美国大学英语写作 答案PART.3(5500字)

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ANSWER KEY

PART THREE: SPECIAL SKILLS

17 Taking Essay Exams

Activity (Step 2), 331

First, Mark wrote down the heading and then numbered the sources of stress under it. Also, in parentheses beside each point he added (or:Then he circled the four key words, and he wrote down the first of each word underneath his outline. Mark then used the first letter in each key word to make up a catchphrase that he the sources of stress that the first letters stood for. He also made sure that he recalled the supporting material that went with each idea.

Activity (Step 3), 332

1. b 4. c

2. d 5. a

3. e Activity 1 (Step 5), 336

or:Activity 2 (Step 5), 336

Answers will vary.

18 Writing a Summary

Activity 1, 339–345

Here is a sample summary of the article ―Power Learning‖:

―Power Learning‖ describes three proven techniques for improving study skills: time control, classroom note-taking, and textbook study.

Time control is a matter of carefully scheduling your activities. The first step is to circle important dates on a large calendar. Record your study plan for one week or one day on the same calendar. This study plan should include set times for eating, going to classes, working, commuting, studying, and relaxing. Perhaps the best way to control your time is to make a list of the things you have to do. Mark the most important items on the list so that you will remember to do them first. Cross jobs off your list as you do them, and reschedule any uncompleted tasks. Class notes can also be improved if you follow a regular procedure. Attending classes regularly helps, as does developing a system of abbreviations to use in your notes. You should also record any information your instructor writes on the board or enumerates (presents in a numbered list). ―Emphasis words‖ such as ―important‖ or ―chief‖ can also help you decide what to take notes on, since they indicate the main ideas. Examples and information on how ideas are related to each other should also be included. Filling in incomplete notes and reviewing

them soon after class help ensure that you have the complete record you need to understand and remember what was said.

Finally, following an organized sequence of steps will help you master difficult textbooks. After making sure you understand the title of a textbook chapter, try skimming the first and last paragraphs to see if they introduce or summarize main ideas. Headings, subheadings, words in boldface or italic print, and pictures or diagrams provide further clues to key points. Once you have previewed the chapter, you should read it carefully, marking definitions and examples, enumerations, and emphasis words by highlighting, underlining, or adding symbols in the margins. As you read the material a second time, take notes in simplified outline form. Study these notes one section at a time by asking yourself questions and answering them without looking back at your notes.

Therefore, improved study skills are the result of taking control of your time, improving your in-class note-taking, and studying textbooks in an organized way.

Activities 2 and 3, 346 Activity (Summarizing a Book), 346 Answers will vary. Answers will vary.

19 Writing a Report

Activities 1 and 2, 351

Answers will vary.

20 Writing a Résumé and Job Application Letter

Activity, 357

Answers will vary.

21 Using the Library and the Internet

Activity, 358

Answers will vary.

Activity (Card Catalog), 360–361

A. 1. Answers will vary.

2. subject section

B. 1. Answers will vary. Example: Beloved

2. Answers will vary. Example: Men at Work

3. Edward Gibbon

4. Richard Nelson Belles

5. Answers will vary. Examples: Being Adopted: The Lifelong Search for Self—David M.

Brodzinsky et al; Raising Adopted Children—Lois Ruskai Melina

6. The Lives of a Cell Silent Spring a. Lewis Thomas a. Rachel Carson b. Viking b. Fawcett Crest or

Houghton Mifflin

c. 1974 c. 1964 (Fawcett) or 1994

(Houghton Mifflin)

d. QH331/T45 d. QH545.P4/C38 e. Biology— e. Pesticides—Environmental aspects Philosophy

Pesticides—Toxicology

Pesticides

and wildlife

Insect

pests—biological control

7. Answers will vary, depending on the books chosen.

Activity (Book Stacks), 362–363

Option 1: Library of Congress System Option 2: Dewey Decimal System

1. d

1. c

2. a

2. c

3. c

3. b

Activity 1, 365

1. Find books on your topic or Research a topic through the subject section of the book file.

2. Find articles on your topic or Research a topic through the subject section of magazine files.

Activity 2, 365-366

Answers will vary.

Activity, 373–375

Answers will vary.

