can help one deal with failures successfully.

Tips:不跑题;论据充分

主题句: Lack of sleep has become an epidemic in the nation.

方法一:专家论证

Lack of sleep has become an epidemic in the nation. Dr. David, physiological professor from Harvard University, declared after a nationwide survey, “ I can’t think of a single study that hasn’t found Americans getting less sleep than they ought to. Even people who think they are sleeping enough would be better off with more rest.”

方法二:统计数据

Lack of sleep has become an epidemic in the nation.

thFrom diary entries and personal accounts from the 18

thand 19 centuries, sleep scientists have concluded that

the average person used to sleep about 9.5 hours a night. By the 1950s and 1960s, sleep schedule had been reduced dramatically, to between 7.5 and 8 hours, and most people had to wake to an alarm clock.

方法三:例子

Lack of sleep has become an epidemic in the nation. The president, for example, used to admit that he found his job hard to deal with, because, among other things, he could sleep only for four to five hours a day. Besides, many employers complain that their staff cannot work efficiently in the afternoon, as they cannot get enough

time for sleep the day before. And the police also reports more traffic accidents because many drivers cannot concentrate due to the lack of sleep.

方法四:个人经历

Lack of sleep has become an epidemic in the nation. When in college, I used to sleep for about nine hours every day, but now I can only sleep for about six hours if I want to finish my job on time. I usually feel tired at work, and sometimes I even forget what I suppose to d. Besides, I find that more than half of my colleagues are sharing my problem.

方法五:逻辑推理

Lack of sleep has become an epidemic in the nation. Nowadays, the step of life has become increasingly fast, and people are expected to shoulder more responsibilities at work. Besides, as social interactions become more convenient and broader, people have to spend more time keeping friends and other acquaints in frequent contact. As they cannot find more time in one day, all they can do is borrow from the time that was previously allocated to sleep. Therefore, it is natural to find that most people in

the States are sleeping less.

方法六:常识

Lack of sleep has become an epidemic in the nation. It is well known that many people around us consider sleep the least important item on their lists of if they are faced with heavy pressure from work, family, or friends. The complexity of life forces them to cut down time spent on sleeping. Some other people sleep less for fear that they may be regarded as lacking drive and ambition.

方法七:类比

Lack of sleep has become an epidemic in the nation. We may have found that in spring when trees and bushes come in full blossom, bees usually spend less time in their hive because they have more honey-making jobs to do. Similarly, when people have more work to do, they tend to sleep less, and this has come true for us.

3. concluding paragraph (结尾段)

a..总结文章要点 (summary): 1-2 sentences

2005

Both parties involved can get crucial information.

Both interviewers and interviewees can get a broad selection from interview.

An important principle of the modern society, fairness, can be seen in interview.

Summary 1 : Interview can offer great benefits to the society because it can provide people with important information and selection as well as demonstrating a principle of fairness in the modern society.

Summary 2: Interview can offer great benefits to the society. This can be seen not only in the information it can provide, the wide selection it makes possible, but also in the principle of fairness it helps to ensure in the process of recruitment.

2002

Good adaptability can help one become a successful student.

Good adaptability can help one succeed in one’s career.

Good adaptability can help one deal with failures successfully.

Summary: Adaptability is crucial for people in the modern society due to its influence on learning, working as well as dealing with hard situation.

方法二: 首尾呼应法

2005 开头

With the development of market economy in China, more and more companies have come into being. When they need to take up more people, employers usually select through interviews. Similarly, when people need to find a job, they also need to perform well in interviews. Therefore, interview is becoming more and more important in modern society.

Summary: Market economy has not only brought about interview but also given it increasing importance.

2002 开头

Nowadays tens of thousands of university students are graduated from their schools and they all want to be

successful in this modern world.

Summary: Those tens of thousands college graduates wishing for success don’t have to worry. So long as they learn to adapt themselves, they can study well, work well and deal with failures well, and this can promise them success.

方法三: 让步法

2005

Admittedly, interview has the shortcomings of relying on first impression and testing oral communication rather than working skills. But it is also undeniable that it is making an increasingly important contribution to the society.

2002

Although knowledge and skills are very important to achieving what one wants in the modern society, personal qualities, especially good adaptability has become essential.

b..对该话题作最终评论 (final comment)

方法一:评论重要性

Given its importance to the modern society, it is reasonable to say that interview lays one of the cornerstones for the progress of human society.

方法二:预测将来的发展

As interview is becoming more and more important, it is likely that in the near future, better methods will be devised and better regulations will be made to ensure its quality.

方法三:提出警告

It must be realized that at present interview is still not scientific enough. Therefore, if better method cannot be found out, interview cannot really play that important role.

方法四:提出解决问题的方法

To really realize the important roles of interview, employers should invite the help of researchers in the field of psychological assessment to devise better interview methods, and applicants should familiarize

themselves with the interview requirements and process it before going to the interviewing place.

五. 衔接

1. 段内衔接

方法一:替代

方法二:省略

方法三:词汇衔接 (同义词,近义词,反义词)

方法四:过渡词衔接 (重点)

Exemplification (举例)

For example…

For instance…

To illustrate…

Such as…

One example is …

By way of example…

Emphasis (强调)

In fact…

As a matter of fact…

In effect…

Sure enough…

To be sure…

Actually…

Especially…

Above all…

In particular…

Most importantly…

Most important of all…

Cause (原因)

The reason for this lies in the fact that… The key reason is …

Thanks to…

Due to…

In virtue of…

Owing to…

On the ground of

Result (结果)

Therefore…

Hence…

Thus…

So…

If so…

As a result…

Consequently…

Accordingly…

In consequence…

Enumeration (列举)

Firstly, …secondly, finally, … In the first place…

To begin with…

To start with…

First of all…

Next…

Also,

After that,

Then,

Contrast (对比)

However,…

Nevertheless,…

In spite of…

On the contrary…

In contrast…

Comparison (比较)

Similarly…

Likewise,

In the same way..

That is to say…

i.e.

introduction (引言)

In my opinion,

To my mind…

I think/believe/hold

It is my belief that…

Generally speaking,

In general, …

As a rule…

Relatively speaking…

Strictly speaking…

As we all know,

As everyone knows…

As is well known…

No one can deny that…

There is enough proof to show that…

Recent studies have led the public to the realization that…

As can be seen in the table

According to the study…

Conclusion (结论)

In a word,

In short (brief),

In summary (conclusion)

To conclude (sum up) To draw a conclusion To put it simply,

All in all, overall

On the whole

2. 段间衔接

a. 引言段与正文段的衔接 b. 正文段的衔接

方法一:正文段段首衔接 方法二:正文段首尾衔接 c. 结论段的衔接



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