浅论英语电影片名的汉译(6000字)

发表于:2021.1.11来自:www.fanwen118.com字数:6000 手机看范文

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42 An Analysis of Symbols in Young Goodman Brown 浅谈英语广告的特点及翻译 儒家文化与和谐世界的构建 欧?亨利短篇小说中幽默的翻译 Comparative Study of Metaphor in English and Chinese Animal Words 女性主义家园乌托邦思想的构建--论夏洛特?吉尔曼在《戴安莎的作为》 《推销员之死》的文化解读 从感观的角度看汉语外来词的翻译 如何提高小学生对英语学习的兴趣 文档所公布均英语专业全英原创毕业论文。原创Q 805 990 74 9 On Alice Walker’s Womanism in The Color Purple 从语用学的角度谈美剧中的言语幽默——以《老爸老妈浪漫史》为例 浅谈自有品牌在中国零售企业的发展 汉语无主句英译方法探析(开题报告+论) An Analysis of the Problems on Chinese Early Childhood Education 从关联理论解读《家庭战争》的幽默 论中美商务谈判风格的差异 歇斯底里的舞台自语者——《寻找格林先生》主题解读 模因论视角下的中国网络新词翻译策略 《绝望主妇》人物语言个性化翻译浅析 澳洲土著语言的演变及原因 论《爱玛》中的反讽 从文化角度看品牌名称翻译 The Essence of Love——An Interpretation of Persuasion 东西方文化中团队意识的差别 暗喻的英汉对比翻译 中西谚语的文化比较研究 《人性的污点》中主要人物的悲剧命运与社会原因的分析 英汉“拉”类动词的语义成分和词化模式的对比分析 金钱与婚姻—论《傲慢与偏见》中的婚姻价值与导向 分析鲁滨逊克鲁索的人物形象 涉外商函的特点及其翻译 中西文化中婚礼的对比研究 《呼啸山庄》的叙事策略 群体隐私和个体隐私——中美家庭中隐私观念的对比研究 A Study on Fuzziness of Advertising Language 《冰与火之歌》的人文主义分析 中美饮食文化的差异 英语委婉语的语用分析 简?奥斯丁的女权主义在《理智与情感》中的体现 在现实与理想间挣扎——论巴比特的无助与无奈 透析《劝导》中的新女性形象

43 《傲慢与偏见》中的灰姑娘情节

44 论“看,易,写”方法在旅游翻译中的应用

45 从语言功能考察汉语公示语英译

46 中国茶文化和西方咖啡文化对比研究

47 浅析英汉颜色词的文化内涵及翻译

48 中学英语教师课堂反馈对学生焦虑的影响

49 中国民俗词语汉译英初探

50 A Comparative Study on the Symbolic Meanings of Color Red Between The Scarlet Letter and Tess of the D’Urbervilles

51 伯莎梅森形象分析

52 人称代词与情态动词在英语政治演讲中的人际功能

53 从引进好莱坞大片看中国意识形态转型: 从集体主义到个人主义(开题报告+论) 54 宗教在世界战争史中扮演的角色

55 简爱与电影《音乐之声》中玛丽亚冯特拉普性格分析比较

56 浅谈英汉谚语的翻译——从跨文化角度出发

57 哈里的迷惘与自我救赎——《乞力马扎罗的雪》的哲学解读

58 汉英亲属称谓词的文化差异及翻译

59 Advertising Language: A Mirror of American Value

60 英语写作中的母语迁移作用及教学启示

61 《三国演义》不同译本中回目英译比较研究

62 《鲁滨逊漂流记》中殖民文化对殖民地文化影响解读

63 美国C标准对中国英语教育的影响

64 华盛顿?欧文与陶渊明逃遁思想对比研究

65 《呼啸山庄》男主人公希斯克里夫的性格分析

66 孤独而坚强的灵魂--《被遗弃的韦瑟罗尔奶奶》中爱伦?韦瑟罗尔的性格分析 67 浅析文化因素对商标翻译的影响

68 英汉习语文化差异之原由

69 福克纳小说中的圣经意象

70 英汉动物词语文化内涵的差异

71 浅析托尔金在《魔戒》中的创作特色

72 基于跨文化视角文化全球化的分析

73 论中英思维方式差异对主语翻译的影响

74 中英诗歌及时行乐主题比较

75 浅析《德伯家的苔丝》中两位男主人公

76 The Pursuit of Freedom and Love in E.M. Forster’s A Room with a View

77 An Interpretation of Death in Jack London's Short Stories

78 目的论指导下的导游词英译策略研究

79 浅析英文爱情诗的特点与翻译方法

80 民族文化差异与广告语言创意

81 从寂寞到超然—索尔?贝娄的《赫索格》中书信体的内心独白

82 以姚木兰和斯嘉丽为例看东西方女性意识差异

83 中美饮食文化差异及其相互影响

84 卡特福德的等值翻译理论与名词化翻译——以《入乡随俗》英译汉为例

85 中英基本颜色词比较和翻译

86 论《小妇人》中的超验主义思想

87 On Translation of Symbolism in Pop Songs with a Case Study of Hotel California

88 The Application of Situational Teaching Approach in the Lead-in of Middle School English Classes

89 高中英语阅读教学中学生自主学习能力的培养

90 英语广告中双关语的运用及其翻译研究

91 外交辞令中模糊语言的语用分析

92 艾米莉?狄金森死亡诗歌中的性别歧义及其原因探析

93 A Comparison of the English Color Terms

94 爱恨共辉煌——浅析《呼啸山庄》中的男主人公

95 传统道德与时代新意识之战―论林语堂在《京华烟云》中的婚恋观

96 基于对爱伦坡文学作品及心理的兴趣

97 文化差异对英语学习的影响

98 小说《忠犬八公的故事》和电影《八公》动物叙事技巧的比较

99 The Cultivation of English Teachers on the Basis of Multiple Intelligences Theory 100 网络环境下英语专业学生学习策略研究

101 Sister Carrie:a Girl with Ascending but Unfulfilled Desires

102 纽马克交际翻译理论指导下的外宣材料英译

103 日用品广告语言中中西方价值观差异比较研究

104 中西美食文化差异与翻译策略

105 论英语课堂教学中的非语言交际

106 《老人与海》中的象征主义

107 汉语请求策略的分析

108 A Contrast of Two Chinese Versions of The Scarlet Letter

109 A Comparative Study of Coincidental Plots in Jane Eyre and Tess of the d’Urbervilles 110 The Archetype of the Ugly Duckling in The Secret Garden

111 论《绯闻女孩》中的美国社会文化特征

112 Analysis on the Picaresque Elements in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

113 理想政体的历史超越性探因——《理想国》、《乌托邦》和《新亚特兰蒂斯》中哲学家的自我中心共性

114 Where Should Gone With the Wind Go?——Study on The Disputes Among Critics of Gone With the Wind

115 从《永别了,武器》试析海明威心目中的理想女性

116 A Comparison of the English Color Terms

117 回译在翻译教学中的作用

118 英汉习语的文化差异及翻译对策

119 凯瑟琳?曼斯菲尔德《苍蝇》反映的人性创伤分析

120 《咏水仙》两个翻译版本的文体分析

121 浅议英汉习语翻译中文化语境的制约作用

122 《红字》中霍桑的女性观

123 对小说《野草在歌唱》的功能文体分析

124 The Significance of Westward Movement in FormingWestern States Multi-culture in the U.S. 125 从电影《国王的演讲》看平民情结

126 《织工马南》中马南的性格

127 从“啃老”现象看后啃老族的生活态度

128 小学英语教学中的体态语应用

129 浪漫主义天性和实用主义个性之间的冲突——评《呼啸山庄》中凯瑟琳人性的矛盾 130 从《红楼梦》和《罗密欧与朱丽叶》看中西方爱情悲剧的异同

131 中英文化中寒暄语的比较

132 《远大前程》的叙事技巧

133 从语用学角度分析美剧《绝望主妇》中的委婉语

134 论英语专业八级口语测试的内容效度

135 试论用英语电影进行英语文化教学

136 On the Functions of Metaphor in Obama’s Inaugural Address

137 The Characters and Personality of American Slang

138 中式菜肴名称的语言特点及其英译

139 论《红字》中丁梅斯代尔的双面性

140 《麦田里的守望者》中霍尔顿的性格分析

141 从狼人电影解析狼文学

142 从情景喜剧《生活大爆炸》看违反合作原则的言语幽默

143 对中英组织文化差异的跨文化研究

144 浅析《飘》中斯嘉丽的婚姻观

145 体态语在中美交际中的差异及原因

146 从美国新闻理念的发展看例外主义的嬗变

147 男权社会下康妮女性身份的诉求--D.H.劳伦斯《查泰莱夫人的情人》的研究 148 论中美商务谈判中的文化冲突

149 《纯真年代》中的女性主义

150 Cultural Differences in Business Negotiations: East and West

151 浅析英语动物类习语的翻译

152 《永别了,武器》的意象分析

153 论例句在中学英语课堂中的应用

154 新闻英语中的委婉语及其翻译策略

155 透过《老人与海》看海明威的人生哲学

156 《蝇王》中的人性因素

157 从生态和消费的角度解读《瓦尔登湖》中梭罗的思想

158 论《永别了,武器》中战争对人物的影响

159 用功能对等原则分析广告标语的英汉互译

160 浅析澳洲英语词汇文化的特色

161 交际法在中学英语教学中的应用

162 论马克?吐温的种族观--以《哈克贝利?芬历险记》为例

163 魔法世界的双重间谍——《哈利波特》西佛勒斯?斯内普的矛盾形象分析

164 简奥斯汀对英国小说的贡献——以《傲慢与偏见》为例

165 从美学角度分析英文电影《阿凡达》的汉语翻译

166 从《老人与海》看海明威小说中的英雄式人物的刻画

167 中国后与美国迷惘一代文化认同感的比较

168 On Womanism in Alice Walker’s The Color Purple

169 A Research on Vocabulary Learning Strategies Employed by Non-English Majors in the CALL Environment

170 《美国丽人》中的伦理主题研究

171 从《寻找格林先生》看索尔?贝娄对生命意义的探寻

172 汉英谚语中关于文化价值观的比较

173 Comparison between High and Low-context Culture in Language Expression

174 外贸英语函电的文体特征及翻译对策

175 英汉动物习语的文化差异研究

176 英语环境公示语翻译中的问题以及解决方法

177 从英汉广告语言特点分析中西方文化价值观

178 A Study of Beauty in Sound, Form and Meaning Displayed in Zhang Peiji’s Prose Translation 179 谈品牌广告文体特点及其翻译

180 凯瑟琳?曼斯菲尔德短篇小说中的意识流技巧研究

181 黛西在《了不起的盖茨比》中的作用

182 商标翻译中的功能对等

183 论远大前程中皮普的道德观

184 《喜福会》中的中美文化冲突

185 中西方文化差异对代沟的不同影响研究

186 影视英文在初中口语教学中的运用性研究

187 论《杀死一只知更鸟》中的象征

188 对《呼啸山庄》中女主角的女性哥特情结分析

189 《达洛维夫人》中的生死观初探

190 庞德《诗经》英译研究

191 英汉招呼语差异探析

192 英汉化妆品说明书对比及汉译策略

193 《第十二夜》中女性人物特征分析

194 高中英语写作中母语负迁移现象分析

195 浅析英语语言中的性别歧视及消除语言歧视的策略

196 An Analysis of Conflict Images in Invisible Man

197 论《弗罗斯河上的磨坊》中的人物关系及象征意义

198 论“孔雀东南飞”英译本的译者主体性

199 交替传译中笔记的作用

200 美国梦的破灭——约瑟夫?海勒《第二十二条军规》中的黑色幽默解析




第二篇:从目的论的角度探讨英语电影片名的汉译 90000字

中国海洋大学

硕士学位论文

从目的论的角度探讨英语电影片名的汉译

姓名:毕建静

申请学位级别:硕士

专业:外国语言学及应用语言学

指导教师:梁晓鹏

20080601

从目的论的角度探讨英语电影片名的汉译

摘要

电影是一种集艺术性和商业性于一体的艺术形式,是最具有魅力和影响力的媒体之一。随着全球化的步伐日益加快,越来越多的国外优秀影视作品引进中国,影视翻译的重要意义也日益突显出来。电影片名是电影的重要组成部分,具有传达信息,表现美感和吸引观众的功能,电影片名翻译的质量对影片在国外市场的推广具有举足轻重的作用。在过去的二三十年中,影视翻译的研究工作尤其是片名翻译的研究工作没有得到相应的重视。国内外研究的专著及近十年的外语核心期刊中探讨片名翻译的理论撰写甚少。

英语电影片名的汉语翻译是具有挑战性的,目前还无人提出比较完整的翻译原则。本文旨在探讨指导英语电影片名汉译的理论和方法。从目的论的角度讨论英语电影片名的翻译问题,提出电影片名翻译的目的是为了吸引观众观看电影。通过案例分析,作者着力阐述了译者应充分实现的电影片名的四个价值,即:文化、信息、美学和商业价值。本文还就大陆、香港和台湾三地译名各具特色的情况进行了比较,并分析了产生差异的原因。提出由于译名是为当地群众服务的,只要能满足当地群众的审美情趣和情感需求即可,所以可以保留三地在片名上的差异性和特色。

全文共分六章。第1章是引言,介绍了本文的研究的课题及意义,理论框架,要解决的问题及研究的目标,研究方法及行文结构。第2章对电影及电影片名作了总体上的介绍,包括电影的类型,电影片名的命名方法、特色、功能、地位等。第3章是全文的理论框架部分,重点介绍了目的论和行为理论。提出电影片名翻译的目的就是为了让观众去欣赏电影,一切策略方法都是为这一目的服务的。第4章阐述如何把理论应用到实践,从文化、信息、美学及商业四个价值的实现来具体阐述。第5章比较了海峡两岸三地片名翻译的异同,探讨了产生差异的原因。最后一章是结论章节,对全文进行了总结概括。影片译名既要忠信于原文,又要符合本国观众的语言文化习惯和审美情趣;

既要有一定的文化品位,又要有良好的商业效应.翻译电影片名应考虑当时所处的时间、所在的地点和所面对的观众等因素。随着经济文化交流的不断增强,两岸三地的英语片名译者应该互相学习借鉴,为观众献上质量上乘的电影译名。关键词:电影片名翻译;目的论;文化;四个价值的实现II

OnTranslatingEnglishFilmTitles

—-?-?---FromthePerspectiveofSkopostheorie

Abstract

Thefilm,thepopularart、)l,ithbothartisticandcommercialvalues,isoneofthemostcharmingandinfluentialmassmedia.Asthedevelopmentofglobalization,moreandmoreexcellentforeignfilmsareintroducedintotheChinesemarket.Andthefilmtranslationisbecomingmoreandmoreimportant.Thefilmtitle,as

andvocativefunction.A

aailimportantparttitleofthefilm,iSofinformative,expressiveplays

twoatranslatedfilmverythreeimportantroledecades,film

atwhenthefilmisintroducedtoforeignmarket.Inthepastortranslationisanarfiathatisfarfrombeingexplored.Fewmonographshomeandabroadhavediscussedthistopic.Intheforeignlanguage

amasterjournalspublishedinthepastdecade,itisnoticedthatthereis

paucityoftheoreticalwriting

Englishonrelativefilmtitletranslation.afilmtitletranslationischallengingjob.Uptillnow,nosystematic

theperspectivetheory

ofonithasbeenputforward.ThisthesisdiscussesthistopicfromSkopostheorie.The

uponaudiencetoauthorproposesthattheskoposoffilmtitletranslationistothefilm.Throughproperexamples,theauthordetailsoncallseetheconsiderationtranslatorsneedtofullyrealizethefourvalues,namely

acultural,detailedinformative,aestheticandcommercialvalues.Thethesisalsopresents

analysisoftheuniquefeaturesofdifferentversionsin

potential

carlMainlandChina,HongKongandTaiwanrespectivelyandthereasons.Thetranslatedfilmtitlesservelocalpeople.Aslongastheversionsmeetlocalpeople’Saestheticandemotional

shouldneeds,disunityofversionsinthethree

Thisthesisisdividedintosixregionsbekept.1ischapters.Chapterabouttheintroduction,includingthetopicandsignificanceoftheresearch,theoreticalfranlework,researchgoals,researchmethodologyandthestructuresofthisthesis.Chapter2givesageneralintroductiontothefilmandfilmtitles,includingfilmgenres,thenamingIII

methods,features,functionsandpositionsofEnglishfilmtitles.Chapter3laysthetheoreticalframeworkforthewholethesis.Skopostheorieandthetheoryofactionarebeingemphasized.Theauthorproposesthattheskoposoffilmrifletranslationsistocalluponaudiencetoappreciatefilmsandallthemethodsandstrategiesservethisskopos.Chapter4isaboutputtingtheoriesintopractice.Itisproceededfromtherealizationofcultural,informative,aestheticandcommercialvalues.Chapter5isthecomparisonoffilmtitleversionsinMainlandChina,HongKongandTalwan.Thepotentialreasonsareproposedaswell.Thelastchapteristheconclusion,givingthesummaryofthewholethesis.

