GRE作文ISSUE山寨版高频提纲(110600字)

发表于:2021.1.1来自:www.fanwen118.com字数:110600 手机看范文

1======================Issue 51======================

【题目】Education will be truly effective only when it is specifically designed to meet the individual needs and interests of each student.

【翻译】只有针对每个学生的需要和兴趣,教育才真正的有意义。

【题纲】Position: There is no doubt that education should pay more attention on the needs and interests of students, but it is possible for education to satisfy every student. 1、 从教育的目的上讨论,兴趣对教育的重要性;

For the purpose of education, we should realize how important the role that interest plays is in this whole picture.

对个人,爱因斯坦Albert Einstein有句至理名言:“兴趣是最好的老师”;对社会,教育的目的就是为社会培养各种人才,如果不注重学生兴趣,那么他们到社会不可能尽其可能。有时候可能埋没人才。比如一味的强调分数,那么对发明有兴趣的学生可能会失去动力,eg.哥白尼Copernicus以前学医,爱因斯坦小时候学习并不好(这个例子是以前看到别人用的,我没有想到很好的例子)

On the personal level, we can get our logic started on one of the famous sayings of Albert Einstein ―interest is the best teacher. On a higher level, say society, what education is supposed to be targeted on is to present all types of talented people according to the needs of our community. Only by focusing on interests can we be sure that our society will be fully equipped by different kinds of experts, who are fundamentally the engine for us rolling forward. Education sometimes will lose its original value if we don‘t pay sufficient attention to the certain interests of people at the receiving end, because it is only working by activating both ends. Unfortunately, in modern system of education, especially in China and other Asian countries, it‘s really common to see all schools and teachers will put the scores of examination as the first priority. Nothing goes beyond it, even the students‘ passion spurred by motivation from their bottom of hearts. How ridiculous it is! If all educational system had been developed in this same way, we couldn‘t even imagine how our world looks like nowadays, because in that case, Dr. Einstein would be no possibly make those major discoveries, which resulted from his motivation was killed at the first place.

2、学校必须努力发现并培养学生的兴趣。因为有些学生没有意识到自己的兴趣,因此学校要在这方面作引导。例如学校可以通过开设对终选修课,增加各类奖学金等方法来鼓励学生培养自己的兴趣; Since we all realize how important to make our education system cope with the needs and interests of students, there is no doubt that we need to take actions to help all the people at the receiving end to find their true directions.

The school might open some fresh courses for the students to choose or organize several off topic seminar to gather a bunch of students to attend, the subjects of these seminars or courses are supposed to cover many different areas, which can provide the students a huge pool of choices. Nobody will feel stuck somewhere.

3、但是,鼓励兴趣的培养不等于学校必须根据每个学生的兴趣来进行教育,这既无意义也不现实;一方面老师是有限的,而学生的兴趣是各种各样的。另一方面,学生没有足够的判断力来决定自己该学什么,比如数学,有些学生不喜欢学,但是能够去掉吗?过分强调学生兴趣势必会造成教学的紊乱,而且学生的兴趣不同阶段可能发生改变;

However, the school and other educational agencies should be aware of one universal principle, it is necessary to respect the students‘ choices of their own interests and needs, but it doesn‘t mean the students could make such decisions without any boundaries. As students are exposed to so many different courses every day, they might get confused by the various

significances of those. For example, math is resented by a lot of students at the beginning. But can we get rid of it? The answer is an obvious NO.

4、总结

2=================Issue 144=================

【题目】"It is the artist, not the critic, who gives society something of lasting value."

【翻译】是艺术家而不是批评家,给了社会一些永久的价值。

【提纲】

观点:艺术的持久价值不仅源于艺术家本身创作,也与评论家有关。

According to the speaker, the group of people who present the world something of lasting value are the artists rather than the critics. I do agree with the speaker that the artists make a lot of contributions to our society‘s lasting value, but the positive feedback from all critics should not be ignored so easily. Not only the lasting value of one single piece of art work depends on the aesthetic standards and incredible talents of the artist, but also the critics take certain credits to its success.

