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Part one: English Literature

Chapter1 The Renaissance period(14世纪至十七世纪中叶)文艺复兴

1. Humanism is the essence of the Renaissance.人文主义是文艺复兴的核心。

2. the Greek and Roman civilization was based on such a conception that man is the measure of all things.人文主义作为文艺复兴的起源是因为古希腊罗马文明的基础是以“人”为中心,人是万物之灵。

3. Renaissance humanists found in then classics a justification to exalt human nature and came to see that human beings were glorious creatures capable of individual development in the direction of perfection, and that the world they inhabited was theirs not to despise but to question, explore, and enjoy.人文主义者们却从古代文化遗产中找到充足的论据,来赞美人性,并开始注意到人类是崇高的生命,人可以不断发展完善自己,而且世界是属于他们的,供他们怀疑,探索以及享受。

4. Thomas More, Christopher Marlowe and William Shakespeare are the best representatives of the English humanists.托马斯.摩尔,克利斯朵夫.马洛和威廉.莎士比亚是英国人文主义的代表。

5. Wyatt introduced the Petrarchan sonnet into England.怀亚特将彼特拉克的十四行诗引进英国。

6. The first period of the English Renaissance was one of imitation and assimilation.英国文艺复兴初期只是一个学习模仿与同化的阶段。

7. The goals of humanistic poetry are: skillful handling of conventions, force of language, and, above all, the development of a rhetorical plan in which meter, rhyme, scheme, imagery and argument should all be combined to frame the emotional theme and throw it into high relief.人文主义诗歌的主要目标是对传统习俗的熟练运用,语言的力度与气概,而最重要的是发展了修辞模式,即将格律,韵脚(式),组织结构,意象(比喻,描述)与议论都结合起来勾画出情感主题,并将其极为鲜明生动的表现出来。

8. The most famous dramatists in the Renaissance England are Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare, and Ben Jonson.文艺复兴时期英国最著名的戏剧家有克利斯朵夫.马洛,威廉.莎士比亚与本.约翰逊。

9. Francis Bacon (1561-1626), the first important English essayist.费兰西斯.培根是英国历史上最重要的散文家。

(I)Edmund Spenser埃德蒙.斯宾塞

10. the theme of Redcrosse is not “Arms and the man,” but something more romantic-“Fierce wars and faithful loves.”《仙后》的主题并非“男人与武器”,而是更富浪漫色彩的“残酷战争与忠贞爱情”。

11. It is Spenser’s idealism, his love of beauty, and his exquisite melody that make him known as “the poets’ poet.”正是斯宾塞的理想主义,对美的热爱以及精美优雅的诗文韵律是他成为“诗人中的诗人”。

(II)Christopher Marlowe克利斯朵夫.马洛

12. As the most gifted of the “University Wits,” Marlowe composed six plays within his short lifetime. Among them the most important are: Tamburlaine, Parts I & II, Dr.Faustus, The Jew of Malta and Edward II.马洛是当时“大学才子”中最富才华的人,在他短暂的一生中,他完成了六部剧本的创作。其中最负盛名的是:《帖木尔》,《浮士德博士的悲剧》,《马耳他岛的犹太人》以及《爱德华二世》。

13. Marlowe’s greatest achievement lies in that he perfected the blank verse and made it the

principal medium of English drama.马洛的艺术成就在于他完善了无韵体诗,并使之成为英国戏剧中最重要的文体形式。

14. Marlowe’s second achievement is his creation of the Renaissance hero for English drama.马洛的第二项贡献是他创造了文艺复兴时期的英雄形象。

15. His brilliant achievement as a whole raised him to an eminence as the pioneer of English drama.他对戏剧发展的贡献是不可磨灭的,为此,它被后世尊为英国戏剧的先驱。

16. The passionate shepherd to his love激情的牧人致心爱的姑娘

This short poem is considered to be one of the most beautiful lyrics in English literature.这首短诗是英国文学诗中最优美的抒情诗。

(III)William Shakespeare威廉.莎士比亚

17. The first period of his dramatic career, he wrote five history plays: Henry VI, Parts I, II, and III, Richard III, and Titus Andronicus; and four comedies: The Comedy of Errors, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, The Taming of the Shrew, and Love?s Labour?s Lost.在他戏剧创作生涯的第一个阶段,他创作了五部历史剧:《亨利六世》,《理查三世》,《泰托斯.安东尼》以及四部喜剧:《错误的戏剧》,《维洛那二绅士》,《驯悍记》和《爱的徒劳》。

18. In the second period, he wrote five histories: Richard II, King John, Henry IV, Parts I and II, and Henry V; six comedies: A Midsummer Night?s Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It, Twelfth Night, and The Merry Wives of Windsor; and two tragedies: Romeo and Juliet and Julius Caesar.在第二阶段,他写了五部历史剧:《理查三世》,《约翰王》,《亨利四世》,《亨利五世》以及六部喜剧《仲夏夜之梦》,《威尼斯商人》,《无事生非》,《皆大欢喜》,《第十二夜》,《温莎的风流娘儿们》,还有两部悲剧:《罗密欧与朱丽叶》和《裘利斯.凯撒》。

19. Shakespeare?s third period includes his greatest tragedies and his so-called dark comedies. The tragedies of this period are Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra, Troilus and Cressida, and Coriolanus. The two comedies are All?s Well That Ends and Measure for Measure.第三阶段诞生了莎翁最伟大的悲剧和他自称的黑色喜剧(或悲喜剧),悲剧有:《哈姆雷特》,《奥赛罗》,《李尔王》《麦克白》《安东尼与克利奥佩特拉》《特罗伊勒斯与克利西达》及《克里奥拉那斯》。两部喜剧是《终成眷属》和《一报还一报》。

20. The last period of Shakespeare’s work includes his principle romantic tragicomedies: Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale and The Tempest; and his two plays: Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen.最后一个时期的作品主要有浪漫悲喜剧:《伯里克利》《辛白林》《冬天的故事》与《暴风雨》。他最后两部剧是《亨利八世》与《鲁克里斯受辱记》。

21. Shakespeare’s sonnets are the only direct expression of the poet’s own feelings.这些十四行诗都是莎翁直抒胸臆的成果。

22. Shakespeare’s history plays are mainly written under the principle that national unity under a mighty and just sovereign is a necessity.莎翁的历史剧都有这样一个主题:在一个强大英明的君主统领下的国家,统一是非常必要的。

23. In his romantic comedies, Shakespeare takes an optimistic attitude toward love and youth, and the romantic elements are brought into full play.在他的浪漫喜剧中,莎士比亚以乐观的态度对待爱情与青春,并将浪漫色彩渲染到极致。

24. The successful romantic tragedy is Romeo and Juliet, which eulogizes the faithfulness of love and the spirit of pursuing happiness.莎翁在其成功的浪漫主义悲剧《罗密欧与朱丽叶》,颂扬了对爱的忠贞及对幸福的追求。

25. Shakespeare’s greatest tragedies are: Hamlet, Othello, King Lear, and Macbeth. They have

some characteristics in common. Each portrays some noble hero.莎士比亚的四大悲剧是:《哈姆雷特》《奥赛罗》《李尔王》《麦克白》

26. “The King’s government must be carried on”—but carried on for the good of the nation, not for the pleasure of the king.“国王的统治一定要万古不变”----但是这种流传百世万古不变的统治是有利于国家利益的,而不是只为国王自己服务。

27. Thus, he finds no way to solve the social problems. In the end, the only thing he can do as a humanist is to escape from the reality to seek comfort in his dream.正因如此,他才无力寻求到医治各种社会痼疾的灵丹妙药,最后,他作为人文主义所能做的唯一事情便是逃避现实,从梦幻中找安慰。

28. He holds that literature should be a combination of beauty, kindness and truth, and should reflect nature and reality.他认为文学应该是真善美的结合,应该反映天性与现实。

29. Shakespeare is above all writers in the past and in the present time.古往今来,没有一个作家能与莎士比亚媲美,他对后世文学家的潜移默化也是无可估量的。

30. Almost all English writers after him have been influenced by him either in artistic point of view, in literary form or in language.在他之后几乎所有的英国文学家都在艺术观点,文学形式及语言技巧方面受到他的影响。

31. Sonnet 18 is one of the most beautiful sonnets written by Shakespeare.十四行诗第十八首诗莎翁最出色的十四行诗。

(IV)Francis Bacon弗兰西斯.培根

32. The most import works of his first group include The Advancement of Learning, Written in English; Novum Organum , an enlarged Latin version of The Advancement of Learning.培根的作品可分为三类:第一类中最重要的作品有《学术的进展》(用英文著述)《新工具》(是《学术的进展》的拉丁文增补版)

33. One is the knowledge obtained from the Divine Revelation, the other is the knowledge from the workings of human mind.他将知识分为两种:一种是通过神的启示获得的知识,另一种是通过人类用脑思考而获得的知识。

34. According to Bacon, man’s understanding consists of three parts: history to man’s memory, poetry to man’s imagination and creation, and philosophy to man’s reason.培根认为,人类的认识与学问分为三部分:基于人类回忆的历史学,基于人类想象力创造力的诗歌与基于人类理性的哲学。

35. Bacon, as a humanist intellect, shows the new empirical attitudes toward truth about nature and bravely challenges the medieval scholasticist.作为人文主义者的培根展示了自己对于自然界真理的实验主义态度,并向中世纪的经院哲学家们提出挑战。

36. Bacon’s essays are famous for their brevity, compactness and powerfulness.培根的散文以简洁,紧凑,有力度而著名。

37. The essays are well-arranged and enriched by biblical allusions, metaphors and cadence.这些散文不仅结构巧妙还大量使用了《圣经》的典故,隐喻和基调。

38. Of Studies 论学习

Reading maketh a full man, conference a ready man, and writing an exact man.读书使人充实,讨论使人机智。

(V)John Donne约翰.邓恩

39. The imagery is drawn from the actual life.诗中的意象都是从现实生活中提取的。

40. His poems give a more inherently theatrical impression by exhibiting a seemingly unfocused diversity of experiences and attitudes, and a free range of feelings and moods.他的诗歌给人一种


41. The Sons and Sonnets, by which Donne is probably best known, contains most of his early lyrics.《歌与短歌》是邓恩最有名的诗集,囊括了他早期大多数爱情诗作。

42. In his gloomy poem “Farewell to love,” we can see his disillusionment.在忧伤的诗作《告别爱情》中,我们就可以感受到他对爱情幻想的破灭。

43. With the brief, simple language, the argument is continuous throughout the poem.议论依附于一种简洁平白的语言,并贯穿于整首诗作。

(VI)John Milton约翰.弥尔顿

44. he was entirely occupied with the thoughts of fighting for human freedom.他头脑中充满了为人类自由而战的思想。

45. Milton’s literary achievements can be divided into three groups: the early poetic works, the middle prose pamphlets and the great poem.弥尔顿的文学作品可分为三类:早期诗作,中期的散文小册子和后期的伟大诗作。

46. Milton wrote his three major poetical works: Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained, and Samson Agonistes.他的三部伟大诗作:《失乐园》《复乐园》和《力士参孙》。

47. The theme of Paradise Lost is the “Fall of Man”. In the fall of man Adam discovered his full humanity.失乐园的主题是人类的沉沦。在沉沦之中,亚当发现了自己身上的人性。

48. Milton held that God created all things out of Himself, including evil.他认为上帝是按照他自己的样子造出的世界,其中也包括罪恶。

49. It opens the way for the voluntary sacrifice of Christ which showed the mercy of God in bringing good out of evil.为基督自愿献身开辟了道路,这也显示出上帝欲将人类从罪恶与苦难中拯救出来的同情心。

50. In Samson Agonistes, the whole poem strongly suggests Milton’s passionate longing that he too could bring destruction down upon the enemy at the cost of his own life.在力士参孙中,整首诗都强烈暗示着弥尔顿渴望他自己也能像参孙一样,以生命为代价,与敌人同归于尽。

51. In his life, Milton shows himself a real revolutionary, a master poet and a great prose writer.弥尔顿毕生都展现了真正的革命精神和非凡的诗歌才华。

52. Paradise Lost:人类由于理性不强,意志薄弱,经不起考验,暗示英国自产主义革命失败的原因。

Chapter2 The Neoclassical Period(1660-1798)新古典主义

1. In short, it was an age full of conflicts and divergence of values.总之,这一时期是矛盾与价值观分歧的时期。

2. The eighteenth-century England is also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason.英国的十八世纪也同时是启蒙主义时代,或曰理性时代。

3. Its purpose was to enlighten the whole world with the light of modern philosophical and artistic ideas.运动的主旨便是用当代哲学与艺术思想的晨光启迪整个世界。

4. Enlighteners held that rationality or reason should be the only, the final cause of any human thought and activities. They called for a reference to order, reason and rules.启蒙者主张理性是任何人思想与行动的唯一缘由。他们大力提倡秩序,理性及法律。

5. As a matter of fact, literature at the time, heavily didactic and moralizing, became a very popular means of public education.其实,当时的文学作品种充满了说教与道德理念,就已经成为大众教育的良好工具。

6. Famous among the great enlighteners in England were those great writers like John Dryden, Alexander Pope, Joseph Addison and Sir Richard Steele, the two pioneers of familiar essays, Jonathan Swift, Daniel Defoe, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, Henry Fielding and Samuel Johnson.英国著名的启蒙主义文学家有约翰.德莱顿,亚历山大.蒲柏,约瑟夫.艾迪森与理查.斯蒂尔(这两位是现代散文的先驱),乔纳森.斯威夫特,丹尼尔.迪福,理查.B.谢立丹,亨利.费尔丁和塞缪尔.约翰逊。

7. In the field of literature, the Enlightenment Movement brought about a revival of interest in the old classical works.在文学领域,启蒙主义运动还使人们重新对古典时代的著作产生兴趣。

8. They believed that the artistic ideals should be order, logic, restrained emotion and accuracy, and that literature should be judged in terms of its service to humanity.他们认为理想的艺术应基于秩序,逻辑,确切及情感控制的基础上,而文学作品的价值评判标准应该看它是否为人文主义服务。

9. Thus a polite, urbane, witty, and intellectual art developed.由此一种温文尔雅,充满灵性的知识分子文学艺术发展起来。

10. Neoclassicists had some fixed laws and rules for almost every genre of literature.在几乎所有的文学形式中,新古典主义者们都设定了创作的规矩与条框。

11. Drama should be written in the heroic Couplets (iambic pentameter rhymed in two lines); the three unities of time, space and action should be strictly observed; regularity in construction should be adhered to, and type characters rather than individuals should be represented.戏剧必须用英雄体偶剧(抑扬五音步的押韵双行诗)写就;时间,地点,事件三要素必须要遵循;写作的规矩必须要遵守,而作品中的人物要代表一类人,而不是个性化。