22 Writing a Research Paper

Activity (Works Cited), 386

1. Zuckerman, Larry. The Potato. Boston: Faber and Faber, 1998.

2. Gibbs, Nancy. ―The Age of Ritalin.‖ Time 30 Nov. 1998: 86-96.

3. Stone, Andrea. ―Today’s Military Tougher on Families.‖ 1A-2A.

4. Papalia, Diane E., and Sally W. Olds. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999.

5. Hitchens, Christopher. ―Goodbye to All That.‖




第二篇:美国大学英语写作 课后答案 33600字

《美国大学英语写作》课后习题答案(PART 1) ANSWER KEY

Part One: Essay Writing

1 An Introduction to Writing

Activity (Point and Support in a Paragraph), pages 5–6 Point: There are drawbacks to moviegoing. Support: 1. Inconvenience

b. Long time to find parking spot and long walk to theater

d. Sticky floor

3. Other moviegoers

a. Running kids

b. Laughing, shouting teenagers Activity (Introductory Paragraph), 8

1. c

2. b

3. a

4. a. Inconvenience of going out

b. Temptations of the theater

c. Behavior of some patrons

Activity (Body: Supporting Paragraphs), 9–10

1. To begin with, I just don’t enjoy the general hassle

of the evening.

2. b. Parking lot is always jammed

d. Tickets may sell out, and theater is crowded e. Tickets cost up to $8 each

3. Second, the theater offers tempting snacks that I really don’t need.

4. b. 2) chocolate bars

3) Milk Duds

5. Many of the other patrons are even more of a problem than the concession stand.

6. a. Little kids race up and down the aisles

b. Teenagers talk back to the screen, whistle, make funny noises

Activity (Concluding Paragraph), 10

1. a

2. c

Review Activities, 18–20

Answers will vary.

2 The Writing Process

Activities (Freewriting, Questioning, Making a List, Clustering, Scratch Outline), 25–31

Answers will vary.

Activity (Writing a First Draft), 33

1. thesis

5. specific

2.

6. bs

3. equiped (other answers are possible) 7.

conclusion

4. second and third

Activity (Revising with a Second Draft), 36–37

1. first Second

5. watching what I keep in the house

2. however

6. comfortable seats

3. unity . . . My friends are as bad as I am.

7. As

4. support . . . snacks like celery and carrot

8. jump into my hands

sticks . . . no ice cream in the freezer . . .

9. disgusted

dripping with butter . . . risk pulling out

my fillings as I chew

Activity (Taking a Writing Inventory), 39–40

Answers will vary.

Activity (Prewriting), 41–43

L, Q, SO, C, F

Activity 1 (Outlining), 43–45

1. Thesis:My high school had three problem areas. a. Students

(1) Involved with drugs

(2) Formed cliques

b. Teachers

(1) Unwilling to help after class

(2) Much too strict

c. Buildings

(1) Leaky ceilings

(2) Ill-equipped gym

2. Thesis:Working as a dishwasher in a restaurant was my worst job.

a. Working conditions

(1) Heat in kitchen

(2) Noisy work area

b. Hours

(1) Ten-hour shifts

(2) Hours changed every week

c. Pay

(1) Minimum wage

(2) No bonus for overtime

3. Thesis: Joining an aerobics class has many benefits. a. Social benefits

(1) Make new friends

(2) Meet interesting instructors

b.

(1) Reduces mental stress

(2) Improves self-image

c. Physical benefits

(1) Strengthens heart

(2) Tones muscles

4. Thesis: My favorite times in school were the days before holiday vacations.

a. Lighter workload

(1) Less work in class Mental benefits

(2) Less homework

b. Friendlier atmosphere

(1) Teachers more relaxed

(2) Students happy about vacation

c. Special events

(1) Pep rallies

(2) Holiday concerts

Activity 2 (Outlining), 45–47

Thesis:More and more, the inventions of modern technology seem to be cutting us off from contact with our fellow human beings. First topic sentence:The world of business is one area in which technology is isolating us.

Support: 2. Workers’ salaries are automatically credited to their bank accounts.

3. Personal banking is becoming a detached process.

a. Customers interact with machines rather than people.

b. Some loans are accepted or rejected by computers, not loan officers.

Second topic sentence: Another area that technology is changing is entertainment.

Support: 1. For many people now, music is a solitary

experience.