1、艺术家们给了社会长久的价值。一方面艺术家带给人们美的享受;或给人精神的鼓励;如:达芬奇的蒙娜丽莎;肖邦的音乐;另一方面使人们了解社会更深层次的东西,这些都是永久的价值;如Mark Twain的小说

It is undeniable that the artists have brought a lot of master pieces of art works, which represents a long term value, into our society throughout the whole history of human beings. Apparently, these works have been performing such a major role in establishing our life at a artificial level, this is how the public aesthetic standards are built up and furthermore, our spirits and soul were so clearly refreshed and motivated that our lives became much more colorful than before. Such masterpieces of art fulfill our lives in many ways, Do Vinci‘s painting brought us a higher level of definition of beauty, and no one can reject the charming aspects of music when we are in the middle of concert to refresh our spirits by Chopin‘s piano solo. When we are confused by a lot wield happening around us or frustrated by people from surroundings, let‘s sit down quietly and take a deep breaths, then connect our thoughts to Great Shakespeare by reading his books, where we can find totally different perspectives that might get us out of trouble soon enough. These are all something of lasting value.

2、批评家也有他们的作用。一方面:他们发掘好的艺术作品,帮助大众了解艺术作品,从更好的角度欣赏作品;如:唐基柯德起初被认为是滑稽小说;小说前面的序言或者绘画所配的文字;另一方面:Beauty is in the eye of the beholder,last value对每个人的含义不同,因此它取决于观看者而不是艺术家。如我们珍藏旧明信片,因为它在我们心中具有last value;

However, sometimes when we are in the middle of a concert, or hanging around in a museum or when we are sitting at home reading Shakespeare, all of a sudden we feel stuck, even frustrated, because it is not that easy for us to understand every single note, painting or word presented by these masters. That‘s when the critics swoop in. They are important to us all the time because they make all these masterpieces accessible to us, with easy-understanding interpretation and shrewd comments, which help us realize the true value of the art. There has been more than one time in the whole history of art when one great work has been buried among others without any glow until one critic came in and showed the real essence of the certain piece of art to public. It is safe to say that without these contributions, there is tiny tidy possibility that until we still don‘t have the chance to appreciate Do Vinci‘s paintings and Chopin‘s piano. The critics are able to take credit for

these.

3、但是有些时候批评家起反面的作用,如当艺术需要创新变革的时候批评家可能阻碍艺术的进步,而且容易被政治所利用;比如Mark Twain小说中抨击了政治的腐败,当权者利用批评家对他的作品进行反驳;比如Voltaire 反对Shakespeare的作品因为他不conform neo-classical principles

The critic's function that of evaluator who filters out bad art from the worthwhile is the one that we must be very wary of. History supports this caution. In the role of judge, critics have failed us repeatedly. Consider, for example, Voltaire's rejection of Shakespeare as barbaric because he did not conform to neo-classical principles of unity. Or, consider the complete dismissal of Beethoven's music by the esteemed critics of his 6me. The pretty same thing just happened to the greatest novelist in the history of US, Mark Twain, who has been never stopped attacking American corrupted politics by his acrimonious and shrewd comments on the government. However, the critics didn‘t choose to stand at the same side of people, yet help the government to hide their ugly behaviors, it is fortunate that Mark Twain‘s work didn‘t fade out of the history just by these dwarfs. Generally, the art critic' judgment is limited by the narrow confines of traditional and established parameters for evaluation. Moreover, critical judgment is often misguided by the ego; thus its value is questionable in any event.

4、总结

3=================Issue 41=================

【题目】"Such non-mainstream areas of inquiry as astrology, fortune-telling, and psychic and paranormal pursuits play a vital role in society by satisfying human needs that are not addressed by mainstream science."

【翻译】研究界的一些非主流领域,比如星象学、占卜术和意念及超自然探索,在社会中起到了很重要的作用,因为它们满足了人们无法从主流科学获得的需求。

【提纲】

The speaker assumes that some non-mainstream areas of inquiry like astrology and fortune-telling are essential for human beings because in some cases they serve to satisfy our needs which

couldn‘t be fulfilled by mainstream science. While this claim has considerable merit with respect to a few circumstances, I take exception with the claim when it comes to the major development of science and technology. In addressing my point, it will be helpful to take following factors into consideration.