12. But it had a lasting wholesome influence upon English literature. (套话)但新古典主义对英国文学史产生过持久的全面的影响。

13. The poetic techniques and certain classical graces such as order, good form, unified structure, clarity and conciseness of language developed in this period have become a permanent heritage.在这一时期出现的诗歌技巧与古典气质,如秩序,优美的格式,统一的结构,简明的语言都成为永恒的文学传统。

14. The mid-century was, however, predominated by a newly rising literary form---the modern English novel, which, contrary to the traditional romance of aristocrats, gives a realistic presentation of life of the common English people.十八世纪中叶,还兴起一种崭新的文学形式----英国现代小说,这种文学与传统贵族的骑士文学相反,着重描写英国普通百姓的生活。

15. Among the pioneers were Daniel Defoe, Samuel Richardson, Henry Fielding, Laurence Sterne, Tobias George Smollett, and Oliver Goldsmith.英国现代小说的先驱有丹尼尔.迪福,塞缪尔.理查德,亨利.费尔丁,劳伦斯.斯泰思,托比亚斯.斯摩莱特以及奥立弗.哥尔斯密。

16. From the middle part to the end of the century there was also an apparent shift of interest from the classic literary tradition to originality and imagination, from society to individual, and from the didactic to the confessional, inspirational and prophetic. 从十八世纪中叶至十八世纪末,还出现了古典文学传统向独创性与丰富联想性的转移,社会描写向个性描写的转移,说教向忏悔,鼓励及预示的转移。

17. Gothic novels---mostly stories of mystery and horror.哥特式小说----主要讲述恐怖神秘的故事。

18. Jonathan Swift’s A Modest Proposal being generally regarded as the best model of satire, not only of the period but also in the whole English literary history.乔纳森.斯威夫特的《一个小小的建议》被公认为英国文学史上讽刺作品的经典。

(I)John Bunyan约翰.班扬

19. As a stout Puritan, he had made a conscientious study of the Bible and firmly believed in salvation through spiritual struggle.作为一个坚定的清教徒,他认真学习《圣经》,并深信人一定能通过精神上的奋斗得到拯救。

20. he made it possible for the reader of the least education to share the pleasure of reading his novel and to relive the experience of his characters.他的语言具体生动,情节鲜明真实,连没受过教育的人也能享受到阅读他的作品的乐趣。

21. Bunyan’s other works include Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners, The Life and Death of Mr.Badman, The Holy War and The Pilgrim’s Progress, Part II.班扬其他的作品还有《罪人头目的赦免》,《拜得门先生生死录》,《圣战》以及《天路历程》第二部

22. The Vanity Fair.名利场(节选《天路历程》第一部)

The Pilgrim’s Progress is the most successful religious allegory in the English language. Its purpose is to urge people to abide by Christian doctrines and seek salvation through constant struggles with their own weaknesses and all kinds of social evils.《天路历程》是英文作品中最成功的宗教寓言。它的主旨是让人们遵循基督教教义,并通过不断战胜自身弱点与身外的邪恶来获得拯救。

(II)Alexander Pope 亚历山大.蒲伯

23. Pope, a very sensitive man, would strike back hard, and in the constant verbal battles he developed a style of biting satire. 蒲伯本身是个很敏感的人,自然要用笔墨来反击,在此期间,他发展了犀利的讽刺文体。

24. For him the supreme value was order---cosmic order, political order, social order, aesthetic order, and this emphasis on order found expression in all of his works.对他来说秩序有着至高无上的价值-----宇宙秩序,政治秩序,社会秩序,美学秩序。这种对秩序与理性的强调深入到了他各部作品中。

25. Pope made his name as a great poet with the publication of An Essay on Criticism in 1711. The next year, he published The Rape of the Lock, a finest mock epic.1711年,他出版了散文《论批评》,从此奠定了他在诗坛的地位。次年,他又出版了《夺发记》,一部极妙的讽刺史诗。

26. Pope was the greatest poet of his time. He strongly advocated neoclassicism, emphasizing that literary works should be judged by classical rules of order, reason, logic, restrained emotion, good taste and decorum. 蒲伯是当时最伟大的诗人,他大力提倡新古典主义,强调文学作品的优劣应由古典的秩序尺度,理性,逻辑,情感的克制,高雅的品位以及是否体面,正派来衡量。

27. He worked painstakingly on his poems, developed a satiric, concise, smooth, graceful and well-balanced style.他致力于诗歌创作,发展了讽刺,简练,通顺,优雅,平衡的风格。 (III)Daniel Defoe丹尼尔.笛福

28. His quick mind, abundant energy and never-failing enthusiasm always brought him back on his feet after a fall.他过人的才智,充沛的精力,旺盛而持久的热情总是使他在失败后能重新站起。

29. Robinson Crusoe, an adventure story very much in the spirit of the time, is universally considered his masterpiece.《鲁宾逊漂流记》是一部体现时代精神的游记历险小说,是笛福的代表作。

30. In most of his works, he gave his praise to the hard-working, study middle class and showed his sympathy for the downtrodden, unfortunate poor.在他大部分作品中,他都表达了对勤劳,坚强的中产阶级的赞誉,以及对破落不幸的穷苦人的同情。

31. Defoe was a very good story-teller.笛福很会讲故事。

32. His sentences are sometimes short, crisp and plain, and sometimes long and rambling, which leave on the reader an impression of casual narration.他的语句时而短小干脆,朴素直白,时而又气势磅礴,泼墨如水,为读者留下了叙述自由悠闲的印象。

33. His language is smooth, easy, colloquial and mostly vernacular.他的措辞简朴易懂又口语化,有时甚至是俗语方言。

34. There is nothing artificial in his language: it is common English at its beat.他的语言毫无造作,完全是大众英语。

35. Robinson Crusoe: The novel consists actually of three parts. 《鲁宾逊漂流记》:整部小说分为三个部分

The realistic account of the successful struggle of Robinson single-handedly against the hostile nature forms the best part of the novel. Robinson is here a real hero: a typical eighteenth-century English middle-class man., the pioneer colonist.其中对鲁宾逊徒手与恶劣的大自然作斗争的描述是小说最精彩的部分。在此,鲁宾逊是真正的英雄:一个典型的英国十八世纪中产阶级人士。

(IV)Jonathan Swift乔纳森.斯威夫特

36. In 1704 he published two powerful satires on corruption in religion and learning, A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books, which established his name as a satirist.1704年,他针对宗教和学术界的腐败出版了两篇犀利的讽刺小品,一为《桶的故事》,一为《书籍的战斗》。这两篇作品奠定了他在讽刺作品中的地位。

37. Even today Swift is still respected as a national hero in Ireland.直至今日,斯威夫特还被尊为爱尔兰的民族英雄。

38. In his opinion, human nature is seriously and permanently flawed. To better human life, enlightenment is needed.他认为人性永远有着严重的瑕疵,为了使人的生活更美好,人们需要启蒙。

39. In his writings, although he intends not to condemn but to reform and improve human nature and human institutions.在他的作品中,他提倡的不是谴责,而是采取行为改良人性与人为的机构。

40. His “A Modest Proposal ” is generally taken as a perfect model.他的《一个温和的建议》被认为是一篇完善的典范。

41. Swift is one of the greatest masters of English prose.斯威夫特是一名优秀的散文作家。

42. He defined a good style as “proper words in proper places.” Clear, simple, concrete diction, uncomplicated sentence structure, economy and conciseness of language mark all his writings---essays, poems and novels.他创立了一种良好的文风,即“在恰当的地方用恰当的词”。无论是散文,诗歌,还是小说,简洁,具体,精确,没有复杂的句式永远是他的写作风格。

43. Swift’s chief works are: A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books, The Drapier’s Letters(note:Drapier=Swift, alias), Gulliver’s Travels and A Modest Proposal.斯威夫特的作品主要有《桶的故事》,《书籍的战斗》,《德拉皮尔的信》,《格列佛游记》和《一个温和的建议》。

44. Gulliver’s Travels: Jonathan’s best fictional work, the book contains four parts. Its social significance is great and its exploration into human nature profound. 《格列佛游记》:是斯威夫特最精彩的一部小说,全书分为四卷,它具有重大的社会意义,同时对人性的探索与揭示也是深刻的。

(V)Henry Fielding亨利.费尔丁

45. During his career as a dramatist, Fielding had attempted a considerable number of forms of


46. Of all his plays, the best known are The Coffee-House Politician, The Tragedy of Tragedies, Pasquin, and The Historical Register for the Year 1736.他的作品中最有名的要数《咖啡屋的政治家》,《悲剧中的悲剧》,《巴斯昆》,《1736历史年鉴》。

47. a “comic epic in prose,” whose subject is “the true ridiculous” in human nature.“散文体喜剧史诗”,主题是人类本性中的荒唐,对人性进行了真实的讽刺。

48. The dominating qualities of the novel are its excellent character-portrayal, timely entrances and exits, robustness of tone and hilarious, hearty humor.小说的突出特点是出色的人物刻画,及时的出场退场,笔调的遒劲及令人会心的幽默。

49. “The Great Man, properly considered, is no better than a great gangster”----The History of Jonathan Wild the Great从某种意义上说,伟大的人物无异于“伟大”的匪徒--------《伟大的乔纳森怀尔德》。

50. The History of Tom Jones is a masterpiece on the subject of human nature. 费尔丁的代表作《汤姆.琼斯:一个弃儿的故事》主题是对人性的讽刺。

51. the purpose of the novel was not just to amuse, but to instruct, the object of novel was to present a faithful picture of life, “the just copies of human manners,” with sound teaching woven into their texture, so as to teach men to know themselves, their proper-spheres and appropriate manners.,小说不仅供娱乐,而且更有教育意义,他的小说的主旨是要真实地展示生活,使之成为“人类态度的完整拷贝”,并将说教巧妙的引入作品,教导人们认识自己,寻求适宜的人生态度。

52. Fielding has been regarded by some as “Father of the English novel,” for his contribution to the establishment of the form of the modern novel.费尔丁被一些人尊为“英国小说之父”,因为他为现代小说模式的创立作出很大贡献。

53. he was the first to set out , both in theory and practice, to write specifically a “comic epic in prose,” the first to give the modern novel its structure and style.他第一个在理论与实践上创造了“散文体喜剧史诗”,并第一个为现代小说确立了结构和风格。

54. He “thinks the thought” of all his characters, so he is able to present not only their external behaviors but also the internal workings of their minds.作者以角色的口吻去“想”,因此不仅可以表述人物的外在行为,还可深入刻画其内心的思想活动。

55. Fielding ‘s language is easy, unlaboured and familiar, but extremely vivid and vigorous. His sentences are always distinguished by logic and rhythm, and his structure carefully planed toward an inevitable ending.费尔丁的创作语言自然流畅,通俗易懂,同时又栩栩如生并富有活力,他的句子以逻辑性和韵律性见长,小说结尾总是水到渠成,顺理成章。

56. Tom Jones, the novel consists of 18 books. Tom, the titular hero of the story, he became a national hero, he---honest, kind-hearted, high-spirited, loyal, and brave, but impulsive, wanting prudence and full of animal spirits.《汤姆.琼斯》共18卷,汤姆曾一度成为全国人民心中的英雄,他----诚实,善良,高尚,忠诚,勇敢,同时也有着易冲动,鲁莽和野性难驯的缺点。

57. Tom Jones brings its author the name of the “Prose Home.” The panoramic view it provides of the 18th-century English country.《汤姆.琼斯》为费尔丁赢得了“散文荷马”的盛名,小说为读者提供了一幅英国18世纪乡村与城市的宏伟的全景图。

(VI)Samuel Johnson塞缪尔.约翰逊

58. The years between 1737 and 1755, he did translations, wrote poems, essays and so on.1737年至1755年这段时间对他来说充满了艰辛:他做过翻译,写过诗,为书商编书,编辑杂志。

59. In his famous Literary Club, where he was surrounded with respect by the elite of the literary


60. Johnson was an energetic and versatile writer. He had a hand in all the different branches of literary activities.约翰逊精力充沛,多才多艺,他还涉足各种各样的文学领域。

61. His chief works include pomes: “London”, and “The Vanity of Human Wishes”; a romance: The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia; a tragedy: Irene.他的主要作品有诗歌:《伦敦》,《人类欲望的虚幻》骑士浪漫诗:《拉塞拉斯的历史》,《阿比西尼亚王子》;一部悲剧:《艾琳》。

62. As a lexicographer, Johnson distinguished himself as the author of the first English dictionary by an Englishman----A Dictionary of the English Language, a gigantic task which Johnson undertook single-handedly and finished in over seven years.作为词典编撰者,约翰逊是编撰英文词典的第一个英国人,作品为《英文大词典》,这部巨著是塞缪尔.约翰逊花了七年时间独自完成的。

63. Johnson was the last great neoclassicist enlightener in the later eighteenth century. He was very much concerned with the theme of the vanity of human wishes.约翰逊是十八世纪下半叶最后一位新古典主义启蒙文学家,他十分关心人类欲望的虚幻,几乎他所有的作品都含有这样的主题。

64. His sentences are long and well structured, interwoven with parallel words and phrases.他使用的句子一般较长,但结构工整,包含有许多排比,对仗。

65. Reading his works gives the reader the impression that he is talking with a very learned man.读他的小说会给人一种感觉,他在与一位非常博学的人士对话。

(VII)Richard Brinsley Sheridan理查.比.谢立丹

66. The year 1777 saw the appearance of his masterpiece The School for Scandal, which brought him quite a fortune.1777年,谢立丹的代表作《造谣学校》出版,使他大发其财。

67. His plays, especially The Rivals and The School for Scandal, are generally regarded as important links between the masterpiece of Shakespeare and those of Bernard Shaw, and as true classics in English comedy.他的代表作《情敌》和《造谣学校》被认为是上承莎士比亚,下接萧伯纳的纽带,是真正的英国古典派喜剧。

68. In his play, morality is the constant theme.他的作品永恒的主题是道德。

69. The School for Scandal is mainly a story about two brothers, the hypocritical Joseph Surface and the good-natured, imprudent, spendthrift Charles Surface. The play ends with great disgrace for Joseph and double bliss for Charles. It is a sharp satire on the moral degeneracy of the aristocratic-bourgeois society in the eighteenth-century England. No wonder, the play has been Regarded as the best comedy since Shakespeare. 《造谣学校》主要讲述了两个兄弟的故事,一个是伪君子约瑟夫.萨尔菲斯,另一个是放荡不羁但心地善良的查尔斯.萨尔菲斯。戏剧的结尾约瑟夫名声扫地,而查尔斯既获得了美人的芳心,又获得了丰厚的遗产,而梯泽尔夫人在丈夫的感化下与其重归于好。《造谣学校》是对18世纪英国贵族资产阶级的道德败坏,对无聊的富人恶意的制造谣言,对上层社会骄奢淫逸的生活以及对在高贵生活方式和高尚道德准则的掩饰下的道德沦丧与虚伪假善的辛辣讽刺。毫无疑问,它被认为是自莎士比亚以来最出色的喜剧。