2. Fewer people go out to watch movies.

Third topic sentence: Education is a third important area in

which technology is separating us from others.

Support: 1. Students sit alone in front of computers.

2. Students use software at home instead of

interacting with others.

3.

instruction.

Activity (Revising), 47–48

2, 1, 4, 3

3 The First and Second Steps in Essay Writing

Activity (Writing a Good Thesis), 50–51

List

List 2

2 Videotapes are replacing class 1 Teachers 3 Bicycles

l Education 4 Dangers of bike riding

3 Math teacher l Recreation

5 My high school math 2

Recreational vehicles

teacher was incompetent. 5

Bike riding in the city is a

4 High school math teacher dangerous experience.

List 3 List 4

1 Retail companies 3 Camping

2 Supermarkets 4 First camping trip

4 Dealing with customers 2

Summer vacation

3 Working in a supermarket 5 My first camping trip was a

5 I’ve learned how to handle disastrous experience.

unpleasant supermarket customers. l

Vacations

Activity (Common Errors in Writing a Thesis), 53

A. 1. TB

B. 6. 2

2. TN

7. A

3. TB

8. 2

4. TN

9. A

5. TB

10. 2

Activity (Support the Thesis with Specific Evidence), 54–55

Answers for this activity will vary; a possible third point

for each outline is listed below.

1. c. Learning new rules and procedures 4.

c. Save money

2. c. Sense of humor

5. c. Long hours

3. c. Too cold in the winter

6. c. Worry about finances

Activity (The Importance of Specific Details), 57

S 1. The paragraph lists specific precautions: getting a permit and buying

pressure-treated lumber.

X 2. What kinds of things did the writer do wrong? What specific rules were enforced?

How did this parent punish the writer?

S 3 The paragraph lists specific examples of items that should not be improved:

cheesecake and jeans.

X 4. What kinds of problems does the dog have? How does the dog misbehave when the owners are away? How did the owners try to train the dog?

Activity 1 (The Importance of Adequate Details), 58

Answers are given in the text after the activity.

Activity (Identifying the Parts of an Essay), 61

Thesis statement: 4

Topic sentence of first supporting paragraph: 5

Topic sentence of second supporting paragraph: 15

Topic sentence of third supporting paragraph: 22

First sentence of the conclusion: 34

Activity 1 (Evaluating Thesis Statements), 61–62 Activity 2 (Evaluating Thesis Statements), 62

1. A a.

1. TN a.

OK b. OK b.

2. OK a.

2. TN a.

A

OK b.

3. OK

3. TN a.

A

OK b.

4. A

4. OK a.

OK

TN b.

5. A

5. OK a.

OK

TN b.

Activity 3 (Evaluating Thesis Statements), 62

4 (Evaluating Thesis Statements), 63 b. a. b. a. b. a. b. –63 Activity

1. TB a.

1. OK a.

OK b. 2 b.

2. TB a.

2. 2 a.

OK b. OK b.

3. OK a.

3. OK a.

TB b. 2 b.

4. TB a.

4. 2 a.

OK b. OK b.

5. TB a.

5. 2 a.

OK b. OK b.

Activity (Completing Thesis Statements), 64

Answers for this activity will vary; a possible third point

of development for each thesis statement is listed below.

1.

6. coach

2. to be science. enthusiastic.

7. we were emotionally immature.

3. my boyfriend.

8. manners

4. money.

9. my relationships with others.

5. breaks down regularly. 10.

the time I dented my friend’s car.

Activity (Writing a Thesis Statement), 65

Answers may vary slightly.

1. The cars I’ve owned have reflected the changes in my

personality.

2. Attending a two-year college has several advantages.

3. I have tried several ways to give up snacks.

4. Halloween is not all fun.

5. Three factors contributed to my heart attack.

Activity 1 (Limiting a Topic and Writing a Thesis), 66

Answers will vary; a possible thesis for each limited subject

is listed below.

1. Sharing an apartment with a roommate helped me adjust to a new city.

2. Deciding to be less critical of your spouse can help a marriage.

3. My mother’s tidiness drives us crazy.

4. Fast-food restaurants are cheaper, cleaner, and friendlier than other restaurants.

5. My cousin Myra has several bad driving habits.

6. Regular exercise can help ease emotional problems.

7. Do-it-yourself repairs always end up costing me more money than they’re supposed to.

8. The free-agent system has made baseball a big business, not a sport.

9. Being a single parent can be exhausting, frustrating, and intimidating.

10. Noise pollution is a growing problem in our city. Activity 2 (Limiting a Topic and Writing a Thesis), 67

Answers will vary; some possible limited subjects and thesis statements are listed below.