Admittedly, under some special circumstances, these non-mainstream areas do have some positive effects one on our daily lives. To begin with, we can easily the motivation for human beings going for astrology or fortune-telling is obviously their curiosity or insecurity about the future. Apparently, none of us could readily say no to someone who shows up and inform us that he or she might be able to tell something about our future, like what kind of job are we going to be doing, what kind of friends are going to make and also, when are we going to be engaged or even married. This sort of thing is so attractive to us that there is no reason to wait to know. And these matters are just the blind spot of science, which means no matter how advanced our technology is, it is still impossible to know about the destiny. Meanwhile, the insecurity about the future also lends some credence to the good effects of

non-mainstream areas. People always might get scared by not knowing what is about to happen in the next few years, it seems unreasonable for some people to believe when one of these fortune-tellers says he or she will fall into big trouble in next month, yet still, not many people will choose to ignore this ―prediction‖, there is no harm to consider it first before it really happens. So basically, the major impacts of these non-mainstream technologies are probably all mentioned all above.

However, I see no reason to overestimate the power of these non-mainstream technologies, what we should really believe without any doubt is still the real science. Science, certainly, does not predict our destiny and future lives, but it is safe to say science and technology is way much more powerful than those prank tricks to change our lives. For example, even when we believe about some non-scientific predictions that we are about to get sick by some accidents, the medical science will turn us around back into health. There is almost no need to worry about these because nowadays medical has been developing so fast that a lot of previous vital diseases are able to be healed completely. Let‘s take another example into consideration, say I have a IT company which design and sell marketing software, if I were told that my business will be crushed by a new established cooperation with a newly designed professional software that will replace my product in the market, rather than worrying about what is about to happen to my business and my life, I would prefer to make more efforts in improving my techniques to beat my competitor. That is the right thing to do.

In addition, we can‘t say it is not risky if we put too much belief on the non-mainstream technologies like astrology rather than the real science. When people don‘t believe in science anymore and turn to astrology for hope, our world will be falling apart. When people keep doubting their future and refuse to fight for it by learning science, our value system will be damaged. When people run into some drawbacks in their lives, what if they don‘t have the nerves to confront with it and go directly to pray for hope, the meaning of our lives will be harmed and never turned around. Based on these, too much belief on the non-mainstream technologies brings us some negative feedbacks, which will disturb our normal and, in some cases, stop the world rolling forward.

观点:主要是反对1 诚然,这些非主流的东西可以在一定程度上满足人们的好奇心,对未知事物的预测。(①先对astrology等做一下解释;②指出它们的作用 可能要分几个段落来展开)

Astrology: the study of the positions and movements of astronomical bodies in the belief that they correspond to the events on earth.

2 但是这些东西毕竟不是科学的,会给人带来危害.( 遇到挫折不勇敢面对,整日成湎于祷告神仙;相信算命先生的话,一切都是命中注定,而不再奋斗;)

4=================Issue 185=================

【题目】"Scandals—whether in politics, academia, or other areas—can be useful. They focus our attention on problems in ways that no speaker or reformer ever could."

【翻译】丑闻--无论是政治、学术还是其他领域--可能会是有用的。丑闻可以用演说家或者改革家无法使用的手段让我们注意到某些问题。

【提纲】

Are scandals useful in calling our attention to important problems, as this statement suggests? I agree that in many cases scandals can serve to reveal larger problems that a community or

society should address. On the other hand, scandals can sometimes distract us from more important societal issues.