(VII)Thomas Gray托马斯.格雷

70. he declined the Poet laureateship in 1757.1757年,他竟谢绝了授予他的诗人桂冠奖。

71. In contrast to those professional writers, Gray’s literary output was small.与其余专职作家不同,格雷作品极少。

72. His masterpiece, “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” was published in 1751. The poem once and for all established his fame as the leader of the sentimental poetry of the day, especially

“the Graveyard School”.1757年,他的代表作《写在教堂墓地的挽歌》出版这首诗奠定了他在当时作为感伤主义诗歌创始人的地位,尤其是从此他便成为“墓地诗歌”流派的代表。

73. His other poems include “Ode on the Spring”, “Ode on the Death of a Favourite cat” and so on. (Ode:?.赞,颂)他的其他作品还有《春之颂》,《伊顿公学展望》,《爱猫之死》等等。

74. A conscientious artist of the first rate, Gray wrote slowly and carefully, painstakingly seeking perfection of form and phrase.格雷创作态度认真,作品诞生速度慢,却精益求精。

75. “Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard” is regarded as Gray?s best and most representative work. In this poem, Gray reflects on death, the sorrows of life, and the mysteries of human life with a touch of his personal melancholy. The poem abounds in images and arouses sentiment in the bosom of every reader, The poem has been ranked among the best of the eighteenth century English poetry.《写在教堂墓地的挽歌》是雷格最优秀的代表作,创作历时八年,诗中内容与格雷的知己理查.韦斯特的去世有关。其中,格雷揭示了生与死的愁苦与神秘,并略述了自己忧伤的心情。诗中富于比喻,并给读者带来深深的伤感。这首诗被列为英国十八世纪最优秀的诗歌之一。

Chapter3 The Romantic Period (1798-1832)浪漫主义

1. This urgency was provoked by two important revolutions: the French Revolution of 1789-1794 and the English Industrial Revolution which happened more slowly, but with Astonishing consequences.英国面临着新的发展动力:一是1789-1794年的法国资产阶级大革命,一是同时期英国内部的工业革命。

2. In 1832, the Reform Bill was enacted, which brought the Industrial capitalists into power.1832年“改革法案”在议会通过并实施。

3. The Romantic Movement, whether in England, Germany or France, expressed a more or less negative forward the existing social.浪漫主义运动,无论是在英国,德国还是法国,都表现相互对工业革命时期现存的社会经济制度及城市资产阶级的上升的否定态度。

4. The Romantics demonstrated a strong reaction against the dominant modes of thinking of the 18th-century writers and philosophers. Where their predecessors saw man as a social animal, the Romantics saw him essentially as an individual in the solitary state.文学家摒弃了18世纪盛行的文学及哲学基调---理性,新古典主义文学家认为人是社会性的动物,而浪漫主义文学家认为人应该是独立自由的个体。

5. Thus, we can say that Romanticism actually constitutes a change of direction from attention to the outer world of social civilization to the inner world of the human spirit.因此,我们还可以说浪漫主义其实是将人们的注意力从外部世界—社会文明转移到内部世界---人类自己的精神实质。

6. The Romantic period is an age of poetry.浪漫主义时代也是诗歌的时代。

7. They believed that poetry could purify both individual souls and the society.他们(浪漫主义代表诗人布莱克,华兹华斯,科勒律治,拜伦,雪莱及济恩)认为诗歌是医治社会顽疾的良药,可以净化人的灵魂。

8. Wordsworth defines the poet as a “man speaking to men,” and poetry as “the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings, which originates in emotion recollected in tranquillity.”华兹华斯认为诗人是对着广大人民讲话的人,而诗歌是强烈情感的自发流露,发乎情,止乎静。

9. Imagination, defined by Coleridge, is the vital faculty that creates new wholes out of disparate elements.想象是在全无联系的各种元素上创立新型整体的一种超凡的官能。

10. The Romantics not only extol the faculty of imagination, but also elevate the concepts of

spontaneity and inspiration, regarding them as something crucial for true poetry.浪漫主义者不仅推崇想象,还强调灵感与创作的自发性,认为有这两种才智才能创造出真正的诗歌。

11. Romantics also tend to be nationalistic.浪漫主义者们还体现了强烈的民族精神。

12. To the Romantics, poetry should be free from all rules. They would turn to the humble people and the common everyday life for subjects.浪漫主义诗人却打破这些格律,他们会在穷苦百姓及日常生活中找寻素材。

13. The two major novelists of the Romantic period are Jane Austen and Walter Scott.浪漫主义时期的代表小说家有简.奥斯汀与沃尔特.司各特.

14. Jane Austen’s view of life is a totally realistic one.简.奥斯汀对生活抱有完全的现实主义.

15. The major theme of Jane?s novels is love and marriage toward which she holds on a practical idealism---love should be justified by reason and disciplined by self-control. She chooses to stay within the tiny field that she knows best., she has become a popular classic and has been admired for her wit, her common-sense, her insight into characters and social relationships. 简.奥斯汀作品的主题为爱情与婚姻,对于这个主题,奥斯汀抱有一种较为实际的理想主义---爱情必须有理智及道德准则的约束,她的作品的背景都很小却都是她熟知的,她的智慧,常识及对人物和人际关系深刻的洞察受到了大批读者的喜爱.

16. Walter Scott showed a keen sense of political and traditional forces and of their influence on the individual. He is the first major historical novelist.司各特表现出对政治与传统的力量及它们对个人的影响深刻的洞察力。他是英国文学史上第一位重要的历史小说家。

17. Gothic novel, a type of romantic fiction that predominated in the late eighteenth century, its principal elements are violence, horror, and the supernatural.哥特式小说也是浪漫主义运动的一部分,它盛行于浪漫主义前期的18世纪末。这种小说的主要题材是暴力,恐怖及对超自然力(鬼神)的描写。

(I)William Blake威廉.布莱克

18. He was often misunderstood by other people, who would regard him as gifted but mad. He was recognized only posthumously.他经常遭到旁人误解,认为他是个天才,又是个疯子,他去世后才被人发掘出来并一举成名。

19. Childhood is central to Blake’s concern in the Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience, and this concern gives the two books a strong social and historical reference.他的两步诗集《天真之歌》和《经验之歌》中,童年是布莱克主要描述的中心,这个描述中心使作品富有社会与历史性的参考价值。

20. Blake’s Marriage of Heaven and Hell marks his entry into maturity. It plays the double role both as a satire and a revolutionary prophecy.布莱克的《天堂与地狱的结合》一诗标志着他创作上的成熟,并担负了讽喻与革命预言的两重角色。

21. The “marriage,” to Black, means the reconciliation of then contraries, not the subordination of the one to the other.婚姻对布莱克意味着矛盾的调和,而并非一方从属于另一方。

22. Blake felt bound to declare that “I know that This World is World of Imagination & Vision” and that “The Nature of my work is visionary or imaginative.”布莱克热切得宣布:“我认为人世凡尘是一个充满想象与幻想的世界,我的作品也如人世凡尘一样充满想象与幻觉。”

23. Blake writes his poems in plain and direct language.布莱克的语言直白朴素。

24. Symbolism in wide rang is also a distinctive feature of his poetry.大范围地使用象征手法也是他作品的鲜明特征。

(II)William Wordsworth威廉.华兹华斯

25. The poet Robert Southey as well as Coleridge lived nearby, and the three men became known

as the “Lake Poets”.诗人骚塞,科勒律治也居住在同一地城,三人并称为”湖畔诗人”。

26. In 1842 he received a government pension, and in the following year he succeeded Southey as Poet Laureate.1842年政府为他发了津贴,次年他压倒骚塞成为了“桂冠诗人”。

27. According to the subject, Wordsworth’s short poems can be classified into two group: poems about nature and poems about human life.按照主题,华的短诗可分为两大类:关于自然的和关于人类生活的。

28. Wordsworth is regarded as a “worshipper of nature.”华被称为”大自然的膜拜者”。

29. Wordsworth thinks that common life is the only subject of literary interest. The joys and sorrows of the common people are his themes.华认为普通人的普通生活应是文学的主题,她的作品大多描述普通百姓的喜怒哀乐。

30. His works contain “The Solitary Reaper”, “To a Highland Girl”, ”The Old Cumberland Beggar ” and “The Ruined Cottage”.他的作品包括《孤独的收割者》,《致高地姑娘》,《老坎伯兰的乞丐》和《被摧毁的茅屋》。

31. In its daring use of subject mater and sense of then authenticity of the experience of the poorest, “Resolution and Independence” is the triumphant conclusion of ideas first developed in the Lyrical Ballads.通过大胆运用这样的主题,同时对贫苦人民生活经历的描写拥有极大的可信度,“革命与独立”则成为《抒情歌谣集》中成功的结论,这在英国诗歌历史上也是第一次。

32. Wordsworth is a poet in memory of the past .华兹华斯是一个怀旧的诗人。

33. Wordsworth’s deliberate simplicity and refusal to decorate the truth of experience produced a kind of pure and profound poetry which no other poet has ever equaled.华兹华斯对简洁朴素的风格的追求,对粉饰真实的厌恶使他的诗歌具有别人无法企及的纯净与深远之美。

34. he maintained that the scenes and events of everyday life and the speech of ordinary people were the raw material of which poetry could and should be made.他强调诗歌创作最要紧的是把握真实素材的来源,他的创作理论的核心便是普通人的生活经历,普通人的词汇语言都是诗人应该也能够汲取的素材。

35. William Wordsworth is the leading figure of the English romantic poetry, the focal poetic voice of the period.华兹华斯是英国诗歌史上的精英,是浪漫主义时期的杰出代表。

36. The most important contribution he has made is that he has not only started the modern poetry, the poetry of the growing inner self, but also changed the course of English poetry by using ordinary speech of the language and by advocating a return to nature.他对诗歌的巨大贡献在于开启了现代诗歌,开创了运用百姓生活语言写诗的新道路,并号召人们回归自然。 (III)Samuel Taylor Coleridge塞.泰.科勒律治

37. In 1798, the two men published a joint volume of poetry, Lyrical Ballads, which became a landmark in English poetry. 1798年,他同华兹华斯合作出版《抒情歌谣集》,成为英诗发展的一座里程碑。

38. In addition to “The Ancient Mariner,” he wrote “Kubla Khan,” began writing “Christabel” and composed “This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison,” “Frost at Midnight,” and “The Nightingale,” which are considered to be his best “conversational” poems.他创作了《古航海家之歌》,《忽必烈汗》,《子夜寒霜》,《夜莺》等名诗,这些都是他“对话诗”的代表。

39. Philosophically and critically, Coleridge opposed the limitedly rationalistic trends of the the 18th-century thought.在哲学与文学评论方面,科勒律治反对18世纪那种局限的理性主义潮流。

40. he advocated a more spiritual and religious interpretation of life, based on what he had learnt

from Kant and Schelling.他倡导了以坎特与斯凯灵理论的对人类精神化与宗教化的诠释。

41. He believed that art is the only permanent revelation of the nature of reality.他认为艺术是唯一一种能永远揭示现实的形式。

42. Coleridge’s actual achievement as poet can be divided into two remarkably diverse groups: the demonic and the conversational.柯勒律治在诗歌方面的成就可分为不同的两大类,神祗诗与对话诗。

43. Mysticism and demonism with strong imagination are the distinctive features of this group.这些诗歌的显著特点,便是神秘与想象。

44. “Christabel” uses a freer version of the ballad form to create an atmosphere of the Gothic horror at once delicate and sinister.“克丽斯特贝尔”一诗采用了更为自由的抒情诗形式,创造出的是与一种微妙而又邪恶的哥特式恐怖氛围。

45. He sings highly Wordsworth?s “purity of language,” “deep and subtle thoughts,” “Perfect truth to nature” and his “imaginative power.” But he denies Wordsworth?s claim that there is no essential difference between the language of poetry and the language spoken by common people.他高度赞赏华兹华斯那“纯净的语言”,“深邃的思想”,“对自然完美真实的描述”以及他“非凡的想象力”。但是他不赞成华兹华斯所说的“诗歌语言与普通百姓的生活语言没什么两样”。

46. Coleridge was esteemed by some of his contemporaries and is generally recognized today as a lyrical poet and literary critic of the first rank.科勒律治被同时期的诗界所尊崇,直至今日也被奉为第一流的抒情诗人与文学评论家。

47. he was one of the most influential English literary critics and philosophers of the 19th century.他是19世纪浪漫主义文学与哲学的代表。

(IV)George Gordon Byron乔治.戈登.拜伦

48. The publication in 1812 of the first two cantos of Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, brought Byron fame.拜伦早期代表作是长篇叙事诗《恰尔德.哈罗德游记》第一,第二章(1812)。

49. In Geneva, he wrote the third canto of Childe Harold and the narrative poem The Prisoner of Chillon.在日内瓦,拜伦写下了《哈罗德游记》第三章及叙事诗《齐伦的囚犯》。

50. he produced the verse drama Manfred, the first two cantos of Don Juan.他创作了诗剧《曼弗雷德》,《唐璜》的前两章。

51. Don Juan is Byron’s masterpiece, a great comic epic of the early 19th century.他的代表作《唐璜》是19世纪初期的著名讽刺史诗。

52. Byron invests in Juan the moral positives like courage, generosity and frankness, are virtues neglected by the modern society.拜伦在唐璜身上开发出勇敢,慷慨,诚恳直白等优点。

53. the poet’s true intention is, by making use of Juan’s adventures, to present a panoramic view of different types of society.诗人的创作意旨在于通过唐璜的游历来体现不同的社会情形。

54. Byron’s satire on the English society in the later part of the poem can be compared with Pope’s; and his satire is much less personal than that of Pope’s, for Byron is here attacking not a personal enemy but the whole hypocritical society.拜伦在诗的末尾对英国社会的讽刺与蒲柏相媲美,有过之而无不及,因为拜伦讽刺的不是个人恩怨,而是整个社会的虚伪。

55. As a leading Romanticist, Byron?s chief contribution is his creation of the “Byronic hero,” a proud, mysterious rebel figure of noble origin. Such a hero appears first in Childe Harold?s Pilgrimage, and then further developed in later works such as the Oriented Tales, Manfred, and Dan Juan in different guises.作为浪漫主义的代表诗人,拜伦的主要贡献在于他创造了“拜伦式英雄”,高傲,神秘,反叛却带有贵族血统。这种拜伦式英雄出现在《哈罗德游记》,《东方故事集》,《曼弗雷德》及《唐璜》等多部作品中。

56. Actually Byron has enriched European poetry with an abundance of ideas, images, artistic forms and innovations.拜伦以丰富的思想,想象力,艺术形式和创新欧洲的诗歌得到了发展 (V)Percy Bysshe Shelley柏.比.雪莱