1. Exotic animals as pets

People should not be allowed to keep exotic animals as pets.

2. Teens and birth control

Parents should be notified if their daughters visit a birth control clinic.

3. The new season’s TV programming

The new television programs are carbon copies of last year’s successful shows.

4. Computerized offices

Computers in offices are creating new health problems for employees.

5. Major fields of study

Choosing a major does not have to be done blindly.

6. House calls

Doctors should be compelled to make house calls.

7. Summer vacations

Summer is the worst time of year to take a vacation.

8. Barbecuing

There are three kinds of people who will be found behind a barbecue grill.

9. Children’s allowances

Getting an allowance teaches a child to be responsible, mature, and thrifty.

10. Christmas shopping

One year I made the mistake of doing my Christmas shopping months in advance.

Activity (Providing Specific Evidence), 68–69

Answers will vary; some possibilities are listed below.

1. Guests arrived two hours late; roast was burned; host and hostess got into a huge fight

2. Collects dead frogs, birds, and worms; loves to dunk pizza in his chocolate milk; combs his hair with his toothbrush

3. Too tired; too hungry; too disorganized

4. Chose my friends for me; chose my clothes for me; chose my college for me

5. Baby-sitting, gardening, baking cookies

6. New ignition, new brakes, new heater

7. Cat got sick; kids got sick; roof started to leak

8. Slept at his desk; gave six hours of homework per night; had a nasty temper

Activity (Identifying Adequate Supporting Evidence), 69–70 AD 1.

U 2. What are specific examples of how people are thoughtless to pets? What are the particular needs of pets that may be ignored? Examples might include bathing animals regularly, treating them for fleas, helping them stay cool in summer,

exercising them, and providing a nutritious diet.

U 3. What are specific examples of shows that are of little interest to people? Exactly how would commercials be changed? How would network news be made more interesting? Examples might include the names of shows (situation comedies, game shows, and so on) that aren’t popular. Commercials might be changed by eliminating repetitious jingles or celebrity endorsements (using examples of current commercials).

AD 4.

U 5. What are examples of how the woman was set in her ways? What did she say about the kind of hairdo she wanted? For example, the woman might have rejected any suggestions other than the style she was used to. What did the writer do that was unsuccessful? And how did the woman seem to indicate that the writer was not doing what she wanted? For instance, she might have shook her head or sighed every time the writer attempted to please her.

Activity (Adding Details to Complete an Essay), 70–73

Answers will vary; possible supporting details are included in the paragraphs below.

First of all, with no television to compete for our time, we found plenty of hours for personal interests.

We all read more that week than we had read during the six months before.Dad introduced Mom to his favorite mystery writer—Dorothy Sayers—and it was pleasant to see them sitting on the sofa together, each one absorbed in a book. Luella, serious as always, read novels by Charles Dickens, while I settled modestly for the daily newspapers. We each also enjoyed some hobbies we had ignored for ages.Mom and Dad did crossword puzzles together, Lu dusted off her stamp collection, and I finished knitting the sweater I had started last September. In addition, my sister and I both stopped procrastinating with our homework.Instead of putting off our English and math assignments until our favorite shows were over, we tackled them right after supper and found that, without the sound of the TV blaring in our ears, we could do them in a couple of hours—far more quickly than we expected.

Second, we did chores that had been hanging over our heads for too long. There were many jobs around the house that had needed attention for some time.Mom fixed a faucet that had been dripping for weeks while Dad patched the cracked plaster in the dining room. Lu and I cleaned our closets, finding records, tapes, and magazines that had been missing for months. By the end of the week, the house was in tidier shape than

it had been since we moved in. We also had a chance to do some long-postponed shopping.Mom and Dad picked out a new sofa for the den; Lu bought some new books, and I went through a whole stack of catalogs and finished all my Christmas shopping by mail. And each of us also did some letter writing or other paperwork that was long overdue. Mom and Dad struggled with this year’s income tax forms, Lu wrote to Johnny, a friend she met at Spirit Lake last summer, and I wrote a thank-you note to Aunt Elsie for letting me stay with her during my weekend in New York City last month.