The

totranslatedversionsshouldnotonlybefaithfultotheoriginal,butalsocatertasteoftheiraestheticthetargetlanguagespectatorsandsatisfytheirpsychologicalneeds.They

ofshouldhavebothculturalsavorandgoodcommercialappeal.Thefactorstime,placeandaudienceshouldbetakenintoconsideration.Besides,thisthesissuggeststhat、)l,imtheever-growing

regions,translatorsacrosscommunicationandexchangesamongthethreeSOtheStraitsshouldlearnandbenefitfromeachotherthatmoreexcellentversionsoffilmtitlescouldbeofferedtoaudienceinthethreeregions.KeyWords:filmtitletranslation(hereafterFTT),Skopostheorie,culture,

realizationoffourvaluesIV

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本人声明所呈交的学位论文是本人在导师指导下进行的研究工作及取得的研究成果。据我所知,除了文中特别加以标注和致谢的地方外,论文中不包含其他人已经发表或撰写过的研究成果,也不包含未获得.(注;塑旦没直墓他盂要挂别直明的:奎拦互空2或其他教育机构的学位或证书使用过的材料。与我一同工作的同志对本研究所做的任何贡献均已在论文中作了明确的说明并表示谢意。

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ChapterIIntroduction

1.1Introducingthetopicandsignificanceofwriting

Filmisoneofthemostcharmingandinfluentialmassmedia.Itcallnotonlyreflectdifferentaspectsofsocietyanddemonstratedifferentculturesbutalsopsychologicallyfulfillthedemandsofaudiencebyhavingthemexperiencelifeofdifferentpeople.Agoodfilmisartwhichisathought-provokingandgivesenlightenmenttoaudience.

Fillisgainingever-growingpopularityaroundtheworld.Theyearlytheglobalattention,isthebestproof.Withthecarryingoutofreformandopeninguppolicy,

themorefrequentculturalwiththerapiddevelopmentofChina’Seconomyandwith

exchangeswithforeigncountries,moreand

Chinaonamoreexcellentforeignfilms,especiallyEnglishfilmsareintroducedtolargescale.IthasmetChinesepeople’Sincreasing

demandsforlearningabout

Itisaandkeepingpacewiththeworld.factthatonlyasmallpartof

apeople啪understandoriginalEnglishfilms.SotranslatingEnglish

Undersuchafillshasbecomesignificantactivityinpromotingculturalexchanges.situation,filmtranslationshouldhavebeenattractedincreasingattention,however,itisfarfrombeing

andexplored.EspeciallyFTT,ithasbeenignoredforalongtimelacksdulyattention.

anThefilmtitleisindispensablepartofafilm.Ithasitsownlinguistic,aestheticand

culturalfeatures,whichdeservescarefulinvestigationTheandconsiderationfromtranslators.vocativefunctions.Itdeliversthefilltitleisofinformative,expressive,aestheticandmostimportantinformationaboutthefilmtoaudience.AgoodfilmtitleCanalsoarouseaudience’S

onimaginationandcuriositytowardsthefilm.Thefilm’Sboxofficedependsgreatlythequalityofthetranslatedfilmtitleintheforeignmarket.

Inthisthesis,thisauthorwillexaminethedifferentversionsinMainlandChina,Hong

adopted.ItKongandTaiwan,andanalyzethepotentialreasonsandcorrespondingstrategies

isanalyzedthatthesocio-culturalcontextofeachregionisthefactorresultinginthisdisunityinversions.

1.2Theoreticalframework

ThethesisisbasedonSkoposthoerieproposedbyHanJVermeer.Accordingtothistheory,‘'theendjustifiesthe

translationisallmeans”(Nord1993:29).Inaccordance谢t11thetheoryofaction,intentional,communicativeandinterculturalinteraction.

productisproducedtogenerateprofitsfortheproducer.FTT

seeasFilmasacommercialthedirectchannelistocalluponaudiencetothefilm.ThusFTTinChinaservesthisvery

purposentocalluponChineseaudiencetowatchtheimportedEnglishfilmandduringthistranslationprocedure,thetranslator

culturecommunicates诵廿1boththefilmproducerinthesourceandthetargetaudienceinthetargetculture.

1.3Researchgoals

●Based

attractingSkopostheorie,tryingtofindtheaudiencetowatchthefilmintermsofFTT.onthewaytoachievetheskoposof

●Probingintothewaysofrealizingthefourvaluesin

informative,aestheticandcommercialvalues.F兀,namely,cultural,

●TryingtoexplaintheexistenceofdifferemtranslatedversionsofthesamefilmtitleinMainlandChina,HongKongandTaiwan

or●TryingtoexploretheFTTinthethreeregionsshouldbeunified

givethereason.remaindiversifiedand

1.4Researchmethodology

1.4.1Researchapproaches

TllisthesisfirstlyaimsatreviewingandprobingintotheissueofEnglishFTTinChina.Therefore,thestudyisbasicallyanalyticalanddescriptive.Furthermore,thisthesisintendstomake

SOacomparativestudyontheEnglishFrTinMainlandChina,HongKongandTaiwan,qualitativeandquantitativeanalysiswill

ofthebeadopted.Especiallythecomparativestudyisinthethreecarriedoutinthisthesis.Features

throughversionsculturalregionswillbeanalyzedcomparison,andSOwillbetheandsocialcontexLOnthewhole,acomparativestudybased

getaonquantitativeresearchandqualitativeanalysiswillbehopedtomoreobjectiveconclusion.2

1.4.2Themainobjectofthestudyandthereason

T1listhesisfocusesonthetitlesofOscarfilmsandtheirChinesetranslationsasthemainobjectofstudy.EnglishtitlesofalltheBestMotionPictureWinnersoftheAcademyAwardsfrom1927-2008withtheirChineseversionsarelistedintheappendix.Thesetitlesandversionsserveasthemainsourceforthestudyandparticularlythebasisofquantitativeanalysis.nlereasonofchoosingtheAcademyAwardsWinnersasthemainsourcesisthatfirstly,AcademyAwardsisregardedasoneofthehighestawardsworldwidetohonorthebestachievementsinperformanceandfilmmakingforeachyearwithintheAmericanfilmindustry.Hundredsofmillionsofpeoplearoundtheworldwatchthisevent,makingitaworldsensation.Oscarisareliableindicatorofafilm’Severlastingartisticvalue.

1.5Thestructuresofthisthesis

Thisthesisisdividedintosixchapters.Chapter1isabouttheintroduction,includingthesignificanceoftheresearch,theoreticalframework,researchgoals,researchmethodologyandthestructuresofthisthesis.Chapter2givesageneralintroductiontothefilmandfilmtitles,includingfilmgenres,thenamingapproaches,features,functionsandpositionsofEnglishfilmtitles.Chapter3laysthetheoreticalframeworkforthewholethesis.Skopostheorieandthetheoryofactionarebeingemphasized.TheauthorproposesthattheskoposofFTTistOcalluponaudiencetoappreciatefilmsandallthemethodsandstrategiesservethisskopos.Chapter4isaboutputtingtheoriesintopractice.Itisproceededfromtherealizationofcultural,informative,aestheticandcommercialvalues.Chapter5isthecomparisonoffilmrifleversionsinMainlandChina,HongKongandTaiwan.Thepotentialreasonsandcorrespondingstrategiesareproposed觞well.Thelastchapteristheconclusion,givingthesummaryofthewholethesis.3

Chapter2ProfileofEnglishFilmTitles

ItseemsthatFTTis

simpleandeasytaskbutinfactitis

notthatcaseata11.

While

doingsuch

translation,wemustpayattentionto

itsstylistic,linguistic,

aestheticandculturalfeatures.Itisquitenecessaryforustomakeoftheprofileoffilmrifles

SO

detailedanalysis

as

togetageneralidea

US

beforeweprobeintothetopicof

thisthesis,whichwillbeveryhelpfulfor

nature.

tohave

beretunderstandingofits

Thischapterisdevotedtotheanalysisof

film

titlesinfiveaspects,namely,the

filmgenres,namingmethods,features,functionsandpositionsofEnglishfilmtitles.Beforethedetailedintroduction

to

theprofileoffilmtitle,itisnecessary

toknow

SOmethingaboutfilmgenresSO

as

topavethewayforlaterdataanalysis.

2.1Filmgenres

Filmshavetheirownuniquestylisticfeatures,althoughthey

are

considered

asa

kindofliterarywork.AccordingtoHeY'mginherarticleTheoryand

Film

Title

MethodGuiding

Translation,films

call

be

dividedinto

three

categories,namely

documentaryfilms,scienceandeducational

Thefirsttwotypes,that

serve

filmsand

featurefilmsfile2001:57).

is,documentary

films,scienceandeducational

popularityofscience,thus

offilmsis

are

films

plain

thepurposeofinformationtransmission

or

instyleandformalin

specificpurposes

wording.Thenon-fictionaluse

usually

intendedfor

andfor

relativelysmallandspecializedaudience,whereasthe

usuallyintendedto

fictional

films(featurefilms)are

reach

wide

andvaried

audience.

Limitedbyspace,thepresentpaperconfinesitsstudyonlytothetitletranslationofthefeaturefilmswhichnormallyincludefoursub—categories:adventurefilms,fantasy

films,comedyfilmsandlyricfilms.

2.1.1Adventure

rims

or

horrorfilms

Adventurefilmsinclude

action(Kong力u)films,horror

films,westernfilms,

disasterfilms,spyfilmsandgangster(crime)films.Titlesofthiskindofmainlytohighlightthefilmsaresoul-stirringatmosphereandfeatureemotion—stirringeffect.

in60ExamplesareTheThiefofBagdad(1940)andGone

2.1.2Fantasyfilmsorseconds(2000).sei-fifilms

areThefantasy

yet,ormayorsci?-fifilmsthosepresentingallideaoratechnologythatisnot-neverbe,scientificallypossible.Theyareusuallyscientific,visionary,comic—strip—like,andimaginative

ofthistypedealwitllspacetravelwi廿1sci—fifilms孙themainorcomponent.Manyfilmsonthearrivalofalienspeciesearth.Thetitlesofthesefilmsaresupposedtoexposethestrangeideasoffilmsandattractaudience’Sattention.Ahostoffilmsbelongtothisgroup,suchasStar

JudgmentWars(1977),Terminator-2Day(1991)andAlienAgent(2007)

2.1.3Comedyf'flms

Comedyfilmsaledesignedtoelicitlaughterfromaudience.Comediesarelight-hearteddramas,craftedtoamuse,entertain,andprovokeenjoyment.鼬ch洫

such雒Thehumorousandcomicflavoristhefeatureoffilmtitlesofthistype.Films

Mask(1994),200American(2003)andBoychick(2003)belongto

2.1.4LyricFilms

Alargenumberoffilmscanthiscategory.becategorizedintothistype,includingfilmsoflovestory,familymoral,drama,musical/dance

inandWar.Thesekindsoffilmtitlesarequiteclosetothestyleofprose,plainwordingwhilerichinromantic,lyricand

emotionalflavor.ExamplesareGonewiththeWind(1939),&嘲增intheRain(1952)andLegendsoftheFall(1995)etc.

2.2NamingapproachestoEnglishfilms

Inordertohave

forabetterunderstandingofthenatureoffilmtitles,itisnecessaryofEnglishUStoknowthesourcesfilmtitles,inotherwordstoknowhowEnglishfilmsarenamed.ThenamingapproachestoEnglish

thefollowingfouraspects.filmtitlesCanbecategorizedinto

2.2.1Namingbymaincharacters

Alargeproportionoffilmsarenamedafterthemaincharactersinthefilms.

orAdjectivedescriptionsabouttheircharacteristicspersonalitymaybeaddedinfront

oftheirnames.Forexample,Hamlet(1948),Gandhi(1982)and而胱sfGump(1994)etc.belongtothistype.

2.2.2Namingbyplace

Anotherpopularnamingapproachistheindicationofplacewherethemainplottakesplace.Thiskindoftitlesprovidebackgroundinformationoftheevensdepictedinthefilmthustoarouseaudience’Smemoryandimaginationofimportantplacesorhistoricaltime.ExampleslikeCasablanca(1942),OntheWaterFront(1954)andTitanic(1997)etcCalldemonstrate

2.2.3Namingbythemethispointwell.

Somefilmsarenamedinallattempttoprovideaudience、历廿ltheinformationof

serveasathemainthemelyingbehindthestory.Suchnames

story.Desiretoknowwhatisreallygoingonsummarizingoftheinthefilmwillbearousedbythisthought-provokingnamingapproach.AhostoffilmtitlesCanbeusedtoillustratethispo缸suchasTheSoundofMus/c(1965),BraveHeart(1995)andTheBeautifu,Mind(2002)etc.‘

2.2.4Naming

Itisonebyplotofthemostfrequentlyadoptednamingapproaches

ofthemainsourcesbecausetheplotofthefilmisoneconcretingthestory.Therealesomeexamplesas

OvertheDeadfollows:Aroundthe

Line(1996).World伽80Days(1956),OutofAfrica(1985)and

2.3FeaturesofEnglishfilmtitles

Conciseness

valuesandandvividnesscharacterizefilmtitles.Besides,tlleyhaveaestheticmanyofthemareculturallyloaded.ToknowthefeaturesofEnglishfilmtitlesanddetectthedifferencesbetweenEnglishand

helpChinesefilmtitlesintermsofourdiction,structureandculturalconnotationsCanustoeonducttranslation6

OnTranslatingEnglishFilmTities—fiomthePerspectiveofSkopostheorie

willbeapproached

activitymoresmoothly.TheoverallfeaturesofEnglishfilmtitlesfromthelinguistic,aestheticandculturalperspective

2.3.1Linguisticfeatures

Ingeneral,Englishfilmtitlesfeatureconcisenessandbriefness.They

ale

as

follows.

richin

meaningandthoughtprovoking.Mostmovies

adopt

no

morethanfourwordsastheir

or

titles.AlargeproportionofEnglishfilmtitlesalecomposedofeithertwowords.Possiblereasonsmaybe

theintentionby

four

thescreenwriterstokeepthe

Furthermore,mostEnglish

phrases

film

titlesale

nouns,noun

phrases,prepositional

possessiveforms

andgerunds.Restrictive

wordslike

nouns

adjectives,articlesand

noun

havebeenfrequentlyusedbefore

and

phrasesin

film

titlestomakethem

moreeye-catchingandvivid.ExamplesaleBraveHeart(1995),My跆秽.BestFriend

(1997)and

attemptto

Beautifu,施耐(2001).There

alesomefilmswithlongtitlesin

all

arouse

audience’Scuriosity,suchas,HowtoLoseYour

Allthe

Wife

andFind

Mistress?(1990),WhereHave

tale

MenGone?(1985),etc.However,this

typeis

in

numberandmostofthemappearinthe

formofquestions.