57. He held a lifelong aversion to cruelty, injustice, authority, institutional religion and the formal shams of respectable society, condemning war, tyranny and exploitation.他一生都在执著的反抗社会上的残忍与不公,强权与宗教,战争与剥削。

58. He realized that the evil was also in man’s mind.他认为罪恶还存在于人的思想。

59. One of Shelley’s greatest political lyrics is “Men of England. The poem was later to become a rallying song of the British Communist Party.”雪莱最著名的政治抒情诗是“致苏格兰人民”,这首诗在宪章运动时期成为广大工人的战歌。

60. Best of all the well-known lyric pieces is Shelley’s “Ode to the West Wind”; here Shelley’s rhapsodic and declamatory tendencies find a subject perfectly suited to them.雪莱最著名的抒情诗当属“西风颂”,这首诗语气狂热,宜于诵读。

61. “If Winter comes, can Spring be far behind?” The poem is written in the terza rima form Shelley derived from his reading of Dante.“如果冬天已经来临,春天还会远吗?”诗人引用了文艺复兴时期意大利诗人但丁的三行诗节隔句押韵法。

62. Shelley’s greatest achievement is his four-act poetic drama, Prometheus Unbound,The play is an exultant work in praise of humankind’s potential, and Shelley himself recognized it as “the most perfect of my products.”.雪莱最有造诣的作品是他的四幕诗剧《解放了的普罗米修斯》,它赞扬了人类自身的潜力,雪莱认识它是自己最出色的作品。

63. Like Blake, he has a reputation as a difficult poet: erudite, imagistically complex, full of classical and mythological allusions.像布莱克一样,由于不同于其他人,他是个备受推崇的诗人,他的作品博学,具有深厚文化底蕴,含有丰富的典故和神灵的暗示。

(VI)John Keats约翰.济慈

64. Endymion, published in 1818, was a poem based on the Greek myth of Endymion and the moon goddess.1818年,济慈出版了长诗<安狄米恩>,该诗以希腊神话为素材,记述了牧人安狄米恩赫月光女神的故。

65. It was this yearning and suffering that quickened his maturity and added a new dimension to his poetry.一连串挫折与内心压抑的情感促使他走向成熟,并使他未来的创作更加丰满。

66. At the heart of these pomes lies Keats’ concern with how the ideal can be joined with the real, the imagined with the actual, and man with woman.这些诗歌表达了济慈对如何将理想与现实,想象与实际,男人与女人结合起来的思考。

67. The volume also contain his four great odes: ”Ode on Melancholy,” “Ode on a Grecian Urn,” “Ode to a Nightingale,” “Ode a Psyche;” his lyric masterpiece “To Autumn” and the unfinished poem “Hyperion.”这部诗集包括他著名的四首“颂”:“忧郁颂”,“希腊古瓮颂”,“夜莺颂”,“普赛克颂”及他抒情诗的代表作“秋日颂”和未完成的诗作“希波里恩”。

68. The odes are generally regarded as Keats’s most important and mature works.颂诗是济慈最重要也是最成熟的作品。

69. In the great of these works, he also suggests the undercurrent of disillusion that accompanies such ecstasy, the human suffering which forever question the visionary transcendence achieved by art.在这些作品中,他对资本主义社会现实又不满,他的诗歌却常常带有唯美主义色彩。

70. “Ode to a Nightingale” expresses the contrast between the happy world of natural loveliness and human world of agony.”夜莺颂”展示了自然界之美与人世之痛苦强烈的反差。

71. “Ode on an Grecian Urn” shows the contrast between the permanence of art and the

transience of human passion.“希腊古瓮颂”展示了永恒的艺术与短暂的人类热情之间的对比。

72. Sight, sound, scent, taste and feeling are all taken in to give an entire understanding of an experience.将视,听,嗅,味,触等感觉都转化成绝美的文字,带来一个通透的体验。

73. He draws diction, style and imagery from works of Shakespeare, Milton and Dante.他在措词,风格和比喻上都参考了莎士比亚,弥尔顿和但丁的作品。

74. Keats’s poetry characterized by exact and closely knit construction, sensual descriptions, and by force of imagination, gives transcendental values to the physical beauty of the world. 济慈的诗以精确紧凑的造句,有感描写为特色,通过想象,营造了超出人类经验值的自然之美。 (VII)Jane Austen 简.奥斯汀

75. Her first novel, Sense and Sensibility, tells a story about two sisters and their love affairs: Pride and Prejudice, the most popular of her novels, deals with five Bennet sisters and search for suitable husbands; and Northanger Abbey.她的处女作《理智与情感》讲述了一对姐妹的恋爱经历;《傲慢与偏见》是她最著名的作品,讲述了贝内特一家五位姐妹寻找如意郎君的过程;《诺觉寺》讽刺了18世纪流行的哥特式骑士抒情诗。

76. Mansfield Park presents the antithesis of worldliness and unworldliness ; Emma gives the thought over self-deceptive vanity; and Persuasion contrasts the true love with the prudential calculations.《曼斯菲尔德花园》表现了世俗与非世俗的并存;《爱玛》对自欺欺人的虚荣心给予了反思;《劝告》将真挚爱情与精打细算进行了对照。

77. She holds the ideals of the landlord class in politics, religion and moral principles; and her works show clearly her firm belief in the predominance of reason over passion, the sense of responsibility, good manners and clear-sighted judgment over the Romantic tendencies of emotion and individuality.她主张地主阶级应在政治及社会生活中占主导地位,而她的作品也表现了她强调的理智高于情感,责任心、礼节、公正高于浪漫与个人主义的观点。

78. And in style, she is neoclassicism advocator, upholding those traditional ideas of order, reason, proportion and gracefulness in novel writing.在写作风格上,她提倡新古典主义,坚持理性,秩序,典雅的原则。

79. Austen’s main literary concern is about human beings in their personal relationships.奥斯汀的创作主题总与个人的生活及人际关系有关。

80. It is her conviction that a man’s relationship to his wife and children is at least as important a part of his life as his concerns about his belief and career.她确信一个人与自己妻子,儿女的关系最起码同他生命的另一半---事业,信仰---同样重要。

81. plots are all restricted to the provincial life of the late 18th-century England, concerning three or four landed gentry families with their daily routine life.奥斯汀的写作素材十分狭窄。主题,角色,社会背景及情节都离不开18世纪英国的乡村中产阶级生活,总是三,四口之家的日常生活。

82. Pride and Prejudice, originally drafted as “First Impressions” in 1796, is the most delightful of Jane Austen’s works.《傲慢与偏见》原名《第一印象》是奥斯汀最出色的作品。

83. Our first impression, according to Jane Austen, are usually wrong.奥斯汀认为人的第一印象总是有失偏颇的。

84. The structure of the novel is exquisitely deft, the characterization in the highest degree memorable, while the irony has a radiant shrewdness unmatched elsewhere.这部小说结构精致灵巧,人物描写令人难忘,讽刺出其不意。

85. The works of Jane Austen, at once delightful and profound, are among the supreme achievements of English literature. With trenchant observation and in meticulous detail, she

presents the quiet, day-to-day country life of the upper-middle-class English.奥斯汀的著作令人愉悦并有深意,是英国文学史上巨大的成就。她通过犀利细致的观察,向我们展现了平和的英国乡村中产阶级的日常生活全貌。

86. Her characteristic theme is that maturity is achieved through the loss of illusions.其典型的主旨是成熟,实在错误的幻想打破后获得的。

87. Because of her sensitivity to universal patterns of human behavior, Jane Austen has brought the English novel, as an art of form, to its maturity, and she has been regarded by many critics as one of the greatest of all novelists.由于她人类行为的普遍模式十分敏感,奥斯汀使英国小说走向成熟,众多评论家都认为她是英国最出色的小说家之一。

Chapter 4 The Victorian Period(1836-1901)维多利亚时期

1. Common sense and moral propriety, which were ignored by the Romanticists, again became the predominant preoccupation in literary work.道德和常理这些被浪漫主义时代遗弃多年的主题,又回到了文学主流中来。

2. Oscar Wilde and Walter Pater, both notorious advocators of the theory of “art for art’s sake.”唯美主义者奥斯卡.王尔德与沃尔特.培特都极力推崇“为了艺术而艺术”的观点。

3. Utilitarianism was widely accepted and practiced.实用主义大行其道。

4. The poetry of this period was mainly characterized by experiments with new styles and ways of expression.这个时期的诗歌具有风格标新,表达立异的特点。

5. Victorian literature, in general, truthfully represents the reality and spirit of the age. The high-spirited vitality, the down to earth earnestness, the good-matured humor and unbounded imagination are all unprecedented.维多利亚时期文学,真实地反映了时代的现实与精神,其中体现出的高度的活力,脚踏实地的精神,善意的幽默与无羁无绊的丰富联想都是空前的。 (I)Charles Dickens查尔斯.狄更斯

6. Soon The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club appeared in monthly installments. It is once lifted him into a position of fame and fortune.很快《皮克威克外传》也出版了,这使狄更斯一度名利双收。

7. Dickens is one of the greatest critical realist writer of the Victorian Age.狄更斯是伟大的批判现实主义作家。

8. The best he can do seems to try to retain an optimism with wishful thinking.他所能做的只是保持一种充满希望的乐观主义。

9. Whatever his limitations, this man is loved and admired by the millions, not only for the practical reform his works have helped to bring about but also for that heart which is ready to love and sympathize.不管狄更斯有何局限性,他都深受人民大众喜爱,不仅因为他的作品促进社会改良,更因为他那颗善良博爱之心。

10. In his works, Dickens sets out a full map and a Large-scale criticism of the nineteenth century England, particularly London.在他的作品中,狄更斯对19世纪的英国,特别是伦敦做出了全面地描绘及大量的批评。

11. His early works contain Oliver Twist, Nicholas Nickleby, The Pickwick Paper(legal fraud), David Copperfield and Martin Chuzzlewit.他的早期作品包括《雾都孤儿》,《尼古拉斯.尼克尔比》,《皮克威克外传》(合法欺骗),《大卫.科波菲尔》和《马丁.瞿述伟》等等。

12. This youthful brightness and optimism is also manifest in the constant jokes and laughter.作者青年时期的这种明朗与乐观还体现在作品的幽默与笑料中。

13. His later works contain A tale of two Cities, Bleak House, Little Dorrit, Hard Times and Great Expectations.后期作品包括《双城记》,《荒凉山庄》,《小多利特》,《艰难时世》和《远大前程》。

14. Charles Dickens is a master story-teller.狄更斯具有惊人的讲故事能力。

15. Dickens’ works are also characterized by a mingling of humor and pathos.狄更斯的作品还有一个特点,是将幽默与哀伤的泪水交汇起来。

16. Sometimes Dickens seems so anxious to wring an extra tear from the audience that he indulges himself in excessive sentimental melodrama and spoils the story.有时狄更斯会将作品写的令读者潸然泪下,但由于他过于注重悲情的渲染,有时会破坏故事的连贯性。

17. Charles Dickens is one of the greatest Victorian writers, and his name one of those to be remembered forever. 狄更斯是英国文学史上能与莎士比亚齐名的文学巨人,他的作品与人格都将永远留在人民心中。

(II)The Bronte Sisters布朗蒂姐妹

18. Charlotte Bronte, Emily Bronte, and their gifted sister Anne Bronte came from a large family of Irish origin.夏洛蒂.布朗蒂,艾米丽.布朗蒂,安妮.布朗蒂三姐妹出生于爱尔兰裔的大户人家。

19. Charlotte’s second novel, Jane Eyre, won immediate success when it appeared in 1847. In the same year, Emily’s single and unique work Wuthering Heights and Anne’s Agnes Grey were also published.夏洛蒂的第二部小说《简爱》问世后立即大获成功。同年,艾米丽唯一的小说《呼啸山庄》与安妮的《阿格尼斯.格雷》也相继发行。

20. Charlotte’s works are all about the struggle of an individual consciousness towards self-realization, about some lonely and neglected young women with a fierce longing for love, understanding and a full, happy life.夏洛蒂的作品主题几乎都是个人自觉地为实现自我价值而奋斗,都是有关一些孤独而卑微的少女对爱情,理解与完整幸福的生活的强烈渴求。

21. In her mind, man’s life is composed of perpetual battle between sin and virtue, good and evil.在她看来,人生就是一场永不停息的罪恶与美德的斗争。

22. All her heroines’ highest joy arises from some sacrifice of self or some human weakness overcome.她小说中的女主人公最大的快乐都来自一些自我牺牲后或个人弱点被战胜后获得的幸福。

23. She is a writer of realism combined with romanticism. On one hand, she presents a vivid realism picture of the English society by exposing the cruelty, hypocrisy and other evils of the upper classes, and by showing the misery and suffering of the poor. On the other hand, her writings are marked throughout by an intensity of vision and passion.她还是集现实主义与浪漫主义于一身的作家。一方面,她真实生动的再现了英国上流社会的残酷,虚伪及其他丑恶现象以及下层贫苦人民的不幸。另一方面,她的笔下充盈这美好的情与景。

24. Jane Eyre: It is noted for its sharp criticism of the existing society. The success of the novel is also due to its introduction to the English novel the first governess heroine.《简爱》:它以对当时社会尖锐的批评而闻名于世。小说的成功在于它在英国小说史上第一次成功的塑造出了家庭教师的女主人公形象。

25. The vivid description of her intense feelings and her thought and inner conflicts brings her to the heart of the audience.小说通过对简热烈的情感,思想以及内心冲突的生动描写,向读者展示出了一幅心灵画卷。

26. Wuthering Heights: It is the story about two families and an intruding stranger.《呼啸山庄》讲的是两个家庭与一个外来者的故事。

(III)Alfred Tennyson阿尔弗雷德.丁尼生

27. He was appointed the Poet Laureate.丁尼生被授予“桂冠诗人”的荣誉。

28. Tennyson’s poetic career is also marked out by Idylls of the King (the Celtic legends of King Arthur).丁尼生另一部代表作是《国王诗歌集》,故事源于凯尔特民族关于亚瑟王与他的圆桌骑士的传说。

29. For one thing, the moral standards and sentiments reflected in the poem belong to the Victorians rather than to the medieval royal people. For the other, the story of the rise and fall of King Arthur is, in fact, meant to represent a cyclic history of western civilization.其一是因为诗中道德标准及情感都属于维多利亚并非中世纪的贵族;其二是因为故事中亚瑟王的崛起与衰败其实就是西方文明周而复始的历史写照。(《国王诗集》并不是古代传奇简单的翻版,而是对古典神话的现代诠释?)