Finally, and probably most important, we spent time with each other. Instead of being in the same room together while we stared at a screen, we actually talked for many pleasant hours. Mom told us about the programming project she has been doing at work, and we had fun planning the trip to Boston we are going to take this summer. Moreover, for the first time in years my family played some games together. We played several games of Scrabble, and we even got out the Monopoly set and played a game following the rules our family has made up over the years. And because we didn’t have to worry about missing this or that show, we had some family friends over a couple of evenings and spent an enjoyable time

with them.We were glad to see how much the Overholt children

had grown, and Joe and Sandy Ciprianni kept us laughing all

evening with their stories about fixing up the old house they

bought.

4 The Third Step in Essay Writing

Fill-ins (Common Methods of Organization), 75–76

The topic sentences in the essay use the words To begin with,

Next, and Finally to help show time order.

The paragraph uses the following words to help show time order:

Next, first, Then, After, and Finally.

The topic sentences in the essay use the words For one thing,

In addition, and Most important to help show emphatic order.

The words Worst of all are used to mark the most emphatic detail

in the paragraph.

Activity (Common Methods of Organization), 77

A. 1. time order

B. time; emphatic; time; emphatic

2. emphatic order

3. combination of time and emphatic order

Activity (Transitions), 78–80

1. Addition signals: One, Also, Another

2. Time signals:After,First, Next, Finally

3. Space signals:Next [to], To the right, Near

4. Change-of-direction signals:But, however

5. Illustration signals:For example, such as

6. Conclusion signals:Finally, therefore

Activity (Transitional Sentences), 81

Answers may vary slightly.

In addition to teaching me about the importance of family

support, my parents taught me the value of hard work.

Along with the value of hard work, my parents emphasized the

benefits of a good education.

Activity (Other Connecting Words), 83

1. four times

2. he

3. iron range; throbbing swellings; frigid

Activity (Introductory Paragraph), 86-87 Activity

(Concluding Paragraph), 89

1. B Starting with an opposite

1. P/R

2. F Quotation

2. Q

3. A General to narrow

3. S

Activity (Titles), 90–91

Answers will vary; examples of titles are given below.

1. Choosing McDonald’s

2. A Diner at Midnight

3. Audiences at Rock Concerts

Activity 1 (Organizing Through Time Order), 91–93

1. 1 2.

3. 1

3 1 3

2 2 2

Activity 2 (Organizing Through Emphatic Order), 95–96

1. 2 2.

3. 2

1 1 3

3 2 1

Activity (Providing Transitions), 93–94

First of all, there are the people . . . 3 3

For example, there are the ones . . .

Another type of nervous . . .

However, neither of these . . .

A second category of people . . .

On the contrary, they feel compelled . . .

As a result, no one hears . . .

After they have been to the theater . . .

Then they will start . . .

Last of all, there are the people who talk . . .

In addition, it is impossible . . .

But if ever I am granted . . .

Activity (Identifying Transitions and Other Connecting Words), 95–96

S 1. T 9. P 2. RW 10. T 3. S 11. S 4. T 12. P 5. P 13. RW 6. RW 14.

P 7. T 15. P 8.

Activity (Completing Transitional Sentences), 96–97

Thesis 1:

After making certain that your house conforms to state regulations, you must obtain legal

permits . . .

Finally, once you have the necessary legal permits, you can begin to advertise . . .

Thesis 2:

In addition to saving me money, watching the game at home is more comfortable than sitting in a stadium . . .

Even more important than cost and comfort, though, is the technology which makes a televised game better than the “real thing.”. . .

Activity (Identifying Introductions and Conclusions), 97-99 Pair 1:

D Incident or story

I Prediction or recommendation

Pair 2:

E Question(s)

G Summary and final thought

Pair 3:

F Quotation

G Summary and final thought

5 The Fourth Step in Essay Writing

Activity (Use Parallelism), 101–102

Answers may vary slightly.