2.3.2Aestheticfeatures

Asiswell.known,filmis

modem

art

andhas

itsownaestheticfeatures.As

an

are

indispensablepartof

generallyreflectedindevices.

Rhetoric

devices

film,thetitlealsobearssuchaestheticfeatureswhich

itsform,soundeffect,rhythmandapplicationofrhetoric

are

worthpaying

more

attentionto,including

metaphor,

are

onomatopoeia,alliteration,repetition,contrast,oxymoronandirolly,etc.They

widelyusedinfilmtitlessuchasSenseandalliteration,办≥a

Sensibility(1996)withtheadoptionof

Mad,Mad,Mad,MadWorld(1963)is

Wolves(1993),True

Lies

bymeansofrhetorical

repetition.Danceswith

and

CrystalHeart

ale丽ththe

adoptionofpersonification,oxymoron

andmetaphorrespectively.

The

sound

or

use

ofrhetoricaldevicesin

film

titleaimsateitherachievingbeautyin

vividnessinimagedepiction

SO

astoentertainaudienceaesthetically.

2.3.3Culturalfeatures

Culturedeals、^,itllthewaypeopleliveandfilms

are

mainlyadaptedfromstodes

inpeople’Sdailylives

and

reflecttheirambitionanddreams.Sofillis

as

cultural

productandhasculturalfeatures.Englishfilmtitlecontains

partofthisculturalproduct

manyculturalelements.Itsculturalfeaturesarereflectedinthefollowing

aspects:

Firstly,someEnglish

fill

titlesori毋"natefrom

legend

or

a缅ry

tale.For

example,Sirens(1994)is

mythology,SirensWas

one

takenfrom

Greekmythology

sea

Siren’S

Song.Inthis

ofthemythicalfairieswhohadthepowerofcharming

tO

cast

allwhoheardhersong,SOthatthemarinerswereirresistiblyimpelled

themselvesintothe

seato

theirdestruction(Deng2002:20).

Secondly,mostwesternershavetheirreligiousbeliefs.Religiouscultureisoften

reflectedinEnglish

filltitles.For

examples,Seven《七宗罪》,Ten

Commandments

《十诫》andEasterParade《复活节游行》

Thirdly,somefilmtitlesareadaptedfromEnglishidioms.For

Seven-year

example,

Itch(1955)isanEnglishidiomreferringto‘‘asupposed

tendencyto

infidelityafterseVenyearsofmarriage”(Pearsall

thegenuinearticle

or

2003:1703).TheReal

McCoy

(1993)refers

is

to

Something

ofgoodquality.Another

or

example

The

BoyinBlue.’’Blue’’hereIndicatesperson’Slowspirit

badmood.Inthe

fi虹thehero

Was

onceS

boyina

sadmood.That’Showthetitleis

adopted.

2.4Functionsoffilmtitles

Vermeerdefinesfunctionas‘‘what

receiver’S

textmeansoris

intended

to

meanthe

po血ofview'’fNord,2001:28).111eEnglishfilmtitlesgenerallyinclude

fourprincipalfunctions,theinformative,expressive,aestheticaswellasthevocmive

or

commercialfunction.

2.4.1Informativefuncfion

The

core

oftheinformativefunctioniStheexternalsituationwhichiSthefactsof

topic

and

realityoutsidelanguage,includingreportedideas

or

theories(Newmark

OnTranslatingEnglishFilmTities—fromthePerspectiveofSkoposthcoric

2001:40).Itisthebasiconeamongthefourfunctions.Itissupposed

towhatisgoingonintoshedlightonthemessageofthefilm,togivehintthestory,thushelpsthe

audiencetounderstandthefilmmorereadily.

Theinformativefunctionoffilmtitleisreflectedonitsroletohelpaudiencetoknowaboutsomefactsandrelevantinformation

toinaboutthefilm.Informationmayinclude:thefilmgenre,eventsreferred

2.4.2Expressivefunctionthefilmandthemainplotofthefilm.

Theexpressivefunctionis

keytoitscommunicative

aesthetic

ofthetosetthefeeling-toneforthewholefilm,whichistheeffectiveness.Thecoreofexpressivefunctionisthedimensionoflanguage.Theyexpresstheirthoughtsandfeelingsirrespectiveresponse.Thelanguagewithexpressivefunctionisnormallyself-expressive,creative,figurativeandsubjective.(Newmark2001:39).The.expressivefunctionof

orfilmtitleistoleadaudiencetobeinfected、析tllstronglyricflavor,heart-stirring

comicatmosphere.

2.4.3A懿theticfunctiOn

Thisislanguagedesigned

andsecondlytopleasethesenses,firstlythroughitsactualorimagined

contrastssoundthroughitsmetaphors.Therhythm,balanceandpart.Theirsound—effectofsentences,clausesandwordsalsoplaytheir

consistsofonomatopoeia,alliteration,assonance,rhyme,meter,intonation,stress…

2001:42)

functionistopleasethe(NewmarkTheaestheticsenses.Therhythm,balance,soundeffects,

athecolorwordsandtherhetoricdevicesinvolvedallplaytheirpartinadding

theartisticappealofthetitles.GoodlottofilmtitlesCanalsoperformaestheticfunctionin

wordsthewaytoprovideaudienceaesthetic

soundenjoymentthroughcolorfulwith

unevennesswithmusicalandtheapplicationofrhetoricaldevices.Titlesaestheticfunctionpleasethesensesofaudiencethroughtheirinintonation,smoothnessinsound

andvividnessinimagepresentation.

2.4.4Vocativefunctionorcommercialfunotion

“Thecoreofthevocativefunctionoflanguageisthereadership,theaddressee’’

of“calling(Newmark2001:41).Newmarkusestheterm‘‘vocative”inthesense

upon'’thereadershipto

act,“11l【or

as

feel,infactto“react”inthewayintendedbythe

call

text'’.Takingthisexplanationalsocalluponaudienceto

reference,we

conclude

react

that

goodfilltitle

call

see

thefilm,or

to

inthewayintendedbythe

producer--buyingtickets

SO

thatgreatprofitswillbegenerated.

2.5Positionsoffilmtitles

2.5.1Theimportanceof

No

onecarl

film’stitle

denytheimportanceof

fill’S

title.How

Call

audience

judge

the

filmbeforetheywatchit?Certainlytheyjudgeitbythetitle.Whetherthefilmis

appealing

or

not,the

nanle

isthefirstdecidingfactor,forit

isoftenthefirstthat

comesintothepotentialviewer’Sattentionandmind.Tocatchaudience’Seyesand

arouse

theircuriosityandthenstimulatethem

do.So

towatch

it,thatiswhat

title

as

good

fill

titleand

shouldthestandardfor

good

filmis

eye-catching

curiosity?stimulating.Notlikeotherliteraryforms,suchauthorsandpublishersbusinessof

to

novels,itispossiblefor

makeimprovement

be

or

one

editionafteranother;butfilmsare

releaseof

hit-and-go.To

notto

be,theinitial

fill

often

Can

on

immediatelyanswerthequestion.Becausethe

enormous

expenditurehasbeenspent

wouldsuffer

fill-making,once

noone

itfailed,theproducer

to

andthedistributor

fatal

or

losswhichdisaster

to

co,uldafford.So

someextent,filmnamesmeaneitherfortune

nalne

fihll.makers.Hence

successfulis

so

important

to

fill

thatitiS

expectedtobe

eye-catching,curiosity—stimulating,informative,easily-memorableand

one.

ear-pleasing.Soshouldbethetranslated

Agood

case

provedto

be

verysuccessful,whichhaswonrepeatedpraises,isthe

AmericanfilmWaterloo

Bridge.Asiswell?knownittellsabout

beautifulbut

deplorablelovestoryintheFirst

WorldWar.The

originalnamedoesnotindicate

anythingandaudiencec觚’t

audiencemay

even

knowmuchabouttheplotfromthe

name.What’s

worse,

bemisledinto

thinkingaboutNapoleon’Sfataldefeatat

Waterloo

BridgeinEuropein1812.Ifthetranslatorsimplytranslatesitinto“滑铁卢桥”,itmay

onlyattractaudiencewhoarefbndofwatchingWarfilms,whichsurelygoesagainst

10

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thefilm—producer’Sintention.However,thetranslatorcleverlyembedsancientChineselovestoryandthusattractsmoreaudience.Thehasprovedtobe

well—known

version《魂断蓝桥》

as

big

Success.Though50yearshavepassed,thefilm

wellasthe

namestilltouchestheheartsofChineseaudience.

2.5.2Specificrolesoffilmtitles

Firstly,filmtitleis

culturalproduct.There

carl

are

tworeasons.First,as

popular

art,film

As

all

is

just

like

mirrorwhich

reflectthemaintrendofideologyofsociety.

indispensablepartoffilm,filmtitleisalsopartofthiscultural

product.The

secondisthatfilmtitleitselfalsobearsculturalfeaturesoftheregionwherethefilmisproduced.Abundantculturalelementshavebeentracedinfilmtitlessuch

as

idioms,

slang,popularwords,linesofpoems,titlesofliteraryworks,historicaleventsdialectsetc.Inthisway,filmtit..1es

call

and

wellreflect

andcondensetheir

source

culture.

Duetotheabovetworeasons,filmtitleshouldbetreatedas

culturalproduct.

Secondly,filmtitleisthetrademarkof

definitionof

“a

film.Itisnecessarytofirststatethe

trademark.According

or

tO

NewOxfordEnglishDictionary,trademarkis

or

symbolword

or

wordslegallyregistered

2003:1

establishedby

useas

representing

companyproduct"(Pearsall

964).Film

producersinputlarge

amount

of

capitalandmanpowerintothemakingofAfilmwillalsoconfrontfierce

filmandofcoursetheyrequirehighprofit.

this

sense

competitioninthemarket.In

film

isalso

highlycommercializedcommodity.Filmtitleisused

roleofthetrademarkoffilm.

torepresentafilm,playing

Thirdly,filmtitle

is

pieceofart.Filmis

completely

newformofart.Different

fromthetraditionalartform,withtheaidofabsorbing

advanced

scienceand

technology

andbyofart,

advantages

ofotherarts,filmhascreated

anunprecedented

with

form

whichpresentsaudience、析tllpicturesinmotionthroughoftheworld

vividdescription

combinedsounds

andcolorful

camera.Since

itsbirth,ithasbeen

spreadtoevery

comer

has

because

ofitsuniquewaysofexpressingfeelings

andemotionand

become

anecessity

inpeople’Sspirituallife.Filmtitle,嬲anecessarypartofafilmis

segmentandcomponentof

work

pieceof

art.Withouttitle,afilmcannotbeviewedas

complete

and

will

be

forgottenbyaudiencesoon.Moreover,thecreatingoffilm

11

titleishighlycreative.Agoodfilmtitlecannotonlyprovideaudienceaesthetic

audience’Sdesiretoseeenjoyment,informationaboutthefilmbutalso

allc锄evokethefilm.The

beviewednamingprocessitselfisasaartisticcreation.Therefore,filmtitleshouldalsopieceofart.

2.6Summary

Inthischapter,theprofilesoffilmandfilmtitleincludingfilmgenre,namingapproaches,features,functions

ordertohelpL1SandpositionsofEnglishfilmtitlesareexaminedinontohaveabetterunderstandingofthenatureofthem.AsthestudiesFTTinChinaarestillattheinitialstage,moreeffortsneedtobemadebytranslatorstoestablish

tostudyasystematictheoreticalframeworkontoguideit.ThenextchapterisgoingthetheorybasedSkopostheorieSOastoexploreamorecomprehensiveandsystematicapproachtoconductstudiesonFTT.12

Chapter3TheoreticalFramework

ThischapterisdevotedtotheintroductiontorelatedtheoriestoprobewhatishappeningintheprocessofFTT.Readersarenotsupposedtogetadetaileddescriptionofallfunctionaltheoriesoftranslationbutonlysome

presentedinthosetheories.which

onasareofthepointsrelevanttoFTr.Skopostheoriewillbefocusedthefoundationofthewholethesis.

3.1AndreLefevere’Stheories--translationasrewriting

Fame,AndreInhisbookTranslation,RewritingandtheManipulationofLiterary

.Lefeverefullydevelopedhisideas

onontranslationandculture.Inthisbook,heparticularlyfocusestheexaminationof‘veryconcretefactors’thatsystematically

governthereception,acceptanceand

power,ideology,institutionandrejectionofliterarytexts;thatis,‘issuessuch1992a:2)asmanipulation'.(Lefevere

Heproposesthattranslationis‘'themostobviously

allrecognizabletypeofrewriting...becauseitisabletoprojecttheimageof

beyondtheauthorand/orthoseworksboundariesoftheirculture

canoforigin”.(Lefevere1992a:9).Themotivationorforsuchrewritingbeideologicalpoetological.Hedescribesthatthreemain

factorscontrollingtheliterarysystem,inwhichtranslationfunctions,namely,professionalswithintheliterarysystem,patronageoutsidetheliterarysystemandthedominantpoetics.Allthesefactors

onhavegreatinfluenceontranslators。Hearguesthateveryleveloftranslationprocess,oflinguisticsconsiderationsenterinto

considerationsofallconflicts晰tllideologicaland/orpoetologicalnature.thelattertendstowinout.

Accordingtohimthemostimportantconsiderationfortranslmionistheideologyoftranslators,ortheideologyimposedontranslatorsbypatronage.111epoetologicalconsideration,accordingtohim,referstothedominant

targetpoeticsintheislanguage(TL)culture.Throughcaseanalysis,Lefevereholdsthattranslationcloselyrelatedtoauthorityandlegitimacy,and

13ultimately,topower.111edominant

ideologyintheTLculturedictatesthetranslationstrategyandthesolutionproblems.tospecific

3.2Thegeneralintroductiontofunctionaltheoriesoftranslation

Duringthe1970sand1980s,theGermanfunctionaltheoriesoftranslationflourished.AschoolofGermanscholarsshifttheirfocusfromstrictlinguisticsto

adynamicfunctionalismintranslationstudies.Functionalismismajorshiftfrom

linguisticequivalencetofunctionalappropriateness.Thefunctionalisttheoriesexpandthescopeoftranslationstudies

reflectingatoabroaderarea---extralinguisticandculturalaspect,moreflexibleperspective.

aAccordingtoSchaffner,“Functionalistapproachiskindofcovertermforthe

researchofscholars"‘whoarguethatthepurposeoftheTTisthemostimportantcriterioninany

‘‘asatranslmion”.(Munday2001:78).Translmionisconceivedprimarilyaprocessofinterculturalcommunication,whoseendproductistextwhichiscapableoffunctioningappropriatelyinspecificsituationsandcontextofuse’’(Munday2001:79).Afewfamousfunctionalistscholarsandtheirtheorieswillbelistedasfollows.

●KatharinaReissandherfunctionalisttranslationcriticism

KatharinaReissisoneoftheinitiatorsofthefunctionaltheory.Inherbook

aTranslationCriticism--thePotentialsandLimitations,Reissdeveloped

translationcriticismbasedonmodelofthefunctionalrelationshipbetweenSYandTTtakingequivalenceasherbasis.Shestressesequivalenceattextlevel,linkinglanguagefunctiontotexttypedandtranslationstrategy.