30. Tennyson is a real artist. He has the natural power of linking visual picture with musical expressions.丁尼生是一位善于将可视的风景图画与极富乐感的表达语汇及多姿多彩的情感非常自然的糅合在一起的艺术家。

31. The dreaminess of Spenser, the majesty of Milton, the natural simplicity of Wordsworth, the fantasy of Blake and Coleridge, the melody of Keats and Shelley, and the narrative vigor of Scott and Byron.丁尼生的创作不仅体现了他自身的天才,还体现了英国灿烂的诗歌传统,从斯宾塞的梦幻到弥尔顿的壮丽,从华兹华斯的自然简洁到布莱克与科勒律治的奇异诡谲,从雪莱与济慈的旋律美到司格特与拜伦的叙事天才,这一切丰富多彩的品质都在丁尼生笔下有所体现。

(IV).Robert Browning罗伯特.布朗宁

32. Like Browning’s other characters in their monologues, these people unconsciously reveal their own characters in the story.正像布朗宁其他独白作品种的人物,这些人也不自觉地通过讲述故事暴露了自己的性格特点。

33. The name of Browning is often associated with the term: “ dramatic monologue.”《指环与书》一诗使布朗宁成为英国最伟大的诗人之一。

34. To Browning, the dramatic monologue is an ingenious means to exploit his literary gift without getting too personal.对布朗宁来说,戏剧独白是一种既能开发文才,又可与角色保持一定距离的灵活方式。

(V)George Eliot乔治.艾略特

35. Then there came successively her three most popular novels, Adam Bede, The Mill on the Floss and Silas Marner.而后她的三部代表作相继问世:《亚当.贝德》、《费洛斯河上的磨房》以及《织工拉斯.马奈尔》

36. In1872, Middlemarch, a panoramic book considered today by many to be George Eliot’s greatest achievement.1872年,《弥都玛持镇》问世,这部作品是她最好的作品。

37. By joining the worlds of inward propensity and outward circumstances and showing them both operating in the lives of her characters, she initiates a new type of realism and sets into motion a variety of developments, leading in the direction of both the naturalistic and psychological novel.通过将自己的内心世界与外在环境结合起来,并把两者注入对角色的塑造之中,艾略特开创了一种新型的现实主义,并进一步朝着自然主义与心理分析小说发展。

38. In her works, she seeks to present the inner struggle of a soul and to reveal the motives, impulses and hereditary influences which govern human action.在作品中,她努力的表现人们灵魂深处的斗争,揭示那种驾驭人类行为的动机,冲动及遗传影响。

39. George Eliot shows a particular concern for the destiny of women, especially those with great

intelligence, potential and social aspirations.艾略特特别关心女性的命运,尤其是那些才华出众,渴望步入社会的女性。

40. In her mind, the pathetic tragedy of women lies in their very birth.艾略特认为女人的不幸是出生时就随身带来的。

41. Middlemarch: but both fail in achieving their goals owing to the social environment as well as their own vulnerabilities. 《弥都玛持镇》:小说的两个女性主角都具有潜在资质与雄雄野心,但都因为社会环境与自身弱点的限制没能达到人生目标。

(VI)Thomas Hardy托马斯.哈代

42. his last two novels: Tess of the D’Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure.他的最后两部小说是《德伯家的苔丝》与《无名的裘德》。

43. His best local-colored works are his later ones, such as The Return of the Native, The Trumpet Major, The Mayor of Casterbridge, The Woodlanders, Tess of the D?Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure. These works, known as “novels of character and environment,” are the most representative of him as both a naturalistic and a critical realist writer.他晚年的作品最富地方色彩,如《还乡》,《号兵长》,《卡斯特桥市长》,《林地居民》,《德伯家的苔丝》与《无名的裘德》这些作品便是著名的“角色与环境为纲的小说”,最好的代表了作者自然主义与批判主义的写作特点。

44. Tess, a simple, innocent and faithful country girl. She finally becomes a victim of the modern society.苔丝,一个单纯忠诚的乡村女孩,她最后成为了现代社会的牺牲品。

45. Hardy is often regarded as a transitional writer.哈代常被认为是一位承前启后的作家。

46. In his works, man is shown inevitably bound by his own inherent nature and hereditary traits which prompt him to go and search for some specific happiness or success and set him in conflict with the environment.哈代作品中的人物都不可避免的屈从于自身的天性或遗传的品质,促使他追求某一种幸福成功,从而又使自己陷入与环境的冲突中。

47. He is a meditative story-teller or romancer.他是个善于深入思考的故事家。

48. They are not only individual cases but also universal truth.他们不仅个别的例子,还是普遍的真理。

49. Their plight is not just their own; it applies to any one, any age. And finally, all the works of Hardy are noted for the rustic dialect and a poetic flavor which fits well into their perfectly designed architectural structures. 他们(小说中的人物)的故事不仅是他们自身的经历,而且具有相当的普遍性。最后,哈代的作品结构完美,语言极富乡土气息与诗情画意。

50. Tess of the D?Urbervilles: There she meets Angel Clare, son of a clergyman. It is a fierce attack on the hypocritical morality of the bourgeois society and the capitalist invasion into the country and destruction of the English peasantry towards the end of the century. 《德伯家的苔丝》:苔丝远离故土,外出谋生,与牧师之子安吉尔相识相爱。这部小说抨击了当时扭曲人性的虚伪道德,抨击了破坏乡村宁静的资本主义价值观。

Chapter 5 The Modern Period 现代时期

1. The once sun-never-set Empire finally collapsed.日不落帝国终于日薄西山了。

2. Arthur Schopenhauer, a pessimistic philosopher, started a rebellion against rationalism, stressing the importance of will and intuition.德国哲学家亚瑟.叔本华的悲观主义与反理性哲学强调了人的意愿与直觉的重要性。

3. Friedrich Nietzsche advocated the doctrines of power and superman and by completely

rejecting the Christian morality.尼采继承了叔本华的理论后,更进一步的反叛理性主义与基督教精神,推崇强权与霸权。

4. Henry Bergson established his irrational philosophy, which put the emphasis on creation, intuition, irrationality and unconsciousness.亨利.伯格森在前人基础上创立了非理性哲学,强调创造力,直觉,非理性与无意识。

5. The appalling shock of the First World War severely destroyed people’s faith in the Victorian values.一战的毁灭性灾难摧垮了人们对维多利亚道德标准的信奉。

6. The French symbolism, appearing in the late 19th century, heralded modernism.19世纪晚期法国的象征主义预示了现代主义的诞生。

7. literary trends of modernism: expressionism, surrealism, futurism, Dadaism, imagism and stream of consciousness.一战后,所有的现代主义文学潮流都产生了:表现主义(强调自我表现,反对艺术的目的性),超现实主义,未来主义,达达主义(颓废派文艺),意象主义以及意识流等等。

8. The major figures were Kafka, Picasso, Pound, Webern, Ts Eliot, Joyce and Virginia Woolf.这场运动的杰出代表人物有卡夫卡,毕加索,庞德,韦伯恩,T.S.埃略特,乔伊斯及费洛尼亚.沃尔夫。

9. After the Second World War, a variety of modernism, or post-modernism, like existentialist literature, theater of the absurd, new novels and black humor, rose with the spur of the existentialist idea that “the world was absurd, and the human life was an agony.”二战后,另一种形式的现实主义,即后现代主义,比如存在主义文学,荒诞派戏剧,新小说及黑色幽默,如雨后春笋涌现出来,其理论基础便是存在主义所讲的“世界是荒谬的,人生则是巨大的痛苦”。

10. Modernism takes the irrational philosophy and the theory of psycho-analysis as its theoretical base.现代主义以非理性哲学和精神分析原理作为理论基础。

11. The major themes of the modernist literature are the distorted, alienated and ill relationships between man and nature, man and society, man and man, and man and himself.现代派文学的主题便是反映人与自然,人与社会,人与人,人与自我之间被扭曲的,渐渐疏远的,病态的关系。

12. As a result, the works created by the modernist writers are often labeled as anti-novel, anti-poetry and anti-drama.这样一来,现代主义作品常被称为反小说,反诗歌与反戏剧。

13. With the coming of the 1950s, there was a return of realistic poetry again.50年代,现实主义诗歌又开始回溯。

14. D.H.Lawrence is regarded as revolutionary as Joyce in novel writing. His interest lay in his tracing of the psychological development of his characters and in his energetic criticism of the dehumanizing effect of the capitalist Industrialization on human nature. In his best novels like The Rainbow and Women in Love, he made a bold psychological exploration of various human relationships. D.H.劳伦斯被认为和乔伊斯一样大胆改革小说创作手法,与乔伊斯不同,劳伦斯对写作技巧的改革不感兴趣,依然沿袭传统的完整的故事情节,但他极力展现角色的心理发展,尖锐的批判了资本主义工业化对人性的非人道的扭曲。在他最优秀的作品中,如《虹》,《恋爱中的女人》,劳伦斯大胆的探索了各种人性心理,人际关系,尤其是男人与女人之间的关系。

15. by the whole capitalist mechanical civilization, which turned men into inhuman machines.资本主义机器工业文明将人变成了无性的机器。

16. Oscar Wilde, his masterpiece, The importance of Being Earnest.奥斯卡.王尔德的代表作是《认真的重要性》。

17. Shaw is considered to be the best-known English dramatist since Shakespeare.萧伯纳在戏剧方面被公认为自莎士比亚后,英国最优秀的戏剧大师。

18. The Silver Box and Strife are such examples, in which Galsworthy presents not only realistic picture of social injustice, but also the workers’ heroic struggles against their employers.《银盒》与《抗争》便是很好的例子,其中高尔斯华绥不仅真实地展示了社会的不公平,还生动描写了工人与资本家的英勇抗争。

19. The 1930s witnessed a revival of poetic drama in England. One of the early experimenters was T.S.Eliot who regarded drama as the best medium of poetry.30年代,英国的戏剧复兴了,最早的改革试验者T.S.埃略特说,戏剧是诗歌传播与普及的最佳媒介。

20. This revolution developed in two directions: the working-class drama and the Theater of Absurd.(The English dramatic revolution)戏剧发展为两派:工人阶级戏剧与荒诞派戏剧。

21. The most original playwright of the Theater of Absurd is Samuel Beckett, who wrote about human beings living a meaningless life in an alien, decaying world. He first play, Waiting fro Godot.荒诞派戏剧代表人物是塞缪尔.贝克特。他擅长描写生活在孤立腐朽的世界里的人与毫无意义的人生。

(I). George Bernard Shaw乔治..萧伯纳

22. Shaw held that art should serve social purposes by reflecting human life, revealing social contradictions and educating the common people.萧主张艺术应该为社会服务,应该反映人的生活与社会矛盾并教育广大人民。

23. The mission of his drama was to reveal the moral, political and economic truth from a radical reformist point of view. His works contain Widowers’ House, Mrs. Warren’s Profession, is a play about the economic oppression of women.他的剧作主要揭露当时的社会,经济,道德,宗教中的罪恶,表现了自己作为左翼社会主义改良派的观点。他的早期代表作品包括《鳏夫的房产》,《沃伦夫人的职业》的主题是对妇女们经济上的压迫。

24. Shaw also produced several plays, exploring his idea of “Life Force,” the power that would create superior beings to be equal to God and to solve all the social, moral, and metaphysical problems of human society.萧伯纳还创作了一系列话剧,探索了“生命的力量”---一种能够与上帝齐平,解决各种社会,道德及玄奥问题的超级力量。

25. Shaw wrote plays on miscellaneous subject. The Apple Cart is about politics; John Bull’s Other Island is about racial problems.萧伯纳的作品还有关于政治的《苹果车》,关于种族问题的《约翰.布尔的另外岛屿》。

26. Too True to be Good is a better play of the later period, with the author’s almost nihilistic bitterness on the subjects of the cruelty and madness of World War I and the aimlessness and disillusion of the young.出色的作品《难以置信》,主题是对残忍疯狂的第一次世界大战近乎虚无主义的嘲讽和对幻灭失落的青年一代的忧伤。

27. One feature of Shaw’s characterization is that he makes the trick of showing up one character vividly at the expense of another.萧伯纳人物塑造方面的特点是他经常不惜贬低另一些角色来极力生动形象地展示某一个角色。

28. Much of Shavian drama is constructed around the inversion of a conventional theatrical situation.萧伯纳的许多戏剧情节与角色都在传统的基础上发生倒转错位。

29. The forward motion consists not in the unrolling of plot but in the operation of the spirit of discourse.动作的进行不仅体现在情节的铺展中,也体现在对白的内涵中。(情节丰富,但不以情节取胜,生动的对白超越了故事情节的光彩)

(II). John Galsworthy约翰.高尔斯华绥

30. The Forsyte Saga, his first trilogy: The Man of Property, In Chancery and To Let. His second Forsyte trilogy, A Modern Comedy, appeared in 1929, and the third, End of the

Chapter, posthumously in 1934.一战之后他完成了第一部费尔塞特世家三部曲,包括《财主》,《骑虎难下》,《出租》。第二部费尔塞特三部曲《现代喜剧》于19xx年问世,第三部《篇章末尾》,则在他去世后的19xx年出版。

31. Galsworthy was a conventional writer, having inherited the fine traditions of the great Victorian novelists of the critical realism such as Dickens and Thackeray.高尔斯华绥是传统型作家,继承了狄更斯,萨克雷等维多利亚时期文学家的优良风格。

32. He wrote in a clear and unpretentious style with a clear and straightforward language.他的语言与风格都是同样的清晰,直白,毫无做作。

33. The Man of Property: The theme of this novel is that of the predominant possessive instinct of the Forsytes and its effects upon the personal relationships.《财主》:这部小说展示了费尔塞特家族盛行的占有欲与唯利是图,这种占有欲深刻影响到家族内的人际关系。

(III).William Butler Yeats威廉.巴特勒.叶芝

34. In 1923, he was awarded Nobel Prize for literature.19xx年他获得了诺贝尔文学奖。

35. He came to see that literature should not be an end in itself but the expression of conviction and the garment of noble emotion.他认为艺术的最终目的并非它本身,而是对社会成员的说教及对高尚情感的抒发。

36. His poetic achievement stands at the center of modern literature.他是最优秀的英文诗人之一,是现代文学的中流砥柱。

37. Yeats has achieved suggestive patterns of meaning by a careful counterpointing of contrasting ideas or images.叶芝还实现了意义的深邃暗含,因为他将反差极大的意象对应起来。

38. “The Lake Isle of Innisfree” is just a popular representative of such poems.“伊尼斯弗利的湖中沙洲”一诗便是这样的典范。

39. Yeats came to realize that eternal beauty could only live in the realm of art.他渐渐意识到永恒的美只存在于艺术王国。

(IV). T.S.Eliot T.S.埃略特

40. His first important poem, “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock,” appeared in 1915.他的第一首重要诗作“J. A.布鲁富克劳的情歌”于19xx年问世。