1 一方面丑闻可以吸引我们的注意力到存在的问题上所以是必要的。(丑闻的作用之一就是监督;举MIT的副教授由于编造数据而被开除的例子,说明揭发丑闻的必要性。揭发的目的是为了更好的发展,(SARS)就像一个得了感冒的病人如果不治疗,将来有一天就会死掉,一个国家的丑闻不被揭发,那么这个国家可能哪天也会灭亡,所以可以说揭发丑闻是爱国的表现。)

Apparently, scandals can sometimes serve to call our attention to pervasive social or political problems that we would otherwise neglect. Perhaps the paradigmatic modern example is the Watergate scandal. Early in that scandal it would have been tempting to dismiss it as involving one isolated incidence of underhanded campaign tactics. But, in retrospect the scandal forever increased the level of scrutiny and accountability to which our public officials are held, thereby working a significant and lasting benefit to our society. More recently, the Clinton-Gore fundraising scandal sparked a renewed call for campaign-finance reform. In fact the scandal might result in the passage of a congressional bill outlawing private campaign contributions altogether, thereby rendering presidential candidates far less susceptible to undue influence of special-interest groups. Our society would be the dear beneficiary of such reform. Surely, no public speaker or reformer could have called our nation's collective

attention to the problem of presidential misconduct unless these two scandals had surfaced.

Meanwhile, scandals have been playing a major role to help public be noticed by some potential dangers of health, which means some certain scandals were successful to save a lot of lives. Such examples never stopped showing up in the long history of human beings. On September 18, 1996, one of the most prominent Japanese Hemophilia Experts was charged for carelessly giving tainted blood to a poor patient who later died of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). He was trying to hide the truth from the public for his own reputation but the scandal called major attentions into this case, thereby he fell down. Another example was as shocking as the first one, when SARS infected several patients at the beginning, the governments were trying to hide the truth to avoid a extensive panic, but it went out of control and the virus spread so quickly that nobody can be prepared for immediate treatments. One scandal unveiled this virus and all people around the world pull the alarm everywhere to pay more attention about the spread. We can‘t even imagine how many people will die if this SARS remain underground while all individuals are not aware they are in danger.

Scandals also help us to stay focused and avoid us being cheated by other authorities in the academic and scientific world. In this specific area, scandals can be a supervisor to keep eye on all the scientists and scholars to do their job with a good work ethic, rather than cheating to the public, like Dr. Burning from MIT, who copied other professors‘ experimental results to draw attention from the academy and assert a fake conclusion that doesn‘t make any sense after people find out the real resources of his data. His fame fell down into the valley. The world is thankful to the scandal which cleared our eyes.

However, scandals can sometimes serve chiefly to distract us from more pressing community or societal problems. At the community level, for example, several years ago the chancellor of a university located in my city was expelled from office for misusing university funds to

renovate his posh personal residence. Every new development during the scandal became

front-page news in the campus newspaper. But did this scandal serve any useful purpose? No. The scandal did not reveal any pervasive problem with university accounting practices. It did not result in any sort of useful system-wide reform. Rather, it was merely one incidence of petty misappropriation. Moreover, the scandal distracted the university community from far more important issues, such as affu'mative action and campus safety, which were relegated to the second page of the campus news paper during the scandal.

Even on a societal level, scandals can serve chiefly to distract us from more important

matters. For example, time will tell whether the Clinton sex scandal will benefit our political, social, or legal system. Admittedly, the scandal did call our attention to certain issues of

federal law. It sparked a debate about the powers and duties of legal prosecutors, under the Independent Counsel Act. Yet on balance, it seems to me that the deleterious effects of the scandal in terms of the financial expense to taxpayers and the various harms to many

individuals caught up in the legal process---outweigh these benefits. More importantly, for more than a year the scandal served chiefly to distract us from our most pressing national and global problems, such as the Kosovo crisis, our social-security crisis, and health-care reform, to name just a few.

2 另一方面揭发丑闻也需要有个度,应该在揭发丑闻所花费的人力、物力、财力和揭发出来的意义之间找到平衡点。(举Clinton-Lewinsky的例子,说明花太多财力精力是没必要的。)

5=======================Issue136======================

【题目】The absence of choices is a circumstance that is very, very rare.