1. The novelty store sells hand buzzers, plastic fangs, and fake insects.

2. Many people share the same three great fears: being in high places, working with numbers, and making speeches.

3. To decide on a career, people should think closely about their interests, hobbies, and skills.

4. At the body shop, the car was sanded down to the bare metal, painted with primer, and sprayed with red enamel.

5. In order to become a dancer, Lola is taking lessons, working in amateur shows, and auditioning for professional companies.

6. Juan’s last job offered security; his new job offers a better chance for advancement.

7. People in today’s world often try to avoid silence, whether on the job, in school, or at home.

8. Because the dying woman was dignified and courageous, she won everyone’s respect.

9. The politician trusted no one, rewarded loyalty, and

depended only on his own instincts.

10. If we’re not careful, we’ll leave the next generation

polluted air, contaminated water, and dying forests.

Activity (Consistency with Verbs), 103

1. arrive arrived

6. floated floats

2. asks

7. grabs grabbed

3. sliced

8. swooped swoops

4. went

9. recharged recharge

5. tips

10. burns burned

Activity (Consistency with Pronouns), 104–105

1. your their

6. you I can own

2. you I never

7. you her indigestion

3. youwe have if

8. you we don’t dare

4. their its asked slices goes tipped health know youwe aggressive

9. we they can learn

5. one you should plan

10. one you should dress

Activity 1 (Use Specific Words), 106–107

Answers will vary; following are examples.

1. Potato chips, pretzels, and salted peanuts . . .

2. . . . papers, books, and magazines . . .

3. . . . a TV, a CD player, and a computer.

4. The comics, the sports pages, the obituaries, and the

society page . . .

5. . . .my throat, my ears, and my lungs . . .

Activity 2 (Use Specific Words), 107–108

Answers will vary; following are examples.

1. The rusty old Buick sputtered, whined, and refused to

start.

2. The mathematics final was filled with tricky, baffling

problems.

3. Little Robbie was so exhausted that he could scarcely

keep his eyes open.

4. My cluttered, jumbled, dusty bedroom needs to be swept

out, scrubbed, and reorganized.

5. A broken-down city bus blocked Main Street

and stopped traffic for an hour.

Activity (Use Active Verbs), 109

1. The typical American diet includes many unhealthy foods.

2. Hundreds of biting ants invaded the family picnic.

3. Doctors use antibiotics to treat many infections.

4. A drunk driver caused the fatal traffic accident.

5. The instructor will determine final grades on the basis of class performance.

Activity (Use Concise Words), 110–111

Answers will vary.

1. I will conclude by summarizing my major points.

2. Every day, parents must control their children’s television watching.

3. I am shy.

4. Magazine advertising contains clever hidden messages.

5. My worst mistake last week was to hurt my brother’s feelings and not apologize.

6. In today’s uncertain economy, the middle class finds it hard to save.

7. We liked last night’s television show, but our parents didn’t.

8. The school district canceled classes because of the bad

weather.

9. I regret not having studied word processing in high school.

10. People are harmed by emotional as well as by physical abuse.

Activity (Revise by Adding a Second Complete Thought), 112–113

1. . . . sandwiches, for he is allergic . . .

2. . . . sleep, but the thought . . .

3. . . . bakery, and it has . . .

4. . . . soggy, for rainwater had . . .

5. . . . present, so I offered . . .

Activity (Revise by Adding a Dependent Thought), 114–115 Answers may vary.

1. Because I had forgotten to lock the front door, I . . .

2. When the bear turned over the rotten log, fat . . .

3. After Kevin had sent away for a set of tools, he . . .

4. Because some people are allergic to wool, they . . .

5. Even though an older woman in my typing class can type almost one hundred words a minute, she . . .

Activity (Revise by Beginning with a Special Opening Word or Phrase), 116

1. Reluctantly, Shirley signed the repair contract.

2. To improve their chances of promotion, the interns volunteered to work overtime.

3. During the trial, the accused murderer grinned at the witnesses.

4. Crowded with nervous pets, the vet’s office was noisy and confusing.

5. Trying to find something worth watching, Barry flipped from channel to channel.

Activity (Revise by Placing Adjectives or Verbs in a Series), 117–118

Answers may vary.

1. The baby toddled across the rug, picked up a button, and put the button in his mouth.

2. Brown, foul-tasting water dribbled out of the rusty metal tap.

3. By 6 A.M., I had read the textbook chapter, taken notes on it, studied the notes, and drunk eight cups of coffee.

4. The exterminator approached the large, papery wasps’ nests hanging under the old wooden eaves.

5. Slim brown reeds bordered the stagnant green pond. Activity (Proofreading), 120–121

1. 2

6. 11

2.