41. He won various awards, including the Nobel Prize and the Order of Merit in 1948.他一生荣获许多大奖,包括19xx年的诺贝尔文学奖与功绩勋位。

42. As a young man with bitter disillusionment and with boldness in the handling of language, Eliot had explore in his early poetry various aspects of decay of culture in the modern Western world, expressing a sense of the disintegration of life.作为一个经历过幻灭痛苦的青年,凭借着灵活运用语言的勇气,埃略特在早期诗歌中探索了现代化西方文明在各方个面的衰败,传达出一种生命崩溃的悲观。

43. The poem is heavily indebted to James Joyce in terms of the stream-of-consciousness technique.《衰老》一诗很大程度上效仿了乔伊斯的意识流手法,而且埃略特在以后的创作中也大量运用了意识流。

44. The Hollow Men, which bears a strong thematic resemblance to The Waste Land, is generally regarded as the darkest of Eliot’s poems.《空洞的人》在主题上十分近似《荒原》,是埃略特最黑暗的诗。

45. “The Waste Land” not only presents a panorama of physical disorder and spiritual desolation

in the modern Western world, but also reflects the prevalent mood of disillusionment and despair of a whole post-war generation.《荒原》不仅全面展现了现代西方社会物质上的错乱和精神上的颓败,而且也反映出战后一代人中盛行的幻灭与绝望。

46. The Waste Land is a poem concerned with the spiritual breakup of a modern civilization in which human life has lost its meaning, significance and purpose.《荒原》一诗的主题是表现现代文明中人们精神的堕落与崩溃,人生已失去了意义与目的。

47. In his famous essay, “Tradition and individual Talent,” Eliot put great emphasis on the importance of tradition both in creative writing and in criticism.在著名散文“传统与个人天才”中,他强调传统对创作与评论两方面的重要作用。

48. Eliot came to believe that the illness of the modern world was of the sum of individual souls, and that the cure could only be obtained by the change of the individual souls through the religious salvation.埃略特认为现代社会的弊病是每个社会成员灵魂深处弊病的总合,只有通过宗教救赎人的灵魂才能救治整个社会。

49. The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock :The poem is in a form of dramatic monologue, suggesting an ironic contrast between a pretended love song and a confession of the speaker’ s incapability of facing up to love and to life a sterile upper-class world. “J. A.布鲁富克劳的情歌”:全诗的形式是戏剧独白,暗示了虚假的“情歌”与主人公自己承认的无法直面爱情及无聊得上流社会生活之间的讽刺性对照。

(V). D.H.Lawrence戴维.伯特.劳伦斯

50. His autobiographical novel, Sons and Lovers.《儿子与情人》是他的自传体作品。该作品出版后,他才确立了杰出小说家的地位。

51. The following two novels, The Rainbow and Women in Love, are generally regarded as his masterpieces.接下来的两部小说《虹》和《恋爱中的女人》被认为是他的代表作。

52. In Lawrence’s opinion, the mechanical civilization is responsible for the unhealthy development of human personalities, the perversion of love and the failure of human fulfillment in marital relationships.劳伦斯认为工业机械化的文明是人类个性病态发展,爱情扭曲,婚姻不幸的罪魁祸首。

53. Gerald Crich, representing the whole set of bourgeois ethics. Whereas Birkin, a self-portrait of Lawrence, is presented as a symbolic figure of human warmth, standing for the spontaneous Life Force.《恋爱中的女人》中杰拉德象征着精神的死亡,代表了整个资产阶级的伦理观。而勃金则是劳伦斯的一幅自画像,他反抗着工业机械化带来的种种压抑以及任何一种丧失了生命力的形式与教条,代表了人情温暖及生命原始的冲动。

54. By portraying, in Aaron’s Rod, a disillusioned man who attempts to save his integrity by running away again and again from his wife and children,Lawrence tries to show that every man is a sacred and holy individual whose integrity should never be violated or dominated.在《亚伦神杖》中,劳伦斯塑造了一个幻想破灭的男人,为了维护美德与尊严一次次逃离妻儿,表现了每个人都是神圣的,独立的,其人格与尊严不得侵犯。

55. Irony, humour and wit are the characteristic features of many of the stories.讽刺,幽默,机智都是他短篇小说的特点。

56. Lawrence is also a proficient poet.劳伦斯还是个天才多产的诗人。

57. Lawrence was discovered to be an important playwright in 1968 with the efforts of Peter Gill who staged three plays known as “the Lawrence trilogy” at the Royal Court. These three plays: A Collier?s Friday Night, The Daughter-in-law and The Widowing of Mrs. Holroyed, have in common the typical working-class environments set in Nottinghamshire.19xx年,劳伦斯的三部


58. Lawrence was one of the first novelists to introduce themes of psychology into his works.He believed that the healthy way of the individual ?s psychological development lay in the primacy of the life impulse, or in another term, the sexual impulse.Human sexuality was, to Lawrence, a symbol of Life Force.劳伦斯是首先将心理透析引入作品的小说家之一,他认为人类心理的健康主要在于生命的冲动,或曰性冲动,性行为是生命活力的体现。

59. Lawrence’s artistic tendency is mainly realism, which combines dramatic scenes with an authoritative commentary.劳伦斯继承了现实主义创作手法,将戏剧化情节与权威性的评说结合起来。

60. Lawrence endows the traditional realism with a fresh psychological meaning. Through a combination of traditional realism and the innovating elements of symbolism and poetic imagination, Lawrence has managed to bring out the subtle ebb and flow of his characters’ subconscious life.劳伦斯通过将传统的现实主义手法与改革后的象征主义与诗化联想结合为一体,劳伦斯成功的展示了角色潜意识的跌宕起伏,赋予传统现实主义新的意义。 (VI). James Joyce詹姆斯.乔伊斯

61. Joyce published his first novel A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. The title of the novel suggests a character study with strong autobiographical elements. The novel can be read as a naturalistic account of the hero?s bitter experiences and final artistic and spiritual liberation.19xx年,乔伊斯第一部长篇小说《艺术家年轻时代的肖像》出版。小说的题目暗示着角色塑造有自传成分。这部作品可以说是自然主义的,描述了主人公痛苦的生活经历及最后艺术与精神上的解放。

62. Ulysses, Joyce?s masterpiece, has became a prime example of modernism in literature. The three major characters are: Leopold Bloom, an Irish Jew, his wife, Marion Tweedy Bloom, and Stephen Dedalus, the protagonist in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.乔伊斯真正的代表作是《尤利西斯》,这部小说是现代主义文学的首要典范。只有三个主要角色:爱尔兰的犹太人利奥普尔德.布鲁姆,他的妻子马丽翁.T.布鲁姆以及史蒂芬.德达拉斯,也就是《艺术家年轻时代的画像》中的主人公。

63. In Ulysses, the events of the day seem to be trivial, insignificant or even banal. But below the surface of the events, the natural flow of mental reflections, the shifting moods and impulses in the characters? inner world are richly presented in an unprecedentedly frank and penetrating way.在《尤利西斯》小说中,这一天内发生的事情极为琐碎,毫无意义,甚至非常陈腐。但在这平庸的表面下陷藏着自然的意识流,反映了角色内心的思想活动及心情与冲动的变化转移,表达空前直白,极富穿透力。

64. This literary approach to the presentation of psychological aspects of characters is usually termed as “stream of consciousness.” And Joyce is regarded as the most prominent stream-of-consciousness novelist, concentrating on revealing in his novels the psychic being of the characters.这种表达角色心理状态的文学手法便是“意识流”。而乔伊斯则是最伟大的意识流小说家。

65. Another remarkable feature of Joyce?s writings is his style. His own style is a straightforward one, lucid, logical and leisurely; subtlety, economy and exactness are his standards.But when he tries to render the so-called stream of consciousness, the style changes: incomplete, rapid, broken wording and fragmentary sentences are the typical features, which reflect the shifting, flirting,

disorderly flow of thoughts in the major characters’ mind.乔伊斯小说的另一个特点是他的文体风格,他本身的文风直白,清晰,富于逻辑而游刃有余;细微,简洁,精确也是他的语言标准。然而一旦进入“意识流”,他的文风便陡转急变:处处可见不完整,短促,支离破碎的语句和措辞,这些都如实反映出角色的思想意识的怪异多变,闪烁不定及杂乱无章。

66. “Araby” from Dubliners

This tale of the frustrated quest for beauty in the midst of drabness is both meticulously realistic in its handling of details of Dublin Life and the Dublin scene and highly symbolic in that almost every image and incident suggests some particular aspect of the theme.《都柏林人》:这则故事主题是在单调乏味的环境包围下对美的追求的挫败,故事既富于现实主义又富于象征主义,现实主义在于它细致入微的描述了都柏林的景观与生活,象征主义在于每一个意象每一件事都暗示着主题的某个方面。

Part two: American Literature

Chapter 1 The Romantic Period浪漫主义时期

1. From the end of the 18th century to the outbreak of he Civil War. It started with the publication of Washington Irving’s The Sketch Book and ended with Whitman’s Leaves of Grass. It is also called “the American Renaissance”.浪漫主义时期开始于十八世纪末,到内战爆发为止,华盛顿.欧文出版的《见闻札记》标志着美国文学的开端,惠特曼的《草叶集》是浪漫主义时期文学的压卷之作。(也可称为“美国德文艺复兴”)

2. The desire for an escape from society and a return to nature became a permanent convention of American literature.对逃离社会,回归自然的渴求成为美国文学的一个永恒的话题。

3. The American Puritanism as a cultural heritage exerted great influences over American moral values.美国清教作为一种文化遗产,对美国人的道德观念产生了很大的影响。

4. Besides, a preoccupation with the Calvinistic view of original sin and the mystery of evil marked the works of Hawthorne, Melville and a host of lesser writers. 在霍桑,麦尔维尔以及其他一些小作家的作品种加尔文主义的原罪思想和罪恶的神秘性都得到了充分的表现。

5. The most clearly defined Romantic literary movement in this period is New England Transcendentalism.美国浪漫主义文学运动足能标炳的是新英格兰的超验主义运动。

6. This Transcendentalist group includes two of the most significant writers America has produced so far, Emerson and his young friend, Henry David Thoreau, whose writing has a strong impact on American literature.超验主义文学的主要代表是爱默生和梭罗,他们的作品对美国文学产生了很大的影响。

7. Basically, Transcendentalism has been defined philosophically as “the recognition in man of the capacity of knowing truth intuitively, or of attaining knowledge transcending the reach of the senses.”超验主义承认“人类具有本能了解或认识真理的能力,能够超过感官获取知识”。

8. Emerson once proclaimed in a speech, “Nothing is at last sacred but the integrity of you own mind.” Other concepts that accompanied Transcendentalism include the idea that nature is ennobling and the idea that the individual is divine and, therefore, self-reliant.爱默生曾说过:“只有人心灵的尊严才是最神圣的”。超验主义还认为自然是高尚的,个人是神圣的,因此人必须自助。

9. It ranges from the comic fables of Washington Irving to the Gothic tales of Edgar Allen Poe, from the frontier adventures of James Fenimore Cooper to the narrative quests of Herman Melville, from the psychological romances of Nathaniel Hawthorne to the social realism of Rebecca Harding.美国浪漫主义时期的小说富有独创性,多样性,与华盛顿.欧文的喜剧性寓言体小说,


10. To Hawthorne and Melyille, everybody is potentially a sinner, and great moral courage is therefore indispensable for the improvement of human nature.霍桑和麦尔维尔认为人们在内心上都是罪人,因此需要道德力量来改善人性。

(I). Washington Irving华盛顿.欧文

11. He is regarded as Father of the American short stories.他是美国浪漫主义文学代表作家之一,美国短篇小说之父。

12. With the publication of The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Irving won a measure of international fame on both sides of the Atlantic.1819年至1820年,欧文出版了《见闻札记》,该书为欧文获得了欧美两大洲的文学荣誉。

13. A History of New York---He parodies or imitates Homer.《纽约史》在多方面模仿了荷马。

14. Like the two famous personae he created, Diedrich Knickerbocker and Geoffrey Crayon, Irving remained a conservative and always exalted a disappearing past.他所创造的两个人物Diedrich Knickerbocker和Geoffrey Crayon和他一样,都停留在对过去的事情的津津乐道上。

15. We hear rather than read, for there is musicality in almost every line of his prose. We seldom learn a moral lesson because he wants us amused and relaxed.他的作品行文优美流畅,犹如音乐。他的作品寓教于乐,给人以轻松安逸之感,如入梦境。

16. He is worth the honor of being “the American Goldsmith” for his literary craftsmanship.在创作艺术方面他堪称是“美国的近匠”。

17. “rip van winkle”—Here, Irving’s pervasive theme of nostalgia for the unrecoverable past is at once made unforgettable.“瑞普.凡.温克尔”---欧文在此表达了对一去不复返的东西十分依恋,笔触生动,令人难忘。

(II). Ralph Waldo Emerson拉尔夫.华尔多.爱默生

18. New England Transcendentalism, which is unanimously agreed to be the summit of the Romantic period in the history of American literature.在美国浪漫主义时期的文学中,新英格兰的超验主义是不可或缺的。

19. Emersonian Transcendentalism is actually a philosophical school which absorbed some ideological concerns of American Puritanism and European Romanticism, with its focus on the intuitive knowledge of human beings to grasp the absolute in the universe and the divinity of man.爱默生的超验主义实际上是在吸收美国清教思想,强调人类具有本能的掌握宇宙绝对真理和人的神性而形成的一个哲学流派。

20. In his essays, Emerson put forward his philosophy of the over-soul, the importance of the individual, and Nature. 爱默生的文章提出了超灵哲学,个人及自然的重要性。

21. Emerson id affirmative about man’s intuitive knowledge, with which a man can trust himself to decide what is right and to act accordingly.爱默生相信人的直觉知识。人类可以利用自己的直觉决定是非并采取相应得行动。

22. The ideal individual should be a self-reliant man.一个理想的个人应是自助自立的人。

23. “Go back to nature, sink yourself back into its influence and you’ll become spiritually whole again.”“回到自然中去吧,沉浸在自然的影响中吧,你将重新获得精神的完整。”

24. In 1845, a great transcendentalist work Walden was born.1845年,写成了超验主义的伟大作品《沃尔登》。

25. In general, Emerson was showing to the world a distinctive American style, as he called for in The American Scholar in 1837.总的说来,爱默生的散文表现出明显的美国风格,堪称“美国


26. “Nature”-?the essay discuss the love of nature, the uses of nature, the idealist philosophy in relation to nature evidences of spirit in the material universe, and the potential expansion of human souls and works that will result from a general return to direct, immediate contact with the natural environment. In the essay Emerson clearly expresses the main principles of his Transcendentalist pursuit and his love for nature.“论自然”----全书讨论对自然的爱,对自然的利用,对自然的理性主义哲学,物质宇宙里的精神证据,人类灵魂的潜在扩展。在文章中爱默生表达了超验主义的思想原则及对自然的热爱。