●ChristinaNordandhertranslation-orientedtextanalysis:afunctionalapproachwithmoreattentiontoST.

ChristinaNord,oneofthemain

analyzesadvocatorsoffunctionalisttheory,systematicallyandsummarizesthefunctionalthoughtsinGermany.Shestatedthat‘‘afeaturecommontothefunctionalistscholarsengagedintranslationtrainingisthat,unlikethelinguistictheorists,也eytrytofocusonthelanguage-independent14

pragmaticorculturalaspectsoftranslation,emphasizingthespecificnatureof

acompetenceasagainstlanguageproficiency.”(200i:14).HerbookTranslatingas

PurposefulActivity:FunctionalApproachesExplained,isofgreatsignificanceas

onarefefenceforfurtherstudiesfunctionaltheories.

●HansJVermeer’SSkopostheorieandHolz—Manttari’Stheoryoftranslationactionwillbeanalyzedindetailsasfollows.

3.3Skopostheorie

SkopostheorieWasfirstintroducedbyHansJ.Vermeerin1970sandthemajorworkonSkopostheorieishis

onbookGroundworkforaGeneralTheoryofTranslation.‘‘Skopostheoriefocuses

translationmethods

functionallyadequatethepurposeofthetranslation,whichdeterminestheareandstrategiesthattobeemployedinordertoproducearesult.“(Munday,2001:79).Inthe

befollowingpart,someoftheabasicaspectsofSkoposthoeriewillanalyzedtodisplayclearoverviewofthe

theory.

3.3。1Definitionsofskopos

Skoposis

byHansaGreekwordfor“purpose”.ItWasintroducedintotranslationtheoryonJ.Vermeerinthe1970s.Skopostheoryfocusesthepurposeofthe

aretranslation,whichdeterminesthetranslationmethodsandstrategiesthat

atobeemployedinordertoproduce

tofunctionallyareadequateresult.(Mundy2001:79).AccordingVerrneer,there

atbYthreekindsofpurposesinthefieldoftranslation:tothegeneralpurposeaimed

earnathetranslatorinthetranslationprocess(perhapsliving),thecommunicative

instructthepurposeaimedatbythetargettextinthetargetsituation(perhapsto

translationstrategyofreader)andthepurposeaimedatbyaparticularprocedure(forexample,to

sourcetranslateliterallyinordertoshowthestructuralparticularitiesofthe

3.3.2Skopos’principlelanguage”(Nord2001:28).

Vermeerfurtherputsforwardtheskopos’ruleviewedasthetop-rankingruleintranslation.Itstatesthat“atranslationalactionisdeterminedbyitsskopos,thatis,the15

endjustifiesthemeans.”(Nord2001:29)Vermeerfurtherexplainsitinamoredetailedway:

Eachtextisproducedfor

ofskoposagivenpurposeandshouldservethispurpose.Theruleathusreadsasfollows:translate/interpret/speak/writeinwaythatenables

peopleyourtext/translationtofunctioninthesituationinwhichitis

whowanttouseusedwiththeitandpreciselyinthewaytheywantittofunction.(Nord2001:29)

VS.AccordingtoNord,theSkopos’rulehaswellsolvedthedilemmaoffree

faithfultranslation,dynamicVS.formalequivalence,goodinterpretersVS.slavishtranslatorandbecausethestrategiesadoptedin仃anslatiousalldependonpurposeforwhichthetranslatorisneeded.“Theendjustifiesthemeans”(Nord2001:29).AllattemptsmadeservefortheveryskoposofFTT.

3.4Translatingandthetheoryofaction

Accordingto

viewedasaHolz-Manttari’STheoryofTranslationalAction,translatingisformoftranslationalinteraction,intentionalinteraction,interpersonal

ainteractionandcommunicativeaction,interculturalactionandatext-processing

action(Nord2001:16?25).Thenextpartisgoingtodealwithsomeoftheaspects

arementionedabove,which

3.4.1Translation

AccordingtoasfoundrelevanttoFTT.intentionalinteractionwetalkaboutintentionalityininteraction,

orChristianNord,“whenaweassumethatthereexits

notchoiceforthepersontoactinthiswayconceptas‘‘forananotherwayoractatall’’Vermeerdefinesthe

thepersonperformingitactofbehaviortobecalledanactionmust(potentially)beabletoexplainwhytheactsas

2001:1hedoesalthoughhecouldhaveactedotherwise”(Nord9).Puttingthisconcept

inthefieldoftranslation,Nordstatesthattranslatingisanintentionalinteractionwhichaimsatfirstlychanginganexistingstateofaffairs,forexample,changingthesituationinwhichtheinabilityofcertainpeoplehamperstheircommunicationwitllothers.Shefurtherpointsoutthattheremayexistextendedintentions“suchastothe16

虫卫:竺!!竺也曼星翌曼!i些E!!里里型箜::生竺里塑!£竺121璺堡121璺12墼墅12生!

9).

targetaddresseraboutsomethingthesource-textsenderhastoThusthe

say'’(Nord

2001:l

intentionalityisoftenassociatedwiththe“initiator'’ofthetranslation

as

process.Thisintentionalitybeingimentional,buttoparticipants

or

Vermeerputsforward“does

being

seen

not

refer

as

toailactionreally

itsand

interpreted

intentional

by

the

anyobserver(Nord

asa

2001:1

9)

3.4.2Translating

communicativeaction

sense

Communicationinitsnormal

iscarriedoutbysigns.Itis

or

verbal

or

non—verbalbehaviortotrytotransfertheconceptmeaningofthesignsfromthereceiver

producer

to

the

receiver.Theproducer

use

andthe

may

havedifferent

interpretationsofthesigns.The

theproducer

ofsignshasitsparticulargoals,forwhich,both

andthereceiverhavetomake

anagreement

on

themeaningofthesigns

andsignswhichareconventionalthinksthattranslatingisactuallyforthetarget

and

cultural—specific.Referringtotranslating,Nord

procedureinwhichthetranslatorproducessigns

audience(Nord

2001:23)Asthesource-textsender

andthe

target

audienceliveintwodifferentcultures,thetaskfortranslatorsistomakethesignsin

thesource—textculturemeaningfulandunderstoodbytargetaudience.Hefisher

suggeststhatifthesignwhichismeaningful

intheSOUrceculturewhilewillbe

misunderstood

bythetarget

2001:23)

asall

audience,it

isthetranslator’Stasktomakethetmnslmion

accordingly.(Nord

3.4.3Translating

interculturalaction

Functionalists

culture

is

believethat

language

is

anintrinsic

partof

culture,especiallyif

definedas

a‘、otality

ofknowledge,proficiency

isfurther

and

perception’’

(Snell—Homby2003:40).ThistermWard

HGoodenough:

see

clarified

byAmerican

anthropologist

AsI

it,asociety’Scultureconsistsofwhateveritis

one

hasto

know

SO

or

believeinordertooperateinacceptablemannerstoitsmembers,anddorolethattheyacceptforlearn

as

in

any

any

one

ofthemselves.Culture,being

what

peoplehaveto

distinctfromtheirbiologicalheritage,mustconsistoftheendproductof

learning:knowledge,in

mostgeneral,ifrelative,senseoftheterm.Bythis

definition,weshouldnotethatcultureisnot

material

phenomenon;it

doesnot

consistofthings,people,behavior,oremotions.Itisrather

things.Itistheformsofthingsallorganizationofthesethatpeoplehaveinmind,theirmodelsforperceiving,relatingandotherwiseinterpretingthem.(Nord2001:36)

asaAccordingtoVermeer,thisdefinitionserversgeneralstartingpointfor

thissense,cultureisafunctionalistapproachtotranslating(Nord

besubdivided2001:24)Incomplexsystemandcaninto‘'paraculture”,“diaculture’’and

and“idioculture”(Nord

sub-systemsale2001:24).However,theborderlinesbetweenculturalsystemextremelydifficulttodefineuntilaNorthernAmerican

aanthropologistwhoworkedasan“interculturalpractitioner'’inMexicopresents

differentviewtowardsculture.

CultureissomethingthattheICP(interculturalpractitioner)creates,astoryhe/shetellsthathighlightsandexplainsthedifferencesthatcausebreakdowns.Cultureisnotsomethingpeoplehave.Itissomethingthatfills

notthespacesbetweenonthemandcultureisanexhaustivedescriptionof

toanything;itfocusesgrouptodifferences,differencesthatvaryfromtasktaskandgroup(Nord

2001:24).

InAgal’Spointofview,languageandcultureareinterdependentandtheyCanbecombinedtogethertocalled‘‘langaculture’’which‘‘istreatedasssingleentitybyhimandtheculturalboundaryismarkedby“richpoints”,whicharedifferencesinbehaviorcausingcultureconflictsorcommunicationbreakdownbetween

ontwocommunitiesincontact'’(1bid,25).Based

translationtasktheseonpointsrelevanttoapracticalbetweenthegroupsorsub-groupseithersideofthelangaculturebarrier’’(Nord2001:25)

Enlightenedby

anintentionalthetranslationaltheory,wecanviewthetranslationoffilmtitleastheintentiontocallinteraction诵tllupontheaudiencetoseefilm,acommunicativeaction,inwhichcommunicationexistsbetweenthetranslatorandthefilmproduceraswellasbetweenthetranslatorandthetargetaudienceandlastlyaninterculturalactiontakenbythetranslatortotransfertheadequatemeaningbetweentwodifferentcultures.18

OnTranslatingEnglishFilmTitles--fromthePerspectiveofSkopostheorie

Chapter4PracticeofFTT

4.1Skopostheorie’sinfluenceonFTT

ofitis‘'theendAccordingtoSkopostheorie,theessencejustifiesthemeans’’

(Nord2001:29).TheskoposisthekeytothewholeprocedureofFTT.Inordertofulfilltheskopos,translatorsshouldadoptappropriatestrategiesaccordingtodifferenttarget?audience.FunctionsofEnglishfilmtitleshavebeenanalyzedinChapter2namelyinformative,expressive,aestheticandvocativefunctions

taken弱atrademarkofaThefilmrifleCanbefilm,apieceofcreativeartandaculturalproduct.Itcan

toneforinformaudienceofrelevantinformation,setthefeeling

audiencethefilmandentertainaesthetically.However,its

seevocativefunctionismoreimportant.Thatistoservecalluponaudienceto

Asathefilm.Alltheotherthreefunctionsaonlythisskopos.commodityneedsconsumersand

tosecpieceofartneedsappreciators,afilmneedsaudienceit.T11iSnaturedeterminesthatboththetranslationactandthe

translatedfilmtitleareaimedtocallupondomesticaudiencetoappreciatethefilmproducedinaforeignculture.

Inthefollowingpart,wewillexamphenomenainF1vrfromtherealizationoffourvalues,namely,cultural,informative,aestheticsandcommercialvalues.

4.2Realizationoffourvalues

4.2.1Realizationofculturalvalue

FihIl,嬲aculturalproduct,reflectingtheideologyandvaluesofthemainculturalstreamandisanartisticreflectionofpeople’Sdailylife.Thetitle—.Ⅱlewindowofthefilm,inevitably

allreflectsthefeaturesofthelanguageandcultureofacountry.ThefollowingisanalysisoftherealizationofculturalvalueinFTT.

4…211Cuituralconnotationinl呵T

ThispartisgoingtOdealwiththeculturalconnotationoffilmtitles.Vermeerproposedatermtheculture—specificphenomenon.Accordingtohimitisthe“onethat19

isfound

toexistinaparticular

form

or

functioninonly

one

ofthetwoculturesbeing

source

compared”(Nord

2001"34).Asthiskindofphenomenaisuniqueinthe

culture,whiletranslatingfilmtitlescontainingtheseelements,translatorsshouldbeverycautiousbecausewhichseemsmeaningfultothe

source

targetaudiencemay

make

upon

noSellSetoto

thetargetculturereceivers.Inorder

see

toreachtheskoposofcalling

people

the

film,translators

should

make

effortstomakethese

cultural-specificphenomenaknownandexampleswillbe

cover

understood

byChineseaudience.Abundant

are

shown

toillustrate

howthese

phenomena

treated.Examplestales,legendaries

thefollowingaspect:titlescontainingreligious

stories,缸ry

and

idioms,

4.2.1.1.1ReligiOUSstories,fairytalesandlegendaries

Religiousstories,fairytales

and

legendaries

alea

major

source

afterwhichthe

filmisnamed.Someofthosearecultural.specificandunfamiliarwhilesomeare

toChineseaudience

well-knowntothem.Thus

whentranslatingfilmtitles,originatedfrom

situationbut

suchSOUrCeS,translatorsshouldadoptparticularapproachinspecific

shouldalwaysbearthe

literallyandfreely

skopos

ofFTTiIlhis

mind.Thefilm

21

Grams(2003)is

translatedinto{21克》and《灵魂的重量》(theweightofsoul)

one

respectively.AccordingtoChristian,21gramsistheweight

losesattheexact

senses

momentofhisaudience.

death.Therefore,the

secondversionmakesmore

toChinese

LastFightofNoah≥Ark(1982)is

lightdramaabouthow

missionaryNoah

of

DuganBobby

all

and

youngboymanagetopopulate

deserving

island、析tllcritters

types.Ⅲsfilmtitlewastranslatedinto《大人细路历险记》(adventureofadults

HongKong

andchildren)in

and《诺亚奇遇记》(Noah’Sadventure)inMainland

Noah’Sarkand

thestory

China.AsmostofChineseaudiencearefamiliarwith

depictedinthefilmissimilartothatone.Aliteraltranslationof《诺亚奇遇记》Can

remindChineseaudienceofthefamousstoryof‘'Noah’SArk'’.

4.2.1.1.2Idioms

Idioms

meaning

arethegroupsofwordsandphrases“establishedbyusage

fromthoseoftheindividualwords”(Pearsall

20

as

having

notdeducible

2003:908).As

twolanguageswhich

are

widelyusedintheworld,Chinese

can

and

Englishareboth

abundantinidioms.Someoftheidiomsi11eitherofthe

findequivalencewhiletherestareunique

two

cultures.

●Englishidioms

TheidiomsexaminedbelowarethosewhichChineseculture.Duckfreely

are

uniqueinEnglishwhileabsentin

Soup(1933)was

easy

translatedliterallyinto《鸭汤》《鸭羹》and

HongKong

into《轻易之举》(all

task)inMainlandChina,Taiwanand

just

respectively.Thefirsttwotranslatedversionsare

literalrenderingsoftheoriginal

filmtitle,however,theymake

no

sense

toChineseaudience.Actually,accordingto

NewOxfordEnglishDictionary,‘‘DuckSoup’’meRllS‘‘aneasytask,orsomeoneeasy

to

overcome”(Pearsall2003:570).Therefore,the

third

one《轻易之举》(alleasytask)

idiomandmade

itself

haswell

demonstratedtheculturalconnotationofthis

toChineseaudience.

comprehensible

TakeSalt

of

Earthasanotherexample,peoplewho

ale

ignorantofwestern

culturemighttranslateitanysense.As

into“地球的盐”literally.This

translationdoesn’t

make

matteroffact,“saltofearth”isdrawnfrom

or

New

as

Testament(Matthew,

Ch.5,V13),whichmeans“anypersonpersonsregarded

thefinest,noblest'’.Sothatitisimportant

one

theversion《社会中坚》ispreferred.Thisexampletellsunderstandthecultureaswell

the

aS

USto

thegral/lmarandvocabularyof

to

language.Even

formerismoreimportantandharder

understand

to

some

extent.