7. 13

3.

8. 14

4.

9. 16

5.

10. 17

Corrections (methods of correction may vary):

1. an ashtray which I 4 5 6 9 made

6. my father, who smoked

2. the pride I felt when I presented

7. bright purple, my favorite color

3. a shelf; it is a remarkably

8. its rim; they are colored neon green.

4. circle. Unfortunately,

9. love me, I look

5. or cigar, so I made

10. ugly ashtray; the answer

Review Test 1 (Using Parallelism), 122

1. filled with suspense suspenseful

6. selling toys toy salesperson

2. furniture for the office

7. food on the table putting food on the table

office

8. to cram cramming

3. my kitchen working in my kitchen 9.

bags are put on them bagged (or:put into bags)

4. preparing to furniture prepare

10. with friendliness as well and his friendliness

5. being kind kindness

Review Test 2 (Using Parallelism), 123

1. to buy buying

6. were whispering whispered

2. shows on science science shows 7.

to start starting

3. porch furniture that was rotted

8. pay that is good good pay

rotting porch furniture

9. was putting put

4. her shirt was torn a torn shirt

10. losing lost

5. takingtake (or:climbing . . . taking)

Review Test 1 (Using a Consistent Point of View), 124

1. is was taken

6. gets got the chicken

2. are were not on the same shelf

7. realizes realized it contained

3. proceeds proceeded slowly.

8. transfers transferred the groceries,

4. decides decided to pick up

9. notices noticed that the barbecued chicken

5. parks parked his shopping cart 10.

says said to the clerk,

Review Test 2 (Using a Consistent Point of View), 125

1. you they work.

6. one I can meet

2. you I could hear

7. were to you me.

3. you we are supposed

8. you I drive

4. one I must complete

9. you they have turned in

5. you he could not tell

10. and asked to help you her.

Review Test 1 (Using Specific Words), 126

Answers will vary; examples are shown.

1. . . . I felt sad, angry, and worried.

2. The lukewarm soup, stale sandwiches, and limp salads . . .

3. Ants, moths, and spiders . . .

4. . . . it rained nonstop, with a bone-chilling wind.

5. . . . a broken arm, two broken ribs, and a concussion. Review Test 2 (Using Specific Words), 127

Answers will vary; examples are shown.

1. The haughty, scowling salesman told us not to waste his time with stupid questions.

2. Betty dug her fists into her eyes and shook with sobs.

3. The third game of the World Series was a tense pitchers’ duel.

4. The airport lounge was thronged with holiday travelers.

5. The woman in the front seat was muttering to herself and trembling.

Review Test (Using Active Verbs), 128

1. The health inspector closed the pizza restaurant.

2. The workers in the library sorted huge stacks of donated books.

3. A virus infected my computer.

4. Oil companies will not increase gasoline prices this winter.

5. Our airplanes dropped high-powered bombs onto enemy bases.

6. The telephone company placed an additional charge on our phone bill.

7. A group of vandals damaged the community center.

8. Physical activity, meditation, and relaxation relieve stress.

9. The federal government will raise taxes to pay for highway improvements.

10. Studies show that watching violent TV programs increases violent behavior.

Review Test 1 (Using Concise Words), 129

Answers may vary; examples are shown.

1. I finally decided to look for a new job.

2. Because her printer was out of paper, Renee went to buy some.

3. Tamika realized suddenly that her date had stood her up.

4. Our teacher does not yet know if she will return next year.

5. The salesperson advised us to wait until the price dropped

before buying our computer.

Review Test 2 (Using Concise Words), 130

Answers may vary; examples are shown.

1. Our company allows two fifteen-minute coffee breaks.

2. Your line of credit has been increased.

3. I prefer candy to fruit. (Or:I think candy tastes better than fruit.)

4. Lynn rarely admits that she has made a mistake.

5. Many people think that children should, by law, attend school until age sixteen.

Review Test 1 (Varying Your Sentences), 131

Answers will vary; examples are shown.