(III) Nathaniel Hawthorne 纳萨尼尔。霍桑

27. The Scarlet Letter(1850), always regarded as the best of his works, tells a simple but very moving story in which four people living in a Puritan community.《红字》是霍桑的代表作,讲述的是四个生活在清教社区以不同方式犯有通奸罪的故事,情节简单,但内容感人。

28. According to Hawthorne, “There is evil in every human heart, which may remain latent, perhaps, through the whole life; but circumstances may rouse it to activity. ”霍桑认为,人人内心都有邪恶,这种邪恶也许一生都潜藏在内心,但在一定的条件下就表现出来。

29. “The Birthmark” drives home symbolically Hawthorne’s point that evil is man’s birthmark, something he is born with.在《胎记》中他一针见血地指出邪恶就是人类与生俱来的胎记。

30. One source of evil that Hawthorne is concerned most is overreaching intellect, which usually refers to someone who is too proud, too sure of himself.霍桑最关注的一个罪恶之源是一个人过于自尊自负。

31. Calvinistic belief that human beings are basically depraved and corrupted, hence, they should obey God to atone for their sins.加尔文思想认为人类本质是邪恶的,必然向上帝赎罪。

32. Hawthorne is also a great allegorist and almost every story can be read allegorically, as is the case in “Young Goodman Brown.”霍桑擅长隐喻,像《小伙子布朗》一样,他几乎每个故事都可以当作隐喻来读。

33. The scarlet letter A is ambiguous. And the ambiguity is one of the Salient characteristics of Hawthorne’s art.人们对A字究竟是什么意思搞不清楚。这种多重含义和象征意义的模糊性正是霍桑小说的艺术所在。

(IV) Walt Whitman华尔特.惠特曼

34. His aim was nothing less than to express some new poetical feelings and to initiate a poetic tradition in which difference should be recognized.他的目的就是要表达新的诗情,开创一种新的诗歌传统,抒发独特的自我。

35. the poet’s essential purpose was to identify his ego with the world, and more specifically with the democratic “en-masse” of America, which is established in the opening lines of “Song of Myself.”诗人的主要目的就是在世界上确定自我,更具体的说就是要在整个美国确定自我。《自我之歌》的开头几行就表现了这种思想。

36. As Whitman saw it, poetry could play a vital part in the process of creating a new nation.惠特曼认为,诗歌可以塑造一个新的民族精神。

37. In celebrating the self, Whitman gives emphasis to the physical dimension of the self and openly and joyously celebrates sexuality.在歌颂自我的同时,惠特曼强调子我的物理存在和性爱。

38. Whitman’s poetic style is marked, first of all, by the use of the poetic “I”.他的诗总用第一人称。

39. “Song of Myself”-?In this poem Whitman sets forth two principal belief: the theory of

universality, and the belief in the singularity and equality of all beings in value.《自我之歌》---诗中表明了两大信仰:一是普遍性信仰,二是人类个别性和平等性。

(V) Herman Melville赫尔曼.麦尔维尔

40. Moby-Dick was published in 1851.《白鲸》在1851年出版。

41. Of all these sea adventure stories, Moby-Dick proves to be the best.这些有关航海历险的书中,《白鲸》最好,达到了麦尔维尔创作的高峰。

42. Moby-Dick is regarded as the first American prose epic. 《白鲸》是美国第一部散文体史诗。

43. It turns out to be a symbolic voyage of the mind in quest of the truth and knowledge of the universe, a spiritual exploration into man’s deep reality and psychology. 《白鲸》不仅仅是海上生活的生动描述,而且也象征追求宇宙真理的心路历程。

44. the Pequod is the microcosm of human society and the voyage become a search for truth. The white whale, Moby Dick, symbolizes nature for Melville, for it is complex unfathomable, malignant, and beautiful as well. For the character Ahab, however, the whale represents only evil.这条船皮跨德成了人类社会和追求真理历程的缩影。白鲸则象征着自然,复杂,深不可测,也很美丽。但对埃哈布,白鲸则代表着邪恶。白鲸像一堵墙,隐藏着未知和神秘。

45. Melville’s great gifts of language, invention, psychological analysis, speculative agility, and narrative power are fused to make Moby-Dick a world classic.麦尔维尔的语言才华,创造才华,心理分析能力,观察的敏捷及生动地描述都使该书成为世界名著。

Chapter 2 The Realistic Period现实主义时期

1. This new attitude was characterized by a great interest in the realities of life.由于对现实生活产生了浓厚的兴趣,产生了新的创作灵感。

2. The three dominant figures of the period are William Dean Howells, Mark Twain, and Henry James.这一时期的三个代表作家是豪威尔斯,亨利.詹姆斯和马克.吐温。

3. In short, they set the example and charted the future course for the subjects, themes, techniques and styles of fiction we still call modern.总之,他们为后来的现实文学在题材,技巧和风格上都树立了典范。

4. Howells focused his discussion on the rising middle class and the way they lived, while Twain preferred to have his own region and people at the forefront of his stories.豪威尔斯讨论上升的中产阶级及其生活方式,而马克.吐温则喜欢把他自己家乡的人放在故事的最前沿。

5. In a word, naturalism is evolved from realism when the author’s tone in writing becomes less serious and less sympathetic but more ironic and more pessimistic.总之,自然主义产生现实主义,只是在创作上更富讽刺,更加悲观。自然主义只有另一种哲学途径的现实主义。 (I) Mark Twain马克.吐温

6. Mark Twain is considered as “the true father of American national literature.”马克.吐温被认为是“我们真正的民族文学之父”。

7. Two of the best books during this period are The adventures of Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. The former is usually regarded as a classic book written for boys about their particular horrors and joys, while the latter, being a boy?s book specially written for the adults, is Twain’s most representative work, describing a journey down the Mississippi undertaken by two fugitives, Huck and Jim.这一期间他最伟大的作品是《汤姆.索亚历险记》和《哈克贝里.芬历险记》。前者是就儿童的恐惧和高兴的事儿写的一部儿童经典。而后者虽然是儿童故事,却为大人而写。这是马克.吐温最有代表性的小说,描写两个流浪儿童哈克和吉姆沿密西西比河而下历险的旅程。

8. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and, especially, its sequence Adventures of Huckleberry Finn proved themselves to be the mile stone in American literature. 《汤姆.索亚历险记》,尤其是《哈克贝里.芬历险记》是美国文学的里程碑。

9. The childhood of Tom Sawyer and Huck Finn in the Mississippi is a record of a vanished way of life in the pre-Civil War Mississippi valley and it has moved millions of people of different ages and conditions all over the world; and the books are noted for their unpretentious, colloquial yet poetic style, their wide-ranging humor, and their universally shared dream of perfect innocence and freedom. 汤姆.索亚和哈克.芬在密西西比河上度过的童年是内战前该条河谷生活方式的实录,感动了数以万计的各种年龄的人。书中的率直,口语化而又不失诗意的语言风格,广泛的幽默,天真和自由的梦想都是令人难忘的。

10. Hemingway once described the novel the one book from which “all modern American literature comes.” The profound portrait of Huckleberry Finn is another great contribution of the book to the legacy of American literature. 《哈克贝里.芬历险记》----海明威曾把该书看作是”所有现代美国文学之源”.。哈克贝里的深刻形象是该书给美国文学做出的又一贡献。

11. The climax arises with Huck’s inner struggle on the Mississippi, when Huck is polarized by the two opposing and the laws of the society against those who help slaves escapes哈克在密西西比河的内心争斗室小说的高潮。哈克在理想与现实,对吉姆的感情与社会反对奴隶逃跑的法律之间被抛到了巅峰。

12. Huck’s final decision--- to follow his own good-hearted moral impulse rather than conventional village morality.哈克最后决定:遵循自己内心的良知,而非世俗的道德。

13. Twain is also known as a local colorist, who preferred to present social life through portraits of local characters of his regions, including people living in that area, the landscape, and other peculiarities like the customs, dialects, costumes and so on.马克.吐温善于描绘地方风物,包括地方任务,风光,风俗,方言和服饰等等。

14. Another fact that made Twain unique is his magic power with language, his use of vernacular. His words are colloquial, concrete and direct in effect, and his sentence structures are simple, even ungrammatical, which is typical of the spoken language.马克.吐温独特的另一个方面是他乡土气息的语言风格。他的用词口语化,具体可感,直率有力。句子结构简单,不合语法。

15. Mark Twain’s humor is remarkable.马克.吐温的幽默是突出的。

16. Twain’s works, containing some practical jokes, comic details, witty remarks, etc., and some of them are actually tall tales.他的作品生动有趣,充盈着实用的笑话,喜剧情节,智慧的语言以及动听的故事。

17. His humor is a kind of artistic style used to criticize the social injustice and satirize the decayed romanticism.他的幽默是对社会不公正和沦丧的浪漫主义的讽刺和批判。

18. Adventures of Huckleberry: “Huck”, a typical American can Boy whom its creator described as a boy with “a sound heart and a deformed conscience”. Through the eyes of Huck, the innocent and reluctant rebel, we see the pre-Civil War American society fully exposed and at the same time we are deeply impressed by Mark Twain’s thematic contrasts between innocence and experience, nature and culture, wilderness and civilization. 《哈克贝里.芬历险记》---该小说最精彩的形象是哈克,他是被作者称为一个“有正常心理和畸形良知”的美国男孩。通过天真又叛逆的哈克的眼睛,我们看到内战的美国社会的真正面目,同时,通过马克.吐温对比性的描写,我们还看到了率真与世故,自然与文化,野蛮与文明的对立。

(II) Henry James亨利.詹姆斯

19. While Mark Twain and William Dean Howells satirized European manners at times, Henry

James was an admirer of ancient European civilization.马克.吐温和豪威尔斯不时的讽刺欧洲传统,而詹姆斯却羡慕欧洲文明。

20. In the first period of his, James took great interest in international themes. James treated with great care the clashes between two different cultures and the emotional and moral problems of Americans in Europe, or Europeans in America. The works include “The American”, “Daisy miller”, “The Europeans”, “The Portrait of Lady”.在詹姆斯的早期作品中,他对国际主题很感兴趣。这一时期几乎他的每一部小说都有关欧美在文化,情感和道德方面的冲突,每篇作品都处理了重要的问题。著作有《美国人》,《黛西.米勒》,《欧洲人》,《贵妇人的画像》。

21. In his middle period, the works contain “The Bostonians”, “The Princess Casamassima”, and so on.中期创作包括《波士顿人》,《卡撒玛西玛公主》等等。

22. In his last and major period, James returned to his “international theme”.后期他又回到了“国际主题”。

23. These novels are always set against a larger international background, usually between Europe and America, and centered on the confrontation of the two different cultures with two different groups of people representing two different value systems.(国际主题的小说)这些小说以国际,主要是欧美为大背景,集中表现两种人群的两种价值观在两种文化制度中的冲突。

24. The theme of his essay “The Art of Fiction” clearly indicates that the aim of the novel is to present life.《小说的艺术》一文明确指出,小说的目的是现实生活。

25. The artist should be able to “feel” the life, to understand human nature, and then to record them in his own art form.艺术家应能够“感受”生活,理解人性,然后忠实地将这些录入作品。

26. James’s realism is characterized by his psychological approach to his subject matter.詹姆斯的现实主义还具有分析方法的倾向。

27. One of James’s literary techniques innovated to cater for this psychological emphasis is his narrative “point of view”.詹姆斯文学创作技巧的一个方面就是强调这种心理分析,以叙述着的视角为线索。

28. As to his language, James is not so easy to understand. He is often highly refined and insightful.詹姆斯的文学语言不易读懂。

29. “Daisy Miller”: Miller has ever since become the American Girl in Europe, a celebrated cultural type who embodies the spirit of the New World.《黛西.米勒》---黛西.米勒从此成为在欧洲的美国姑娘的形象,是美国精神的代表。

(III). Emily Dickinson艾米莉.狄金森

30. Dickinson’s poems are usually based on her own experience, her sorrows and joys.狄金森的诗都是根据自己的经历和悲欢而创作的。

31. Within her little lyrics Dickinson addresses those issues that concern the whole human beings, which include religion, death, immortality, love, and nature. In some of her poems she wrote about her double and belief about religious subjects. 在她的短篇抒情诗里所涉及到的问题却是有关人类的,包括宗教,死亡,不朽,爱情和自然。她的一些诗还怀疑宗教信仰。

32. Although she believed in God, she sometimes doubted His benevolence. Closely related to Dickinson’s religious poetry are her poems concerning death and immortality, ranging over the physical as well as the psychological and emotional aspects of death.虽然她相信上帝但有时却怀疑它的善。狄金森与宗教有关的诗是关于死亡和不朽,包括身体,心理和情感三个方面。

33. One group of her love poems are clearly the reflection of her own unhappy experience.她的一组爱情诗明确地反映了她自己不幸的经历。

34. More than five hundred poems Dickinson wrote are about nature, in which her general skepticism about the relationship between man and nature is well-expressed.狄金森有500多首诗是关于自然的,诗中表达了作者对人与自然关系得怀疑。

35. her acute observations, her concern for precise details and her interest in nature are pervasive.她对自然的观察敏锐,描写细致,兴趣丰饶。

36. Her poems have no titles, hence are always quoted by their first lines. In her poetry there is a particular stress pattern. eg. Capital letters as a means of emphasis. The form of her poetry is more or less like that of the hymns in community churches, familiar, communal, and sometimes, irregular.她的诗大多无题,常以首句引用,诗中节奏特别,例如用大写表示强调。她的诗形式上多少有点像教堂的圣歌,不讲规则,为人喜闻乐见。

37. Her poetic idiom is noted for its laconic brevity, directness and plainness. 她用词简洁,直率,平易。

38. Dickinson’s poetry, despite its ostensible formal simplicity, is remarkable for its variety, subtlety and richness.狄金森的诗虽然表面浅显,但内容多样化,微妙而又深刻。

(IV) Theodore Dreiser西奥多.德莱塞

39. In 1911, Jennie Gerhardt came out, followed by two volumes of his “Trilogy of Desire”, The Financier and The Titan, the third, The Stoic, being published posthumously in 1947.19xx年,Jennie Gerhardt出版,随后他的《欲望》三部曲头两部《金融家》,《巨头》相继出版,第三部《斯多葛》是死后出版。

40. In his words, man is a “victim of forces over which he has no control”.用他的话来说,人类是“各种力量交织在一起得受害者,这些力量人类是无法控制的”。

41. From the first novel Sister Carrie on, Dreiser set himself to project the American values for what he had found them to be ---materialistic to the core.在第一部小说《嘉莉妹妹》出版过后,德莱塞一直把美国的价值观推向彻底的物质享受主义。

42. For lack of concision, his writings appear more inclusive and less selective, and the readers are sometimes burdened with massive detailed descriptions of characters and events.由于不够简洁,他的作品包容有余,选择不足。读者深受他冗繁的描写之累。