Foranotherinstance,TheBird-keeperwhoseliteralmeaningisthepersonwhokeepsthebirds.ButinfactitreferstopeoplewhoSothe

ale

sentencedtolifeimprisonment.

translation《终身犯》isvery

suitable.

●Chineseidioms

Chineseidiomsareconciseinstructureswhilerichinmeanings

andare

quite

familiartoChinese

audience.The

filmThreeSmartGirlstells

storyofacouplewho

becomeestrangedandtheirthree

daughters竹toreconcilethem.The

Chinesetitleis

《满庭芳》..Itremindspeople

XuanansweredXiegeneration

use

oftheliteraryquotation

from《晋书?谢安传》Xie

later

An“譬如芝兰玉树,欲使其生于庭阶耳。”Thenthe

theorchidstocompare

with

excellentchildren.Althoughitmainly

referstoboys,itisalsoreasonabletorefertogirls.

Observethefollowingexamples:The

Misfits《乱点鸳鸯谱》,刀2e

Comesto

WeddingNight

《洞房花烛夜》,Love

andStory

with

MyFather《天伦乐》,Who

Dinner《金龟婿》

are

of

Aaye

Dachin《红楼琴断》.All

translationsmentionedhere

acceptablewhich

are

fullofChineseculturalflavors

serveas

and

cater

toChineseaudience.

can

Directlyusingidiomstoofintimacy,which

call

thetranslationofEnglishfilmtitle

createasense

befurtherreflectedinthefollowing

examples:

OrdinaryPeople

GrossFatigue

《月天络而/《普通人》

《黻力励/《累得要命》

《纺菇帔女》/《我的好女友》

MyFairLady

NickofTime

Thefirstversionin

《于钧_励/《关键的时刻》

each

pairisintheformof

Chinese_idiom.Compared、Ⅳitll

all

thesecondolle,itismoreacceptable.Itshowsthatbyadopting

elementwhichis

familiartoChineseaudience,translatorssuccessfullydrawthefilmclosertoaudienceandmakethetitlemore

memorable.Theaestheticeffectofthe

adoption

of

four-characterphraseswillbefurtherdiscussedintheaestheticaspectlater.

4.2.1.2Culturaladaptation

Theaboveanalysis

hasshownthatthetranslatorenrichesthe

the

targetcultureby

sumup,the

introducingsomedifferentanduniqueelements

technique

tOitthrough

F兀.To

adoptedbytranslatorsis

to

makeslmnge

foreign

culturalelements

not

comprehensibleandacceptabletoChineseaudience.However,translationis

processofculturalenrichment,butalso

just

processofculturaladaptation.Inother

can

words,itisnottheonlyeffectiveattemptthetranslatorculturalelements

trybymal【ingforeign

comprehensible

toaudienceinorder

toadapt

tofulfilltheskoposofFrr.It

to

isalsoproved

create

tobean

effectiveway

thetranslation

thetargetculture

to

anintimacyofforeignfilmstoChinese

audience.The

followingpandeals、析tll

culturaladaptationinthelanguagesystem.

4.2.1.2.1Languagesystem

Insometranslatedfilmrifles,translatorsdeliberately

adoptsome

target-culturally

featuredwordsandexpressionsinwording,whichCanbereflectedinthreeaspects:

22

虫!竺型型竖垦型塑型巴墅坚=生2婴鱼!呈竺£!型∑121兰!竺墼墅!竺生!

classicalChinese,poemsanddialects.●ClassiealChinese

TheadoptionofclassicalChineseisnecessaryinsomeFTT.ApplicationofclassicalChineseisaneffectivewaytoachieveconcisenessandrhythminbothcreationandtranslationattheurgentmoment.InChinesecouldbeFFT,theuseapplicationofclassicaliteasilyfound.TheappropriateofCanenhancetheexpressivenessofthetitleandwhat’Smoreimportant,itmakesthetitlemoreChinese-flavoredandthusitwillbemoreeasilyacceptedbyChineseaudience.Let’Sexaminethefollowingexamples.

《铁鳓/《铁马》

^bwandThen

FuneralCeremony《此时缎0》/《那些日子以来》《风光大励/《葬礼》

《今夜情归匆处》/《你在哪》

toWhereYou彳reGuessWho'sComingDinner《谁来赴宴君且猜》/《猜一猜谁来吃晚餐》

firstversionofeach

aTheUSeof“骑",“此”“彼”,“殓",“何”and“君”inthepairmakesthetitlemoreconciseinwordingandmoreeffectiveincreating

lyricalflavor.

Inspecialaddition,thecharacter“之”isfrequently

callusedforthesakeofterseness.Thefollowingexamplesshowthispoint.

《冬之狮》/《冬天的狮子》

ColorofNight《黑色之夜》/《夜晚的颜色》FieMofDreams

●Poems

Chineseale《梦想之地》/《梦想的地方》proudoftheirsplendidpoemhistoryespeciallyitspeakinTangandSongDynasty.PoemisanimportantelementofChineseculturewhichisthereflectionofpeople’Sfeelings,emotionsnation’Sculturaltraditionandwishes.Itreflectsthedeepstructureofaandrecordsthehistoryofthenation’Sspiritinavividway(Yah2003:3).PoemCan

featuresandcancreatebeautyinsound妃也itsuniquestructuralandvocalcreateallkindsofaltisticmoodsforreadersto

Bseimage.reasons.Firstly,notItisnotverycommontopoemastheFrr.Therearetwo

everyfilm

linguistictitle啪bematched、析ththeproperpoemline.Secondly,Olleofthefeaturesoffilmtitleisconciseandshortinlength.However,somesuccessfulexampleshaveproveditsspecialeffect.

Takethefilm

inLol砒tasallexample.Thetitleisliterallytranslatedinto《洛丽塔》MainlandChina.WKleinHongKong.itwasereativelytranslatedinto《一树梨花压海棠》。Theflowers

Itisdrawnfromaofpeartreesandcrabappleflowershavesomedeepmeanings.poemofSuShi,13.veryfamouspoetofSongDynasty:“十八新娘

Shiwrotethis八十郎,苍苍白发对红妆。鸳鸯被里成双夜,一树梨花压海棠。”Su

poemtoteasehisfriendZhangXianwhogotmarried、ⅣiⅡ1an18-year-oldlady.Herethewhiteflowersofpeartreessymbolizethegreyhair

crabappleflowersmeantheyoung.Soitmeans

Lateritbecame

Thefilm

aanalloftheold.Andtheredaoldmarli13RtTiesyounglady.idiomreferringtellsatOoldhusbandsandyoungwives.Lol讹tstoryofamiddle-agedprofessorwhofallsindeeplove、析mmiddleschoolgirlof12.Sothethemeagreeswi廿ltheformerstoryofZhangXian.

lineintranslationtoBydirectlyquotingthepoemprovidesomebackground

informationofthefilmforaudience,thetranslatormakesthisfilmtitlemoreintimatetOChineseaudience.Thus<一树梨花压海棠》is

isprovedtObeaabetterversionthan《洛丽塔》whichjust11foreigngirl’sname.Itisgoodexampletoshow

combinationofthemeaningoftheforeignfilmandChinesetraditionalcultureperfectly.

ExamplesofthiskindaleWhereistheFriend'sHome?(1987)《踏破铁鞋无觅处》andTheFabulousBakerBoys(1990)《一曲相思情未了》etc.

●1)ialeets

TheculturaladaptationofFTTalsoincludestheadaptationindictiontothedialectsofdifferentregioils.ThisphenomenonisextremelyprominentinHongKongwhereCantoneseisthemostpopular

ordialect.ManyaletranslatorsuseCantonesewordsphrasesintheirtranslatedfilmtitles.Heresomeexamples:

DennistheMenace

AboutSchmidt《厢鹆屋个翩《薯鹨色生》

LastFight

ofNoah'sArk

usedtoaddresslittle

Here“隔离”meansneighbor,“仔”is

stupid

as

boy,“薯麦’’means

can

potato

and“细路”means

children.Suchversionswithdialects

be

moreeasilyacceptedbyHongKongaudience.Inall,theuseofCantoneseinFTTcan

establish

localculturalself-identityforthefilm(Qian

Guardian,1993:114)and

makethefilmmoreacceptablebyaudienceinHongKong.

Taxi

Driver(1976)isanother

dialectsofdifferent

goodexampletodemonstratethein

advantages

of

adopting

regions

F订.It

is

translatedinto《出租车司机》,《的

andTaiwan

respectively.

士司机)and《计程车司机》i11Mainland

Astheword‘'taxi”is

China,HongKong

addresseddifferentlyineachofthethree

differentterms

can

regions,translators

havenoticedthisdifference

andadopted

FTT

。Tosumup,culturaladaptationin

createasenseof

intimacyandmake

thetranslationmoreeasilyacceptedbytargetaudience.TheculturalelementsinFTT

can

appropriate墩oftarget

skoposofFq广r:calling

helpthetranslatorto

achievethe

uponaudiencetoappreciatethefilm.4.2.2Realizationofinformativevalue

Good

translations

never

misleadthe

reader

on

nor

distorttheoriginal.Thisis

basic

po缸inFTT.The

translationshouldfocus

thethemeof也efilmandshowasmuch

informationoftheoriginalaspossibleandplay

valuerequiresthetranslatortohaveand

realrolein

leadingto

watch.This

thoroughanddeepunderstandingofthestory

backwood

inthefilm.Otherwiseitwillbebrokenversion.ItisstatedinThe

BookofGuan

Z/《管子?九守》:toname

afterthecontentandcheck

againstthetitle

(循名而督实,按实而定名).In

consider

theprocessoftranslation,the

translatorhasto

twothings.OneistheoriginalEnglishtitle

andtheotheristhecontentofthe

film.What

translatorshoulddoistobefaithfultotheorigirlaltitleaswellasthe

filmcontent,andstrivefortheunity

thatthoseChinese

between

the

formand

thecontent.Factsprove

filmtitleswhichshowthethemeofthe

following

are

film

clearlyareverypopular

among

audience.The

verygood

examples.TheSoundofMusic《音乐

之声》,砌PGodfather《教父》,Superman《超人》,StarWars《星球大战》,

Spartaeus《斯巴达克》,SisterCarrie《嘉莉妹妹》andDances

共舞》etc.Onseeingthesefilmtitles,audiencegenerallycallwithWolves《与狼thecontentof

ajudgethesefilms.Let’Sprobeintoanexampleindetail.The31stCondemnedCriminalis

hetypicalone.Alawyersucceededindefendingother30condemnedcriminalsbut

himselfbecamethe31吼condemnedcriminal.AudienceCanknowthatthefilmisaboutthecrimeby

arousejudgingthefilmtitle.Thefigure31calldrawmuchattentionandtheircuriositywhichwilldrivethemtowatchit.

4.2.2.1Informationprovidingaspect

4.2.2.1.1

AsInformingaudienceaofthefilmgenreCallgoodbrandnameinformcustomerswhichcategorytheproduct

toinformaudienceofthegenreofthebelongsto,agoodfilmtitleisalsorequired

film.Throughfilmtitles,audienceCan

onelearnaboutthegenreoffilmsandchoosethethattheyareinterestedin.Ithasbeenobservedthatamongthetranslatedversions,titlesofdifferentgenresoffilmsmayhavetheiruniquelinguisticfeatures.Forexample,thetitlesoflovestoryfilmsmostlycontaincharacterssuchaS“f青(10ve)”,“梦(dream)”,“恋(romance)'’and“曲(melody)”ere.Translatorsoftenadoptwordslike“惊魂(soul.stirring)”,“杀(killing)”,“鬼(ghost)”and“魔(evil)”ere.inthetranslationofhorrorfilmtitles.

SomesuccessfulFTThavewellexemplifiedfilmgenres,e.g.

RomanceFilms.

ThePiano

TheRemains《钢琴别恋》oftheDay《告别有情天》

《雨中曲》SingingintheRain

HorrorFilms

TheNightmareBefore

AmericanPsycho

ActionFilms.

InLineChristmas《圣诞夜惊魂》,《美国杀人魔》ofFire《火线狙击》,

《剑鱼行动》Swordfish

Presentdanger

《燃眉追击》

However,therestillexist¥0111etranslatedtitles,conveyingwronginformationof

thefilmgenretoaudience.Thethepoint.Piis

filmPi(1998)¥el'VeS

aLsa

goodexampletoillustrate

call

sci.fifilm.Inthefilm,itindicates

code,which

influencethe

wholeworld.Thistitlehasgotthreetranslatedversions《圆周率》(pi),《死亡密

ofthe

码》(codeofdeath)and《数字旋涡》(whirlpool率》is

number).Theversion《圆周

literalrenderingoftheoriginaltitle.Fromthissense,itisfaithfultothe

original.However,thisscientific

terminologymaymislead

Olle

audiencetothinkthatitis

popularscienceandeducational

al'g

tointroducetheconceptof“Pi”.In

comparison,

as

theothertwoversionsthecontenttoaudience.

muchbetterinconveyingthegenreofthefilm笛well

4.2.2.1.2Informingaudielleeofthethemeof

film

COl'e

Murphypoints

outthatthebrandnameistheof

product’sidentityandaboutthegenreof

personality(Mruphy

987:35).Despiteprovidingtheinformation

can

film,filmtitlesometimes

reflectthethemeofthefilm.Partofthese丘lmtitles

are

are

thesamewiththetitlesofnovelsfromwhichthefilmseasilygetwhatisgoingChatterley'sLover

011

adapted,thusaudience

can

inthe

fi虹such蠲,Great

Expectations(1946),/,aay

titlescontainfamousplaces,

at

0982)andTess(1982)etc.Thesefilm

llamt:¥orhistoricalevents.Audiencewillgetimmediateinformationaboutthefilm

thefirstglanceofthefilmtitle.Examples

are

TheLanding

Or/Normandy(1986),

Call

Titanic(1997)and

Pearl

Harbor(2001)etc.It

hasbeennoticedthatsomeinform

thecontentofthefilmthrough

tO

statementcontainedinthefilmtitle.Mr.SmithGoes

Washington(1

939),Guess觋D§Comingto

Dinner(1967)and』Bought

Vampire

Empire(1990)Callserve笛goodexamples

TheThird

toillustratethispoint.

Man

WaStranslatedinto《第三者》atfirst.This

versionmightmake

Chineseaudiencemisunderstandthatitis

filmaboutthefamilyethicalfilmwhich

tellsthestoryaboutextramaritalaffairs.Butinfactittellsstoryabout

traffic

accident.HerethethirdpersonⅡ1eansthethirdeyewitnessinthelocaleofthetrafficaccident

SO

the

version《第三目击者》makes¥ellSe.So

obviouslythetranslationof

《第三者》misleads

audienceanditfailstoinformaudienceofthethemeofthefilm.

4.2.3Realizationofaestheticvalue

Everyonelovesandstrivesforbeauty.Finding,appreciatingandpursuingbeauty

isthe

nature

andshareofhuman

beings.SoduringtheprocessofFTr,translators

shouldtakeaudience’Sdesireforaestheticfeelingintofullconsiderationandrealize

theaestheticvalue.Duringthisprocess,translatorsshouldthrashthewordsandtry

selectthe

ones

to

bearingbeautyinsound,form

and

meaning.Itisonlybyconsidering

thesethatyouCanwritea

sentencethatisgoodtolookat

and

goodtolistento(词有

其力、其音、其形、惟考虑这些,方能写出醒目入耳之句).(秦秀白,1987:13)

Accordingto

Reception

Aesthetics,the

historicallife

ofliterarywork

is

unthinkablewithouttheactiveparticipationofreaders.Thereceptionprocessis

kind

not

ofaestheticexperience;accordinglytheaestheticsignificanceofliteraryworkCanbefullyrealizedwithoutreaders’reception.