1. Sophie had repaired her broken watchband with a paper clip, but the clip snapped and the watch slid off her wrist.

2. The physical therapist watched as Julie tried to stand on her weakened legs and they crumpled under her.

3. Although there were parking spaces on the street, Richie pulled into an expensive garage because he did not want to risk damage to his new car.

4. Speeding, the brown truck skidded on some ice and almost hit a startled young police officer.

5. A sudden terrible rainstorm flooded our basement, knocked

slates off the roof, and uprooted a young tree.

Review Test 2 (Varying Your Sentences), 132–133

Answers will vary; examples are shown.

1. When a sudden cold front hit the area, temperatures dropped thirty degrees in less than an hour. I was not wearing a warm jacket, so my teeth began to chatter.

2. Vern works as a model, so he has to look his best. When he gained ten pounds recently, he had to take off the extra weight, or he would have lost his job.

3. As the ball game was about to begin, a dog ran onto the field and began nipping the infielders’ ankles. The game had to be delayed until the dog was chased away.

4. The hungry lion watched the herd of gazelle closely. If a young or sick animal wandered away from the group, the lion would move in for the kill.

5. Suffering from arthritis, my aunt decided to find a helpful form of exercise. She learned that swimming is very healthful because it works every muscle group in the body without straining the muscles.

Review Test 3 (Varying Your Sentences), 134

Answers will vary; an example is shown.

Lena and Miles wanted a nice, quiet, relaxing vacation,

so they rented a small lakeside cabin. Their first day there was very peaceful, but the situation quickly changed when a large family moved into a nearby cabin. They played music at top volume and raced around in a speedboat with a loud whining engine. Lena and Miles, no longer very relaxed, packed up their things, drove off, and returned to their quiet apartment.

6 Four Bases for Revising Essays

Activity (Revising for Unity), 138

The following sentences should be crossed out:

Paragraph 3: We are close now, though. In fact, Eddie recently painted my new apartment for me.

Paragraph 4: Now I realize that teenage drinking is dangerous. I read recently that the number one killer of teenagers is drunk driving.

Activity (Revising for Support), 141

Answers will vary.

Activity (Revising for Coherence), 144

Answers will vary.

Activity (Revising for Sentence Skills), 147–148

1. In word group 14, are should be is to make the verb agree with way.

2. In word group 19, quite should be quiet.

3. In word group 22, 5 should be spelled out.

4. In word group 22, began should be changed to the correct form of the verb, begun.

5. In word group 23, there should be quotation marks around “Bugs.”

6. In word group 23, an exclamation point is needed for an end mark.

7. In word group 24, Dumping the food in the disposalis a dangling modifier. It should be changed to They’ll all dump their food in the disposal, jump into the car, and . . .

8. In word group 24, make a beeline is a cliché. It should be changed to head quickly.

9. In word group 24, mcdonald’sshould be capitalized.

10. Word group 29 is a run-on. It can be corrected thus: . . . simple. Coworkers, . . .

Activity (Revising an Essay for Unity), 148–150

“Playing on the Browns”—Irrelevant sentences: 15, 24, 28 “How to Con an Instructor”—Irrelevant sentences: 11, 19, 24, 33

Activity (Evaluating Essays for Support), 156–158

“Formula for Happiness”—Supporting details needed after sentences 7, 13, 16, 20, 21

“Problems of a Foreign Student”—Supporting details needed after sentences 12, 17, 24

Activity (Revising Essays for Coherence), 152–155

“Noise Pollution”

1. sentence

5. sentence 19

2. canned music 6. rubble

3. sentence

7. six times

4. sentence

8. 4, 2, 3

“Weight Loss”

1. sentence

5. sentence 16

2. sentence

6. fat

3. sentence

7. four times

4. my best friend’s family 8. 6 12 18 8 9 12

3

Activity (Revising Essays for All Four Bases), 155–158

“Chiggers”

Paragraph 2: a (“I am definitely . . . and concrete.”) Paragraph 3: c

Paragraph 4: d (“Mainly . . . summertime.”—fragment; “I will . . . red speck.”—run-on)

“The Hazards of Being an Only Child”

Paragraph 2: a (“Some only children . . . writing or drawing.”)

Paragraph 3: d (“And who . . . morning.”—fragment; “After all . . . secrets.”—run-on)

Paragraph 4: b (“. . . family decisions, either.”)

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