43. His style is not polished but very serious and well calculated to achieve the thematic ends he sough.他的写作风格虽显粗糙,但内容严肃,与表现主题十分相符。

Chapter 3 The Modern Period现代时期

1. The idea of “seize the day” or “enjoy the present ” was pervasive, as opposed to placing all hope in the future.“及时行乐”的思想十分横行,他们不把希望寄托在将来。

2. The most recognizable literary movement that gave rise to the twentieth century American literature, or we may say, the second American Renaissance, is the expatriate movement.美国20世纪的文学运动,也可说是美国第二次文艺复兴,就是移居国外的运动。

3. These writers were later named by an American writer, Gertrude Stein, also an expatriate, “The Lost Generation”. (why)---Disillusioned and disgusted by the frivolous greedy, and heedless way of life in America, they began to write and they wrote from their own experiences in the war.这些作家后来被美国作家斯坦恩称为“迷惘的一代”(原因)--由于他们已厌倦美国那种轻浮,贪婪的生活,于是开始动手写下他们的战争经历。

4. Ezra Pound’s role as a leading spokesman of famous Imagist Movement in the history of American literature.庞德在美国文学史上意象派运动中是个重要的人物。

5. F.Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, and William Faulkner are considered to be the masters in

the field of American fiction.费兹杰拉德,海明威和福克纳被认为是美国小说大师。

6. O’Neill is remembered for his tragic view of life and most of his plays are about the root, the truth of human desires and human frustrations.奥尼尔以对生活的悲剧性观点而著称。他的大多数剧本都是有关人类欲望和挫折根本原因的。

7. J.D.Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye is regarded as a students’ classic.塞林杰的《麦田里的守望者》被认为是学生的经典作品。

8. In general terms, much serious literature written from 1912 onwards attempted to convey a vision of social breakdown and moral decay and the writer?s task was to develop techniques that could represent a break with the past. Thus, the defining formal characteristics of the modernistic works are discontinuity and fragmentation.总之,19xx年以后许多严肃文学都力图表达社会崩溃,道德沦丧的观点,作家也使用新技巧,告别老传统。

9. A typical modern work will seem to begin arbitrarily, to advance without explanation, and to end without resolution.现代文学的典型特征是开端任意,发展不做解释以及没有结果的收场。

10. There are shifts in perspective, voice, and tone, but the biggest shift is from the external to internal, from the public to the private, from the chronological to the psychic, from the objective description to the subjective projection.作品在现实,语气上较前有变化,其中最大的变化是从描写外部世界转到内部世界,从公众生活转到私生活描写,从时间线索转到以心理感觉为线索,从客观描述转到主观渲染。

11. Traditional fiction featured an authoritative narrator in telling a story, while modern fiction tended to employ the first person narration or limit the reader to the “central consciousness” or one character’s point of view.传统小说强调叙述的人物的权威性和可信性,而现代小说叙述的总是用第一人称,或者把读者限制到“中心的意识”上或以一个人物的视线进行叙述。 (I) Ezra Pound埃兹拉.庞德

12. Before graduating from university, he had mastered nine language.大学毕业前已掌握了九门语言。

13. Pound’s poetic works include twelve volumes of verse which were later collected and published in Collected Early Poems of Ezra Pound, and Personae.庞德的诗作包括十二卷诗集,后以《埃兹拉.庞德早期诗集》,《人物》的书名出版。

14. Pound?s earlier poetry is saturated with the familiar poetic subjects that characterize the 19th century Romanticism: songs in praise of a lady, songs concerning the poet?s craft, love and friendship, death, the transience of beauty and the permanence of art. 庞德的早期诗歌充满表现19世纪浪漫主义特色的为人熟知的诗题:歌颂女性,有关诗人自己的诗,爱情与友谊,死亡,美丽的易逝和艺术的常青。

15. Later he is more concerned about the problems of the modern culture: the contemporary cultural decay and the possible sources of cultural renewal as well. Take his epic poem, The Cantos, for example. Pound traces the rise and fall of eastern and western empires, the moral and social chaos of the modern world, especially the corruption of America after the heroic time of Jefferson.后来,他更关注现代文化问题:当代文化的堕落以及文化更新的可能途径。以《诗章》为例,庞德追溯东西方帝国的兴亡,现代世界道德和社会的混乱,尤其是美国自杰斐逊后的腐败。

16. Pound’s artistic talents are on full display in the history of the Imagist Movement, which flourished from 1909 to 1917.庞德的艺术才华在意象主义运动中得到了充分发挥,这场运动从19xx年到19xx年发展得如火如荼。

17. This is a movement that advanced modernism in arts which concentrated on reforming the

medium of poetry as opposed to Romanticism, especially Tennyson’s wordiness and high-flown language in poetry.这一运动推动了现代派艺术的发展。在诗歌中,反对精工细琢夸夸其谈的语言,主张改革诗歌的媒体。

18. Pound endorsed the group?s three main principles, which include direct treatment of poetic subjects, elimination of merely ornamental or superfluous words, and rhythmical composition in the sequence of the musical phrase rather than in the sequence of a metronome.庞德提出诗歌改革的三个原则:一。直接处理诗歌主题;二。舍去装饰浮华的词藻;三/诗歌应有有机节奏,不要单词重复。

19. “The point of Imagism” , Pound wrote in 1914, “is that it does not use images as ornaments. The image itself is the speech. The image is the word beyond formulated language”.庞德曾于19xx年写道:“意象主义的实质是意象不是装饰,意象本身就是语言。意象是超语言形式的词汇”。

20. The poet, he argued, cannot relate a delightful psychic experience by speaking out directly in the first person: he must “screen himself” and speak indirectly through an impersonal and objective story, which is usually a myth or a piece of the earlier literature, or a “mask”, that is, a persona.他认为,诗人不能直接用第一人称叙述心理感受,必须“把自己笼罩起来”,通过客观的非人格化的故事间接说话,那就是神话或文学典故。

(II) Robert Lee Frost罗伯特.弗洛斯特

21. Though he is generally considered a regional poet whose subject matters mainly focus on the landscape and people in New England, he wrote many poems that investigate the basic themes of man?s life in his long poetic career: the individual?s relationships to himself, to his fellow-man, to his world, and to his God.虽然他总的来说是一位地方诗人,他的诗主要写的是新英格兰的风光和人物,但他在长期的做诗生涯中对人类生活的基本主题有所探索,探讨了个人对自己,对别人,对世界以及对上帝的关系。

22. His pomes contains “Mending the Wall”, “The Road Not Taken”, “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening”(speaker’s choice between safety and the unknown),and “After Apple-Picking”.他的诗包括《补墙》,《未选择的路》,《雪夜林边停》(作者在安全和未知之中留下了朦胧的诗味)和《摘苹果后》。

(III) Eugene O’Neill尤金.奥尼尔

23. He is widely acclaimed “founder of the American drama”.他被广泛誉为“美国戏剧之父”。

24. O’Neill’s first full-length play, Beyond the Horizon made a great hit and won him the first Pulitzer Prize.奥尼尔第一部全剧〈天外边〉上演,这部作品轰动一时并为他赢得了普利莱奖。

25. Between 1920 and 1924 came his prominent achievements in symbolic expressionism: eg .The Hairy Ape. These plays are daring forays into race relations, class conflicts, sexual bondage, social critiques, and American tragedies on the Greek model.1920至19xx年期间他的象征表现主义获得了空前的成就:如〈毛猿〉,这些作品中大胆涉猎了种族关系,阶级冲突,性的束缚,社会批评及希腊模式的美国悲剧。

26. Such as The Great God Brown, which fuses symbolism, poetry, and the affirmation of a pagan idealism to show how materialistic civilization denies the life-giving impulses and destroys the genuine artist.如〈伟大的布朗〉,它将象征主义,诗歌和异教徒理想主义的证实融合到一起来表现物质文明是如何否认给予生命的冲动和摧毁天才艺术家的。

27. The Iceman Cometh proves to be a masterpiece in the way it is a complex, ironic, deeply moving exploration of human existence, written out of a profound insight into human nature and constructed with tremendous skill and logic.〈冰人来了〉以其复杂,讽刺,对人类生存的深刻


28. Of all the plays O’Neill wrote most of them are tragedies, dealing with the basic issues of human existence and predicament: life and death, illusion and disillusion, alienation and communication, dream and reality, self and society.在奥尼尔所有的作品重,多数是悲剧,处理的是人类生存和困境这些基本论点:生与死,幻觉和幻灭,疏远和交流,梦想和现实,自我和社会,欲望和挫折。

29. “The Hairy Ape”----Yank-brutal, stupid, and profane is the recognized leader of the stokers, who are the ultimate products of a society subservient to machines. This is a play that concerns the problem of modern man?s identity. In his sympathy, he opens the cage and liberates it, only to be killed by the real big hairy ape.“毛猿”----扬克,残忍,愚蠢并且猥亵,被认为是采矿工人的头,他是社会屈从于机器后的最终产物。这部剧本涉及到现代人的归属问题。

(IV) F.Scott Fitzgerald司格特.菲兹杰拉德

30. Thus he is often acclaimed literary spokesman of the Jazz Age.他被认为是早期爵士乐时代的文学代言人。

31. His masterpiece The Great Gatsby, which made him one of the greatest American novelists.他的巨著《了不起的盖茨比》是他成为杰出的美国小说家。

32. He drank and did crazy things after he got drunk, whereas staying sober enough to see the corruptive nature of the society and the vanity fair that everyone, including himself, was infatuated with.他酗酒,并且酒后做出许多出轨的事,但又能沉静的看出包括他自己在内的那个时代社会的本质和虚荣。

33. Fitzgerald’s fictional world is the best embodiment of the spirit of the Jazz Age, in which he shows a particular interest in the upper-class society.菲兹杰拉德的小说世界是爵士时代精神的最佳体现。

34. But beneath their masks of relaxation and joviality there was only sterility, meaninglessness and futility, and amid the grandeur and extravagance a spiritual wasteland and a hint of decadence and moral decay.但在轻松享乐后留下的只是颓废和一无所取。在物质的奢华后是一片精神的荒原和道德沦丧。

35. “The Great Gatsby”----At the end of the story, Nick broods over Gatsby?s dream and decides to go back home to the West. Gatsby is a mythical figure whose intensity of dream partakes of a state of mind that embodies America itself. Gatsby?s failure magnifies to a great extent the end of the American Dream. 《了不起的盖茨比》----小说在结束时,尼克对盖茨比的梦想进行了沉思后决定回到西部老家去。盖茨比是个神话般人物,他的强烈的梦想是整个美国当时心态的反映。盖茨比的失败表明了美国之梦的破灭。

(V) Ernest Hemingway欧内斯特.海明威

36. In Our Time is the first book to present a Hemingway hero—Nick Adams. 《在我们的时代里》这部小说集塑造了尼克.亚当斯的形象。

37. The Sun Also Rises is Hemingway?s first true novel. It casts light on a whole generation after the First World War and the effects of the war by way of a vivid portrait of “The Lost Generation,” a group of young Americans who left their native land and fought in the war and later engaged themselves in writing in a new way about their own experiences.《太阳照样升起》是海明威成熟的作品,通过“迷惘的一代”人的形象塑造,表现了一战后整个一代人的精神面貌以及一战给人们带来的影响。(迷惘的一代:一群离开祖国,参加战争的美国青年,战后开始动手写下他们的战争经历)

38. Hemingway?s second big success is A Farewell Arms. Frederick Henry, who is wounded in war and disillusioned with insanity and futility of the universe. In this novel, Hemingway not only emphasizes his belief that man is trapped both physically and mentally, but goes to some lengths to refute the idea of nature as an expression of either God’s design or his beneficence and to suggest that man is doomed to be entrapped.《永别了.武器》是海明威第二步成名作。Frederick Henry在战争中受了伤,对世界的非理性无法理解。在这部小说里,作者不但强调了人类在肉体和精神上都受难的观点,而且驳斥了自然和上帝的善,表明人类被命运投入了火坑。

39. For Whom the Bell Tolls and The Old Man and the Sea tell more about the later Hemingway.《丧钟为谁敲响》和《老人与海》是反映海明威后期思想的作品。

40. Those who survive in the process of seeking to master the code with the honesty, the discipline, and the restraint are Hemingway Code heroes.他的典型人物就是用诚实,纪律和控制来实现抗争(海明威式英雄)。

41. However, though life is but a losing battle, it is a struggle man can dominate in such a way that loss becomes dignity; man can be physically destroyed but never defeated spiritually.虽然打败仗,但吃败仗也是有尊严的,人类的肉体可以消亡,但精神永远不可战胜。

42. Hemingway himself once said, “The dignity of movement of an iceberg is due to only one-eighth of it being above water.”海明威曾说过“冰山运动的尊严在于只有八分之一露出水面”。

43. No wonder Hemingway was highly praised by the Nobel Prize Committee for “his powerful style-forming mastery of the art” of creating modern fiction.诺贝尔文学奖评委会是这样评价他的:他的简短有力的艺术风格开创了现代小说。

44. “Indian Camp”----The first and the typical of the seven Nick stories is “Indian Camp.” 《印第安营地》----是尼克故事中的第一个,也是很典型的故事。

(VI) William Faulkner威廉.福克纳

45. Faulkner has managed successfully to show a panorama of the experience and consciousness of the whole Southern society.福克纳成功的表现了整个南方社会的历史意识。

46. Of Faulkner’s literary works, four novels are masterpieces by any standards: The Sound and the Fury, Light in August, Absalom, Absalam! And Go Down, Moses.福克纳最有影响的是这四部小说:《喧嚣与骚动》,《八月之光》,《押沙龙,押沙龙!》和《摩西,走下去》。

47. The best story to highlight Faulkner’s concern is “The Bear,” in which the view of the moral abomination of slavery and the human entanglements which result from it goes beyond history, to the beginnings, to the mythic time.典型反映福克纳对此事关注的小说是《熊》,在这部小说里,对奴隶制的道德观以被超历史地追溯到了它的起源阶段。

48. To him, the primary duty of a writer was to explore and represent the infinite possibilities inherent in human life.他认为,作家的主要职责就是探索并重视人类生活所秉承的各种可能性。

49. The modern stream-of-consciousness technique was also frequently and skillfully exploited by Faulkner emphasize the reactions and inner musings of the narrator.现代意识流法也为福克纳所娴熟的运用来强调叙述的反映和内心深思。

50. Moreover,Faulkner was good at presenting multiple points of view.福克纳还善于从多视角来描述。

51. The other narrative techniques Faulkner used to construct his stories include symbolism and mythological and biblical allusions.他还运用了象征主义手法,并且大量引用了神话和圣经典故。

52. “A Rose for Emily”----In this story, Faulkner makes best use of the Gothic devices in narration.《给爱米丽的玫瑰》----在这篇小说里,福克纳充分利用了哥特式的叙述方法。

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