ReceptionAestheticprovidestl¥、城m

newperspectiveoftherelationship

betweenfilmand

its

audience.The

tastes

to

translatorshouldbeartheimpliedaudienceiIl

Chineseaudience,theyprefer

and

mindandtaketheiraestheticthose

sentences

andjudgrnent.Forread,lovely

to

which

are

easy

s∞andhear

profoundand

daintyinmeaning.Therefore,translatorsshouldgraspthisdesireand

andsymmetry.

striveforbeauty

i11balance,unevenness,parallel

Inordertoachieve

beauty

informiIlFTT,translatorsneedendeavortomake

translatedversionsmusicali11sound.StandardChinesehasuniquefeatureswhich

makesiteasy

to

formmusical

sound.

makethe

Firstly,thefour

tonesofChinese

forming

an

oftuneseasily.Secondly,the

to

structuralfeatureofsyllablesinChineseisalsolanguage

importantelement

maketheandeach

musical

i11

sound.Syllable

isthebasicunitofthe

helpsto

sound

ofChinese

syllableis

comparativelyindependent,which

andtunearethe

achievetherhythmicalbeauty

repetitionof

whilerhythmsyllables

is

twobasicelementsof

music.Thirdly,the

anotherdistinguishedfactorwhichmakesChinese

create

powerfuliIlits

aestheticexpression.Fourthly,alliterationandrhyme

to

theconditionforChinese

formmusical

sound.Last

but

not

least,mostsyllablesofChineseend诵mvowel,

28

OnTranslatingEnglishFilm11ties一仟omthePerspectiveofSkopostheorie

easytorhymeandextend,whichisalsoacontributivefactorinformingmusicalsound(Qian1993:113).

4.2.3.1.Theadoptionoffour-character,fIve—characterandseven-characterphrases

IthasbeennoticedthatinmanyFTT,theadoptionoffour-characterphrasesisquiteacommonpractice.Theuseoffive—characterandseven—characterphrasesisalsobecomingpopularinFTTinHongKongandTaiwan.Actually,thisapplicationCanmakefulluseofthestructuraladvantages

aoffour-characterphrasesandChinesepoems、析也fiveorsevencharactersinline.

●Four-characterphrases

Four-characterphrasesindicatephrasescontainingfourcharacters,whichdeepinalemeaning,conciseandsymmetricinstructureandpowerfulinfeelingan~demotionalexpression.TheyincludeChinesefour-characteridiomsandnon-idiomphrases(Lin

theChinesenuangtiall1997:628).Manytranslatedfilmtitlesadoptthestructureoffour-characterphrases.Forexample,ArroganceandPassion

Their《气壮山河》,PockeOCu,ofMiracle《锦囊妙计》,InTeens《豆蔻年华》,BriefEncounter

《萍水相逢》,OrdinaryPeople《凡夫俗子》,OfMiceandMan《芸芸众生》and

ManyfamousChinesescholarssuchasFengQinghua,ZhuangY'mhuanandSunYingChunctC.havefi'equentlystatedadvantagesofusingfour-characterphrases.AccordingtOFeng

carlQinghua,properlyaapplyingfour-characterphrasesin仃anslationcreateacadenceinsoundandfall-and—risetone.Thusthebeautyofharmonyisachieved(Feng2002:112).Zhangholdsthatintranslation,theappropriate

calluseoffour-characterphrases

presentationandcanmakethetranslationconciseinstructureandvividinincreaseitsliterarygrace(Zhuang1999:369).SunYingchtm

ongivesanespeciallydetailedanalysistheaestheticfeaturesoffour-characterphrases

whichisreflectedinthreeaspects:Firstly,itiseconomicallyfortranslatorstoachieve

ofconcisenessandcomprehensivenessinmeaningtransferring.Thebeauty

appropriatenessandsuccinctnessisthus

aresymmelricandproduced.Secondly,four-chalacterphrasesbalancedinstructure.Thirdly,four-characterphrasesembodythe

combinationofdiversityandunification,whichistheinnatefeatureofobjectsandthe

11i曲est

formofbeauty(Sun2004:178).Becauseofthestructuralandrhythmical

offour-characterphrases,theapplicationofthisstructureinFTThelpsto

advantages

create

aestheticalbeautyinbotllits

soundand

form.Let’Sexamthefollowing

examples:

/tHappenedOneNightYou

Can}勋妇It

withYou

GoingMyWay

TheBestYearsatOurLives

The

孵笙捌/《你不能带走的东西》传笼劂/《和我一起走》

矿一凌堀冽/《发生在一天晚上的事》

形考金缈衍莎/《我们生命中最美的时光》

firstversionofeachpairismoreconciseand

examples

showthatthe

comprehensiveinmeaningpresentationbecauseoftheadoptionoffour-character

phrases,which

Canrealizethe

aestheticvalue.

●Five-characterandseven—characterphrases

Inthisthesis,five—character

and

seven-characterphrasesindicatethosewhich

firstly

are

composedoffive

or

sevencharacters

and

or

secondlyadopttherhythmical

seven

andmetrical

patternsofChinesepoems、Ⅳinlfive

charactersin

line.Here

aremanysimilarexamples,e.g.Fanny《春江花月夜》,Goodbye《何日君再来》

andtheListofAdrianMessenger《筇楼玉宇高处寒》,etc.

Rhythmplaysadecisiveroleinformingmusic.Itis

ofsyllablesandpauses.Chinesepoemswordingandemotion(Li

characters

are

disciplinarian

organization

createdin

line嘶t11

therhythmoflife,

2004:3).TherhythmicalpattemofChinese

thatofthe

poems晰tll

five

is“2,2,1”or“2,1,2”and

poems州mseven

charactersis

‘‘2,2,2,1’’or‘‘2,2,1,2’’(Li

2004:5).Themetrical

toits

patternsofChineseclassical

poetry,on

theotherhand,contribute

Chinese

beautyof

sound.The

thelimitof

melricalpatternsofclassical

poetry

are

quite

complex.Dueto

space,we

onlyfocus

on

the

metricalrulefor

single

line:“平平(1eveltones)”and'‘仄仄(obliquetones)"should

bealternativelyadoptedineachline(Li,2004:135).AstherhythmofChinese

iscoordinated、析mtherhythmofbreathingwhenpeople

are

poems

and

working

or

conductotherread

out

activitiesintheirdailylives,thelinesofChinesepoemsareeasy

to

musicalinsound.

30

OnTranslatingEnglishFilmTities~fbmthePerspectiveofSkopostheorie

In

For

F订,proper

use

ofthesetwopatternsisattributivetoformingdulcetsound.

Frontistranslated

example,A//auiteon砌已Western

westernfront),

into《西线无战事》。“西

the

线"(the

“无"(doesn’thave)and“战事”(battles)form

rhythmicalpatternof“2,1,2".Thusthistranslatedversionsoundsmelodious.Ghost

《人鬼情未了》,MoulinRouge《情陷红磨房》andPrettyWoman《风月俏佳人》

are

alsosuccessfulinachievingthemusicaleffect、析廿lthe

adoptionoffive-character

Let’Stake

lookatanotherexampleintheformofseven—characterphrase.The

Hamiltongotatranslation《忠魂鹃雪离恨天》。“忠魂”,“鹃雪”,“离恨”,

“天”

form

rhythmicalpatternof“2,2,2,1”and

metricalpatternof“平平仄仄/仄仄平”。

on

Thisversionisgoodintermsofits4.2.3.2Rhymeandtone

musical

effectaudience.

WhiletranslatingtheEnglishfilmtitlesintoChinese,translatorsshouldtryto

makefullUSeoftheadvantagesoftheChinese

sound

structure

SOas

to

create

versionpleasingtoears,toeyesandtomindsofChineseaudience.ForBodyguardhasgottwo

are

example,

they

translatedversions:《护花倾情》and《保镖》.Because

homophones,thatis“倾”(qinginPinyin)and“情”(qinginPinyin).Thefirst

versioncreates

rhythmicalbeautywhilethesecondiscomparativelyweakerinthis

Hallow(1978)is

andthird

translated

into《月光光心慌慌》.Inthe

filthandlast

translation,thesecond

character“光”(guanginPinyin)andthecharacter“慌”(huang

inPinyin)formvowelrhyming.Thetonesofthesetwowordsarecoordinatedwitheachother,bothhavingtheflatachieyed.

4.2.4Realizationofcommercialvalue

tone.Thus

themusicaleffectofthetranslationis

Filmisthecombinativeformofcultureandshootingfilmsis

to

commercialization.Thepurpose

boxofficeis

one

of

make

audience

enjoythem.Sothe

ofthemostnot.Every

importantstandardsbywhichone

can

judgewhetherafilmis

successful

or

film

isthecD,stalworkmadebymanypeopleandcomprises

investors’highcost.Ifa

filmfailedinforeignfilmmarketonlybecauseof

brokentitletranslation,thenthe

losswouldbenodoubtheavy.FromthispointofviewtheimportanceofFTTisfurtherproved.SotranslatorsCall’tbetoocareful.Thecommercialvalueisusuallyrealizedinthefollowingway.

4…241Adoptingeye-catchingwords

Firstly,tomakethetranslationeye-catching

emotionSOCallhelptoarouseaudience’Scertainthatthefilmwillbemoreattractivetothem.Forexample,Moonstruck

TheApartment

Piano《月色痨以》/《多愁善感》《钢琴嬲/《钢琴》《彩彦公寓》/《公寓》

Thefirstversionineachpairisbetterintermsoftheircapabilityofarousingaudience’Semotionofcuriosityandexcitement.

Airport

Speed《九霄铡/《机场》《笙劢寸速》/《速度》

TheGame《致石黼戏》/《游戏》

oneThefirst

andineachgroupismoresuccessfulinevokingaudience’Sexpectancysecondversionisanxiety.ThejusttheliteraltranslationwhichCan’tachievethesameeffect.Moreexampleswillbegiven

usingeye?catchingwordsinFTTasfollowstodemonstratetheadvantageof

MutingontheBounty《叛舰臻盈记》,

Conversation

AllaboutEve《窃听期渤,《彗星吴从》

asTakingthefilmtheEnglishPatientanexample,the

it.ManyChineseversion《英国病人》Can’tarouseaudience’Scuriositytowatchpeopledon’treadthenovel

、Ⅳiththesametitle,SOtheydon’thaverelevantbackgroundknowledge;therefore,thistranslationisnotsuitable.Ifitistranslated

quiteinto《别问我是谁》,theeffectwillbedifferent.ThelatteronefocusesonthefilmplotandexploresanEnglish

onpatient’Slifeexperience.Itmakesthefirstimpression

curiositytowatchit.audiencethatitisfullofsuspenseandCanarousetheir

SisterActandTheNetaretranslatedinto《修女也疯狂》和《网络惊魂》

and

.32respectively,whicharealleye—catchingfullyrealizethecommercialvalue.But

塑里竺!!型尘墨曼里型!些旦!翌里型笪=塑巴堡!!!!!巳!垒堡121兰!旦巴墅12垒呈

sometimes

itis

very

hard

toto

balanceart

andcommercializationbecause

over-commercializationisprone

bemeretriciousandnovelistic.Andpursuingthe

beautyofartunilaterallytendstoseparatefromthetasteofthemass.Therefore,hankeringforeitherpointcan’tdoitatthecostofanotherone.Howtofmdthe

balancingpoint?How

to

meetbothrefinedandpopular

tastes

andhowtoboth

entertainandenlightenthemass?Thatisthepo缸where

therublies.

4.3

Methods

Thereis

andtechniquesofFTT

singletranslationtechniquesthat

call

noolle

solvealltheproblemsof

translation.Thisisespeciallytrue

wi也FTr.The

followingtableintroducesseveral

translationmethodsandtechniquesappliedin

FTT谢th

examples.

Translations

Methods

transliteration

EnglishTitlesCasablancaChicagoTess

卡萨布兰卡芝加哥苔丝与狼共舞君子协定勇敢的心母女情深飞越疯人院乱世佳人

literaltranslationDanceswithWolvesGentleman'sAgreementBraveHeart

丘eetranslationTerms

OfEndearment

OneFlewOvertheCuckoo≥Nest

Gone聊砌the砌d

combination

literal

offree

BloodandSand

碧血黄沙

andMadison

CountyBridge

廊桥遗梦

西雅图不眠夜浮生若梦杯酒人生门当父不对

translationadaptation

Sleepless伽SeattleYou

Cant勋妇It

withYou

Sideways

Meet

theParents

33

OnTranslatingEnglishFilmTitles—fi.omthePerspectiveofSkopostheorie

4.4Summary

TheskoposofFTTistOcalluponaudiencetOappreciatethefilm.Inorderto

reachthisgoal,fourvaluesshouldberealized,namely,cultural,informative,aestheticandcommercialvalue.Intheaspectofculture,ononehand,translatorsareencouraged

audiencetomaketheforeignculturalelementscomprehensibletothetargethand,tocreateasenseand,ontheotherintimacybyadaptingthetranslation

atothetargetculturalcomponents.111providinginformation,itisappreciatedthat

translatorprovidesadequateinformationaboutthegenreandthemetoaudience.Asfortheaestheticaspect,thebeautyofformneedstobeachievedbymakingthetranslationmusicalinsound.Thelastaspectistherealizationofcommercialvalue.TitleswhichCanstiraudience’Semotionare

asallprovedtobemoreeasilyacceptedandamemorizedbyaudience.Itisregarded

eye-catchingeffectivewaytomaketranslatedtitle

塑里竺墅坠虫g兰望型!生E!巴!|!!箜=生2竺生!£竺翌!壁堡121垒兰2墼墅呈2垒!

Chapter5ComparisonofEnglishFilmTitleTranslationin

HongKong,Taiwanand

MainlandChina

Asforthesame

translatedversionsin

Englishfilmtitles,abundantexampleshaveshownthat

Mainland

China,HongKong

and

Taiwancouldhardlyachieve

cause

unityinmostcases.Somearguethatthisproblemwillgreatconfusionamong

theaudience,SOversionsinthethreeregionsneed

tobeunified.This

chapterisgoing

tosurveythedifferencesintheFTTinthethreeregionsandtrytoexplorepotential

reasons

thathavecausedthosedifferences.Solutionswillbe

SOas

given

attheendofthe

chapter

tosolvethe

disunityexistinginthethree

regions.

5.1ComparisonofsimilaritiesanddifferencesinFTTinHongKong,Taiwanand

Thereis

table

no

Mainland

China

denyingthatthereareunifiedtranslationsinthethreeregions(seethe

below):

HongKong

EnglishfilmtitlesRebeccaCityLightsDances

惭Wan

蝴蝶梦城市之光与狼共舞出水芙蓉乱世佳人毕业生

Majnland蝴蝶梦城市之光与狼共舞出水芙蓉乱世佳人毕业生

蝴蝶梦城市之光与狼共舞出水芙蓉乱世佳人毕业生

WithWblves

outofBath

Beauty

Gone

Withthe、聃nd

TheGraduate亿lble1

However,formostcases,eachregionhasitsowntranslatedversionsquite

differentfromtheothertwo.Let’Sexaminethenexttable.

35

EnglishfilmtitlesGood

HongKong

碱wall

心灵捕手新闻内幕英雄本色小鬼当家第六感生死恋永远爱你终极保镖雨人烈血大风暴前进高棉麻雀变凤凰绝对任务窗外有蓝天

MajrdandChina

Will

Hunting

骄阳似我星期五女郎

好人威尔?杭廷女友礼拜五勇敢的心独自在家幽灵

HisGirl

Friday(1940)

BraveHeartHomeA10neGhostInLoveandBodyguardRain

惊世未了情

宝贝智多星人鬼情未了

W打

离开以后护花倾情手足未了情热血暴潮杀戮战场

爱情与战争

保镖雨人

密西西比在燃烧野战排漂亮女人勇闯夺命岛看得见风景的房间

Man

MississippiBurning

PlatoonPretty

Woman风月俏佳人

石破天惊

TheRock

ARoomWith

Table2

View(

翡冷翠之恋

Table2showsobviouslythattranslatorsinHongKongand

Taiwan

oftenadopt

freetranslations.Theygivefullplay

to

theircreativenessandconducttranslationsin

flexibleway,mainlysacrificingtheformformeaning.Whiletranslationsadoptedby

Mainland

China

are

morcfaitlafultotheodginalfilmtitles.Table2

haswell

demonstrated

thedifferencesofstrategiesinFTTadopted

inthethree

regions.The

followingpartwilldetailtheuniquefeaturesofeachregionrespeetivelyandwillprobeintothepotential

reasons.

5.2UniquefeaturesofEnglishFTTinHongKong,Taiwanand

Mainland

Chinaandtheirpotential

reasons

FTThasuniquefeatures

ideological

inthethreeregionsrespeetivelydue

each

to

different

andculturalfactors.Featuresof

regionwillbeanalyzed

andreasons

willbeprovidedbelow.

36

5.2.1Uniquefeaturesofl叮Tinthethreeregions

●HongKong

Duetoitsspecialhistoricalbackgroundanduniqueculture,versionsinHongKongdisplayakindofvarietyandflexibility嬲translationmethodsareconcerned.TranslatorsinHongKongfavorliberaltranslationandadaptation.Theygivefullplaytotheircreativeness

followingexamples

ARoomwithaandimaginationwhenconductingthetranslatingactivity.TheCanprovethispo缸.《翡冷翠之恋》

《别问我是谁》

《山水喜相逢》

《人鬼情未了》

《风月俏佳人》

onViewTheEnglishPatientDrivingMissDaisyGhostPretryWomanTranslatorsinHongKongputgreatemphasisthecommercialvalueofthetitles

Inordertopleasethepublic,arousetheircuriosityandmaketheversionsvividandeye-catching,theyoftenadoptthefollowingways.

Firstly,theylike

sexusingsensation-orientedwordsandimagesreferringtoviolence,anddesire.Forexample,

《杀戮战场》Platoon

Cutup

VampiresinVenice

InternationalProstitution《鼐狄暴警》,《特欲幽灵》《彦彩倚招》

andintimacyareoftenSecondly,wordsexpressingemotion,love,passion

adopted:

MoulinRough《7躺红磨坊》,

《舞动澌痢,

MandolinSavetheLastDanceCaptainCorellis《火线秀‘7觚》,

Thirdly,thecombinationofChineseandEnglishandtheadoptionofCantonesewordsand

arephrasesisalsoaquitecommonphenomenoninthetranslatedfilmtitles.Thereexamples嬲follows:37

Honey,IBl洲Upthe

CurlySue

TheCableGuy

Casper

ThePrincessDiariesKids{-od、精灵BB大鳓《最9拍挡》《衰窟线人》,《启制、精灵》,《后俐肖公主》,Multiplicity

Fourthly,thles《三个菸赛一个砌containing“龙(dragon)”,“虎(tiger)”,“鬼(ghost)”,“魔(devil)”,

accountforaconsiderableproportion.Ahostof“致命(fatal)”and

proveit.

ShadowSOonexamplesCallofChina《龙在中国》Rocky3

CyborgCop

FinalAnalysis

●Taiwan

VersionsofTaiwandon’tstickButtheyale《虏威》,《魔鬼生化战警麓,《致俞莎/(》,SOcloselytotheorigi砌formandliteralmeaning.ornotasliberalastheversionsofHongKong.TheelegancethestyleoflanguageispaidmuchattentiontoThreeuniquefeaturesaleandtheexpressivefunctionisfulfilledbeaer.observedinthetranslatedfilmtitlesinTaiwan.

offour-chalacter,five-characterandseven-characterFirstly,thestructttres

phrasesalewidelyusedandChineseidiomsandproverbsaleoftenadoptedinTaiwanversions.Examplesinclude肠腩Chee咖砂

TheUmbrellas《安步当车》《秋水伊人》

《辣手美人心》

《烽火赤焰万里情》

《一树梨花压海棠》

《天妒红颜未了情》

《一曲相思情未了》

bearmoreliteraryofCherbourgFinalAnalysis尺PdsLDlitaLadySingstheBluesTheFabulousBakerBoySecondly,Taiwanversionsandromanticflavor.Thefollowing

table啪demonstrateit.3R

塑里塑!!型竖皇翌业虫旦!翌里坐!=塑里生!£!璺!!型坚21兰望巴墨!曼2受!

Mainland

呼啸山庄

美国丽人

四个婚礼一个葬礼EnglishfilmtitleHongKongTaiwanChinaWutheringHeightAmericanBeautyFour咆哮山庄美丽有罪a魂归离恨天美国心。美国情你是我今生的薪

娘Weddingsand四个婚礼一个葬礼Funeral

ThreeColors:蓝白红三色之蓝蓝色情挑

Blue(1993)

11:1reeColors:Red蓝白红三色之红红色情深

(1994)

TllreeColors:蓝白红三色之白白色情浓

White(1994)

Table3

Fromtable3we

andemphasizelovecallseethatthetranslatedversionsin碱wallaremoreIx)okishandfeelings.

Thirdly,thecommercialvalueoffilmtriesisbe吨putgreatemphasis

areoninTaiwanrecently.Eye??catchingandsensation?orientedwordsthatpopularinHong

KonghavegraduallyinfluencedTaiwan.Togivesomeexamples:

UnderSiege

You'reaBigBoyNow《蘑窟战将》《艳侣迷春》

Blindside

TheFugitive《泼7胶叉点》《绝分追杀令》

MississippiBurning

●MainlandChina《鼐久大冈暴》

Thetraditionaltranslationcriterionlike“faithfulness,smoothnessandelegance’’(“信、达、雅"),especiallyfaithfiaMess

inisfullyimplementedintheWanslationpracticediscussion.Compared、析ⅡltheircounterpartsinothertworegionsofChina,translatorsinMainlandChinaalemorereservedandcautious.

Firaly,themostprominentfeatureconcerningEnglishFrrinMainlandChinaisthatliteraltranslationmethodisoftenadopted.Theversionsalemorefaithfultothe39

originaltitlesandlaystrongemphasis

on

formalcorrespondenceandtheliteral

aS

meaningofthetitle.They

Thenexttable

are

notas

commercialized

thatintheothertworegions.

Candemonstratethispo缸well

OriginaltitlesAFishcalled

Mainland

China

HongKong

阿Wall

笨贼一箩筐真善美神鬼玩家麻雀变凤凰小鬼当家

Wanda

一条名叫旺达的鱼音乐之声飞行者漂亮女人独自在家

倩女大贼神仙鱼仙乐飘飘河处闻娱乐大亨风月俏佳人宝贝智多星

The

SoundofMusic

TheAviator

Pretty

Women

HomeAlone

玑lble4

Secondly,creativetranslatiOIlSalsoexist,however,everlthiskindoftranslatiOnsdoesnotgotoofarfromtheoriginaltitles.Forexample:TheBridges

ofMadisonCount《廊桥遗梦》.

《闻香识女》

Chinathere

Scent可口Woman

Thirdly,in

Mainlandis

tendencyof

SO

on

foreignness.The

are

former

fashion.

Chinesecultureimageslike“魂”,“断肠”,“梦”and

momore

Therearesomeexamples

Marty

oftheforeignnessofthetitleslike

《玛蒂》《卡萨布兰卡》

Hamlef

Titanic

《哈姆雷特》《泰坦尼克号》《史密斯夫妇》

reasons

Mr.andMrs.Smith

5?2.2Thepotential

According

toAndre

Lefevere,thetranslationprocessis

formofrewriting,or

recreatingactivitybythetranslatorand‘'themotivationforsuchrewritingideologicalconvention

or

Can

be

poetological”.Andhereideologyrefersto‘'thatgrillworkofform,

processof

andbeliefwhichorders0111"actions”.Therefore,inthe

translation,Lefeverethinksthatdominantideologyofthetargetcultureplays

40

decisiveroletranslation

on

thechoiceof

subjecL

theformofitspresentation

aus

well

aS

the

strategies.(Munday,2001:I28—1

29)mexistenceoftheunique

to

features

ofthetranslatedfilmtitlesinthethreeregionsofChinaisdue

ideologyandsocio-culturalcontextrespectively.

theirdominant

●HongKong

Asiswell—known,HongKongis

andwesternculturecollideand

all

internationalfinancecenterwhereChinese

converge.

control

oftheBritishcolonialrulefor

Firstly,HongKonghadbeenunderthe

almost

one

century.111ewesternculturehasexeIrted

greatimpact

on

HongKong’S

culture.Alargenumberoffilms,TVseries,booksandmagazineswhicharerelatedtoviolence,sex

and

desireswarmedintoHongKong’Smarket

ona

largescale.These

havegreatlyinfluencedthevalue

and

interestsofHongKongpeople.As

form—of

popularart,thefilmdefinitelyreflectstheseinfluences.

Secondly,

under

thesocial

culture

of

contextofKong

post—modernization

has

and

post—industrialization,theHong

become

largely

consumer-oriented.11be

and

HongKonglocalfilmindustryisalsohighlycommercialized

inclined

tocaterto

thepopulartaste.Inordertocalluponaudiencetowatchthe

filmand

ensure

theSUCCESSofboxoffice,atranslatorwillinputfactorswhichmay

toaudienceinto

seemmolecharmingthereare

thetranslated

film

titles.T11isexplainswhy

sex,

large

numberoftranslated

filmtitleswhichprojecttheconnotationof

violenceanddesire.

Thirdly,however,evenbeingruledbythecolonistsandinfluencedgreatlyby

western

culture,HongKongpeoplenevergiveupseekingfortherootoftheirculture.

essence

ActuallyHongKong’Sculturein

is

partofthecultureofthePearlRiver

Delta(Li2003:73).This

culturalelements,such

as

trendisreflectedinthe

theadoptionoftraditionalChinese

imagesof“龙(dragon)”or“虎(tiger)”inFTT.

an

Fourthly,thelanguagesysteminHongKongisalso

influentialfactorinFTL

Cantoneseisthemostpopularlocaldialect.Itisnaturalthatthetranslationwillmput

createa

wordswithCantoneseaccentsintothetranslatedfilmtitlesSO嬲tosense

of

intimacy.IntheearlyperiodofHongKong’S

41

colonialism,埘mtheattempt

to

enslave

localpeople,thecolonialistsforcedthemtolearnEnglishanddiscardstandardChinese.Schoolsanduniversitieswereestablished、析mEnglish鹊thesingleteachinglanguage,whichisconductivetotheformationofattitudeamongHongKongpeople--valuingEnglishwhilepayinglessattentiontothestudyofStandardChinese(Zhang2000:31).Thus,manypeopleinHongKongarebilingual,speakingCantoneseandEnglish,andtheyoftenmixtheirdialect埘t11Englishwords.ThisexplainswellwhythecombinationofChineseandEnglishisquitecommonintranslatedfilmtitles.●Taiwan

TaiwanhasbelongedtoChinasinceancienttimesanditisanindispensablepartofChina.Soitsgrass-rootcultureisapartofChineseculturewhichdefinitelyhasinfluenceonTaiwan.Peopletherespeak“GuoYu“(quitesimilarto“PuTongHua'’,thecommonlanguageinChina)andtheyvaluethetraditionalChineseculture.

However,forhistoricreasons,TaiwanWaSonceundertheJapanesecolonialcontrolforalmostfi姆years.Andithasbeenisolatingfromthemainlandsince1949underawesternizedsocialsystemwhichhasresultedinitsuniqueculturalfeatures.In1895,whenTalwanbecameacolony,itbegantofacethepowerfulforceoftheJapanesecolonisttooppressTalwanpeopletolearnJapaneseandforcewriterstowdteinJapanese(Liu2003:155).PatriotsinTaiwanstruggled、^,itlltheJapanesecolonistsbymaintainingthetraditionalChineseculture.ThusthetraditionalChineseculturalelementswerepreservedwellinTaiwan.Meanwhile,asTalwanfindsitselfcutoff“ththemotherlandforalmostfiftyyears,Talwanpeople’shomesicknessmotivatesthemtoretainthetraditionalChineseculture,whichiSreflectedinF"ITiStheadoptionoffive-characterorseven—characterphrases,allimitationinstructureofancientChinesepoems、)l,itllfiveorsevencharactersinoneline.

RomanticismandnostalgicfeelingsexistinTaiwan’SliteraturewhichcanexplainwhythetranslatedversionsinTaiwanaremorebookish.Weareallfamiliar、析mfamouswritersrepresentedbySanMaoandQiongYaowhohavewrittenromanticlovestories.Thereisnativeliteraturewithnostalgicandstrongemotions.DuetoinfluenceofromanticismandnostalgicemotionofTaiwan’Sliterati,FTTmaycontainmorewordswithromanticcolors.42

●MainlandChina

BeingfaithfultOtheoriginaltextisrelatedwiththetranslationhistoryinMainlandChina,starting谢tllthetranslationofsutra.Assutraisasacredscript,thetranslatorshouldrespecttheorigiIlaltextand

absoluteauthorityofthe

translationtraditioninoriginaltextanyadaptationisforbidden.ThusthewasestablishedandstrengthenedintheMainlandChina(Zhang2000:46).Moreover,the

byprincipleofservesasa‘‘faithfulness’’,‘‘expressiveness’’and‘‘elegance’’proposed

guidingprinciplefortranslatorsinYanFuMainlandChina.BeingfaithfultOtheoriginaltext

abecomesthefirstandthemostimportantcriterionof

exemplifieswellwhy

Englishfilmtitles.

、Ⅳi廿lqualifiedtranslation.ThisF订inMainlandChinaarealwaysfaithfultOtheoriginalthedevelopmentofglobalization,theopeninguppolicyprovidesopportunitiesforforeignexposureandculturalexchanges.Asaninternationallanguage,EnglishistaughtinalmostalltheschoolsinMainlandChina.Accordingly,thegeneralpublichavebeen

agettingfamiliar、加ththe“foreignness”.That’swhyinMainlandChinathereistendencyofforeignness.

5.3Thecorrespondingstrategies

ThecircleofFTTisreally

donotachieveunityin

stateofproblematicinthattheversionsofthesamefilmrifleChina,HongKongMainlandandTaiwan.Faced、Ⅳinlsuchadisunity,theauthorofthistheisisuggestscorrespondingstrategies.

AccordingtoSkopostheory,‘'theend

skoposofFTTistOcalljustifiesthemealls'’(Nord2001:9).Theaudienceareuponaudiencetoappreciatethefilm.Asinfluencedbydifferentcultures,itisnaturalthattranslatorsinthethreeregionsadoptdifferenttranslationstrategiesinordertoattracttheirtarget

thediversityofthetranslatedaudience.Theexistenceoffilmriflesisthusjustifiable.It’SnotnecessarytOachieveunityofeverytranslatedfilmtitle.

However,舾somearguethatthedisunityofFTTinthethreeregionswillarouseconfusion,translatorsinthethreeregionsshouldmakemoreeffortstOavoidcausing

suchconfusion.Onepossiblesolutionistoprovidetheothertranslatedversionsintheformofnotes.Forexample,TermsofEndearmentistranslatedinto《母女情深》(又译:《常在我心问》、《亲密关系》).ThereareadvantagesofadoptingthissolutionaSfollows.

Firstly,itCaninformaudiencemoreofthefilmitselffordifferenttranslatedversionsmayreflectdifferentaspectsofthefilmandbringdifferentflavorstotheaudience.Secondly,itcanavoidmisleadingtheaudiencetowatchthefilmforseveraltimesduetotheexistenceofdifferenttranslatedversions.Inthisway,theaudienceCanavoidwastingtimeandmoney.

Inaddition,theculturalexchangesacrosstheStraitshavebeengreatly

enhanced.Mandarinisnowvigorouslypopularized,thenthedialect’Sinfluenceupontransliterationbecomeslessandless。

Thelastbutnotleast,translationtheoristsandtranslatorsshouldattachgreatvaluetothislessexploredareaandputforwardconstructiveproposalandfeasibleprincipletopilotthetranslationpractice.

灿liIlall,thedisunityoffilmrifletranslationsinMainlandChina,HongKongandTaiwanwillandshouldbekeptatpresent.Translatorsshouldbeartheuniqueculturalfeaturesoftheregionsandprovidequalifiedtranslationconformingtothelocalflavor

5.4Summary

Inthischapter,similaritiesanddifferencesinFTTofMainlandChina,HongKongandTaiwanaleexaminedandpotentialreasonsareproposedrespectively.AccordingtoSkopostheorie,translationsindifferentregionscanstillremaindiversifiedaStranslationsfinallyservethetargetaudiencelivinginacertainculture.Inordertoealluponlocalaudiencetoseethefilm,itisreasonableandeffectiveforatranslatortoadapthistranslatedversiontothelocalflavoroftheregion.Theauthorsuggeststhattranslatorsprovideotherqualifiedtranslationsinnotesinordertoavoid

theconfusionoffiimtitletranslationsinthefilmmarketinthethreeregions,

Chapter6Conclusion

Thefilmis

one

ofthemostcharmingandinfluentialmassmediaproducts.With

therapiddevelopment,Chinaisconductingmoreculturalandeconomicexchanges

、^,ithforeigncountries.Consequently,EnglishfilmshaveenteredtheChinesemarket

ona

largescale

andhave

been

veryimportantpartofChinesepeople’Srecreational

life.Sotranslatingforeignfilmshasbecome

As

significant

one

andmeaningful

activity.

an

indispensablepartofthefilm,filmtitleis

ofthemostdirectchannels

inthe

forpeopletoknowaboutthefilm

and

itplays

very

importantroleforeign

Call

film

market.Ashasbeenanalyzedinthepreviouschapters,agoodfilmtitle

provideadequateinformationforaudiencebutalsopersuadeaudienceto—seethefilm.Filmtitlesofthefilm.SoFTTis

serves

as

notonly

drivingforceto

on

have

directbearing

thebox—office

meaningfuland

andis

challengingactivity.ButcurrentlyEnglish

FrThash’tgotdulyattention

Inthe

lessexploredsubject.

thegenreofthefilm,naming

previouschapterstheauthorintroduces

offilm

approaches,features,positionsandfunctions

howtorealizefourvaluesin

titles.The

authoralsoproposes

Fn

namelytherealizationofcultural,informative,

aestheticandcommercialvalues.Inthisway,thethefilm

call

skoposofattractingaudienceto

can

see

beachieyedandthe

success

ofthe

boxoffice

beensured.

Duringdataanalysis,itisnoticedthattranslatedfilmtitlesinMainlandChina,

HongKong

andTaiwan

vary

lot.Translators

inthethree

regionsofChinaadopt

differenttranslationstrategiesandmethodsinFTTwithindifferentsocio-cultural

context.EnglishFTTisnotdoneina“vacuum”,itisthe“productof

particular

culture,of

particularmomentintimeandof

particularregion”(Bassnett,

2001:136).Differentsocial

systems,habitsoflanguageandcultural

background

inevitablycontribute

to

differencesin

translation.Thus,the

extra—linguisticfactors

on

liketime,placeandaudience

factorshavethemostinfluence

theparticular

soeio-cultural

translationpractice.Anytranslmionshould

beweighedwithinthe

context.Somepeoplesuggestthattheshouldbeavoidedbycomingup、历tll

disunity

ofthetranslationofthethreeregions

one

singleversionfor

4S

film

title.Throughthe

analysisofthefeaturesofFTTandpotentialreasonsinthethreeregions,theauthor

afteralltocallupontheholdsthatdisunityshouldbekept,鹊theskoposof

localaudiencetoappreciateF,丌isthefilm.

Duetothelackingofacomprehensivetheory

titles,attemptsareandtheoreticalframeworktoguidethetranslationofEnglishfilmmadetogivesomeguidancetoF1vr

practices.

However,thisstudyislimitedintermsofresearchdepthandwidth.IthaSsomelimitationsbothintermsofquantitativeanalysisandspecificexplanations.Regardingquantitativeanalysis,theanalysiscouldbemoreaccurateifthesamplescouldbemorecomprehensive,thatis,havingmore

outtidesandversionsincluded.Itisworthwhilecarrying

explore.Formoreresearchesinthisfieldandthereisotherroomtoofdiffer—entperiodsmayhavetheiruniquefeaturesexample,translations

beandpotentialreasonswhichhaven’tbeencomparedinthisthesisabecauseofthelimitations

inFTr.ofspace.ThiscouldnewapproachforUStoconductmoreresearches

With

thefuture

guidethetheconsiderationsofthelimitationsofthisthesis,thisauthorhopesthatinsystematictheoriesandcomprehensiveprinciplescouldbeproposedtoresearchersequipped、^,itllmoretheoreticalcompetencecouldachieveF兀.And

morealongthepath.ItishopedthatthepresentpaperCanpavethewayforthefurtherstudy.

.一一虫地!!型里墨墅型业型竺型箜=塑里些!!坚P型堡121兰12墼墅12111

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【45】张春柏.影视翻译初探.【J】中国翻译1998,第2期,50---53

【46】张骏祥,程季华.,中国电影大辞典[M】.上海:上海辞书出版社,1995

【47】张佩瑶,从早期的香港的翻译活动(1942.1900)看翻译与权力的关系【A】。谢天振(编)

翻译的理论建构与文化透视【C】.上海:上海外语教育出版社,2000,31"42

【48】庄绎传(编.英汉翻译教程[M】.北京:外语教学与研究出版社,199949

Appendix:历届奥斯卡获奖最佳影片

第1届奥斯卡(1927.1928年度)

最佳影片:《翼》Wings

第2届奥斯卡(1928.1929年度)

最佳影片:《百老汇的旋律/红伶秘史》砀e第3届奥斯卡(1929.1930年度)

最佳影片:《西线无战事》AllQuiet第4届奥斯卡(1930.1931年度)

最佳影片:《壮志千秋》Cimarron

。第5届奥斯卡(1931.1932年度)

最佳影片:《大饭店》GrandHotelBroadwayMelodyontheWesternFront

第6届奥斯卡(1932.1933年度)

最佳影片:《乱世春秋》Cavalcade第7届奥斯卡(1933.1934年度)

最佳影片:《一夜风流》ItHappened第8届奥斯卡(1935.1936年度)

最佳影片:《叛舰喋血记》Mutiny

第9届奥斯卡(1936.1937年度)

最佳影片:《歌舞大王齐格飞》TheGreatZiegfeld第10届奥斯卡(1937.1938年度)

最佳影片:《左拉传》TheLifeofEmileZolaonOneNighttheBounty第11届奥斯卡(1938.1939年度)

最佳影片:《浮生若梦》YouCan't死妇It第12届奥斯卡(1939.1940年度)

最佳影片:《乱世佳人》GonewiththeWindwithYou第13届奥斯卡(1940.1941年度)最佳影片:《蝴蝶梦》Rebecca

第14届奥斯卡(1941.1942年度)

最佳影片:《翡翠谷》HowGreenWasMy第15届奥斯卡(1942.1943年度)Valley

最佳影片:《忠勇之家》Mrs.Miniver第16届奥斯卡(1943.1944年度)

最佳影片:《卡萨布兰卡》Casablanca第17届奥斯卡(1944.1945年度)

最佳影片:《与我同行》GoingMyWay第18届奥斯卡(1945.1946年度)

最佳影片:《失去的周末》TheLostWeekend第19届奥斯卡(1946.1947年度)

最佳影片:《黄金时代》砀PBestYearsofOutLives第20届奥斯卡(1947.1948年度)

最佳影片:《君子协定》Gentleman's第21届奥斯卡(1948.1949年度)

最佳影片:《哈姆雷特》Hamlet

第22届奥斯卡(1949.1950年度)Agreement

最佳影片:《国王的弄臣》彳刀theKing台Men第23届奥斯卡(1950.1951年度)

最佳影片:《彗星美入》AllAboutEve第24届奥斯卡(1951.1952年度)

最佳影片:《一个美国人在巴黎》AnAmerican第25届奥斯卡(1952.1953年度)inParis

最佳影片:《戏王之王》TheGreatestShowonEarth第26届奥斯卡(1953.1954年度)

最佳影片:《乱世忠魂》FromHere

第27届奥斯卡(1954.1955年度)toEternity

最佳影片:《码头风云》伽theWaterfront第28届奥斯卡(1955.1956年度)

最佳影片:《马蒂》Marty5l

第29届奥斯卡(1956.1957年度)

最佳影片:《环游地球八十天》Around第30届奥斯卡(1957.1958年度)最佳影片:《桂河大桥》TheBridge第31届奥斯卡(1958.1959年度)OntheWorldinEightyDaystheRiverKwai最佳影片:《金粉世界》G彬

第32届奥斯卡(1959.1960年度)最佳影片:《宾虚》Ben.Hur

第33届奥斯卡(1960.1961年度)

最佳影片:《桃色公寓》TheApartment第34届奥斯卡(1961.1962年度)最佳影片:《西区故事》WestSideStory第35届奥斯卡(1962.1963年度)

最佳影片:《阿拉伯的劳伦斯》LawrenceofArabia第36届奥斯卡(1963.1964年度)最佳影片:《汤姆琼斯》TomJones第37届奥斯卡(1964.1965年度)最佳影片:《窈窕淑女》MyFairZady第38届奥斯卡(1965.1966年度)最佳影片:《音乐之声》TheSoundofMusic第39届奥斯卡(1966.1967年度)最佳影片:《四季之人》AManforAllSeasons第40届奥斯卡(1967.1968年度)最佳影片:《炎热的夜晚》砌theHeatoftheNight第41届奥斯卡(1968.1969年度)最佳影片:《雾都孤儿》Oliver.t第42届奥斯卡(1969.1970年度)最佳影片:《午夜牛郎》MidnighrCowboy

第43届奥斯卡(1970.1971年度)最佳影片:《巴顿将军》Patton第44届奥斯卡(1971.1972年度)最佳影片:《法国贩毒网》TheFrenchConnection第45届奥斯卡(1972.1973年度)最佳影片:《教父》TheGodfather第46届奥斯卡(1973.1974年度)最佳影片:《骗中骗》TheSting第47届奥斯卡(1974.1975年度)最佳影片:《教父2》TheGodfather:Part11第48届奥斯卡(1975.1976年度)最佳影片:《飞越疯人院》OneFlewOvertheCuckoo'sNest第49届奥斯卡(1976.1977年度)最佳影片:《洛奇》Rocky

第50届奥斯卡(1977.1978年度)最佳影片:《安妮?霍尔》Annie胁刀第51届奥斯卡(1978.1979年度)最佳影片:《猎鹿人》TheDeerHunter第52届奥斯卡(1979.1980年度)最佳影片:《克莱默夫妇》KramerW.Kramer第53届奥斯卡(1980.1981年度)

最佳影片:《普通人》OrdinaryPeople第54届奥斯卡(1981.1982年度)最佳影片:《火的战车》ChariotsofFire第55届奥斯卡(1982.1983年度)最佳影片:《甘地传》Gandhi第56届奥斯卡(1983.1984年度)最佳影片:《母女情深》TermsofEndearment53

第57届奥斯卡(1984.1985年度)最佳影片:《莫扎特》Amadeus第58届奥斯卡(1985.1986年度)最佳影片:《走出非洲》OutofAfrica第59届奥斯卡(1986.1987年度)最佳影片:《野战排》Platoon

第60届奥斯卡(1987.1988年度)最佳影片:《末代皇帝》刀zPLastEmperor第61届奥斯卡(1988.1989年度)最佳影片:《雨人》RainMan

第62届奥斯卡(1989.1990年度)

最佳影片:《为戴茜小姐开车》DrivingMissDaisy第63届奥斯卡(1990.1991年度)最佳影片:《与狼共舞》DanceswithWolves第64届奥斯卡(1991.1992年度)最佳影片:《沉默的羔羊》TheSilenceoftheLambs第65届奥斯卡(1992.1993年度)最佳影片:《不可饶恕》Unforgiyen第66届奥斯卡(1993.1994年度)

最佳影片:《辛德勒的名单》Schindler'sList第67届奥斯卡(1994.1995年度)最佳影片:《阿甘正传》ForrestGump第68届奥斯卡(1995—1996年度)最佳影片:《勇敢的心》BraveHeart第69届奥斯卡(1996.1997年度)最佳影片:《英国病人》TheEnglishPatient第70届奥斯卡(1997.1998年度)最佳影片:《泰坦尼克号》Iimnic

第71届奥斯卡(1998.1999年度)最佳影片:《莎翁情史》Shakespearein第72届奥斯卡(1999.2000年度)最佳影片:《美国丽人》American第73届奥斯卡(2000.2001年度)最佳影片:《角斗士》Gladiator第74届奥斯卡(2001.2002年度)最佳影片:《美丽心灵》ABeautifuZMind第75届奥斯卡(2002.2003年度)最佳影片:《芝加哥》Chicago第76届奥斯卡(2003.2004年度)LoveBeauty最佳影片:《指环王3王者归.来》砀eLoadoftheRings:the第77届奥斯卡(2004.2005年度)最佳影片:《百万美元宝贝》MillionDollar第78届奥斯卡(2005.2006年度)最佳影片:《撞车》Crash

第79届奥斯卡(2006.2007年度)最佳影片:《无间行者》TheDeparted第80届奥斯卡(2007.2008年度)最佳影片:《老无所依》NoCountryfo,.OldMenBabyReturnoftheKing

55

Acknowledgements

Firstandforemost,1wouldliketosupervisorProfessor,whosewarmexpressmydeepestgratitudetomyencouragementsandenlighteningsuggestionshavealwaysbeentheimpetusintheprocessofmythesiswriting.Hisrespectablestrictattitudetowardsstudywillgooninfluencingmeinmyfutureworkandlife.

toSecondly,mysincerethanksgomyparents,whohavebeenalways

supportingmenotonlyduringtheperiodofdoingthisresearchbutalsoduringmystudylife.Withouttheirsupportandcare,IcannotfmishmystudySOsmoothly.

Thirdly,letmeexpressmysincerethankstomydearroommateYuanFanglianandmygoodfriendQiShanshan.TheyhaveaJwaysbeenthere

tolisteningtomymoaningandofferinghelpandcomfort

Andlastly1me.wanttothanktheauthors,editorsandcontributorsofthereference

call’tfinishbooks,magazinesandmagazinescitedinmythesis.WithouttheireffortsI

it.

个人简历

毕建静,1981年9月8日出生于山东省威海市。

2001年9月考入中国海洋大学外国语学院英语语言文学专业,2005年7月本科毕业并获得文学学士学位。

2005年9月考入中国海洋大学外国语学院外国语言学及应用语言学专业攻读文学硕士学位至今。

及衣口_小下匕X发表的:出-T--:术论文

[1]毕建静.从四个价值看英语电影片名的汉译[J].科技信息,2007,(27):334-33557

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