【翻译】没有选择的情况少之又少。

【提纲】观点:同意作者观点,没有选择的情况是非常少的

1、自然界的发展是个不断选择不断发展的过程(进化论);新老观点对比:新观点是自然选择理论 vs 达尔文出现之前

2、社会历史的发展也是不断选择从而发展的过程:分角度:文学领域、政治领域、科技领域、教育领域;从社会的角度来说,民主的社会制度也从宪法上保证了在合法的范围内我们是自由的,我们有选择的权利。(如今,连同性恋都合法了,都被社会承认了,怎么可能没选择?)

3、个人自己一生的发展中,其实也面临着不同的选择. 以自己的亲身经历为例、从小到大,从我们个人的角度说,我们几乎每天都在做出大大小小的选择。我们选择几点起床,选择吃什么样的早饭,选择乘什么交通工具去上学,选择所学的课程。常识也告诉我们人们是自由的,拥有自由的意志,伴随而来的必然有选择的权利。除了那些监狱里的人和精神有问题的人,没有选择的情况真的很罕见。

4、让步,我们的选择是有条件的选择,不能泛滥,否则有危害。原因有二:1是资源所限(例如我们的教育资源,上大学你成绩好就可以选择,成绩不好就被选择)2是必须在法律允许的范围内,否则社会混乱;3选择太多也会造成选择的困难或者无法选择;eg. 拿到了很多好大学的offer, what should I

6 =======================Issue38======================

【题目】"In the age of television, reading books is not as important as it once was. People can learn as much by watching television as they can by reading books."

【翻译】电视时代的读书已经不像以前那么重要了。人们通过看电视学到的和他们读书所能学到的

一样多。

【提纲】

In the age of television, the speaker claims that reading books is not that important anymore because the existence of television. While this claim has considerable merit with respect to the increasingly covering range of television, I take exception with the claim when it comes to several limits which can only be accessed by books. In addressing my point, it will be helpful to take following factors into consideration.

1 television can impart and disseminate temporal and new events more rapidly than books in the political realm, the citizens could understand the political proceedings as soon as possible by watching television broadcasting.

2 in the business field, consumers could know the necessary information about the products by the advertisements on TV.

3 books are far more portable than television sets and main approach for most people to gain knowledge in their primary time, and cultivate good reading habits

4 the controllers of the television stations always withhold some information from audiences but books do not.

7========================Issue154========================

【题目】Both parents and communities must be involved in the local schools. Education is too important to leave solely to a group of professional educators.

【翻译】父母和社会都必须参与到地方的学校中。教育太重要了以至于不能把教育完全交给一群职业教育者。

【提纲】观点:不同意。参与当然可以,但要适度,而且从实际来讲,把教育的任务交给专业的教育者是有好处的。

According to the speaker, nowadays education not only depends on professional educators who dedicate their career into this specific field, but also the students‘ parents and the community where they grow up. Whereas there are several inevitable flaws about professional educators, parents and communities as well, commonsense and experiences tell us only by combining all these powerful forces together can we make sure the students will be best prepared for their entire life.

As we all know, parents are always the first and the best teachers during one student‘s life. They are the ones who set their children‘s journey of life on sail, by controlling the steer and deciding their original directions. From the very beginning of all people‘s lives, their consciousness and habits are all affected by their parents‘ behaviors and thoughts, because the children are not able to realize what they are doing at all during that period of time when all they know is imitating other people surrounding them, apparently, these always surrounding people are, of course, their parents. Therefore, all parents are playing such important roles in developing the children‘s behavior habits and establishing their value systems and moral standards, that no one can doubt their capability to be their children‘s first and best teachers.

Meanwhile, the education of all individuals is also significantly influenced by many specific characteristics of the neighboring communities, such as the financial capability,

environmental conditions and so on. The way how these factors influence education quality couldn‘t be more obvious. The public school‘s funding resources are basically local companies and charity agencies who share the rights and responsibility to take actions to aid young people to access quality education, no matter their own financial situations. At the same time, the local environmental conditions couldn‘t be ruled out as an essential factor to affect the education quality, as we all can imagine what a college or school looks like when there is no Greenland around the campus and polluted water and waste gas is everywhere. Just as important as the parents, it is undoubtedly true that communities contribute a lot to a well developed education system.

Whereas the parents are the first and best teachers in one student‘s life, we have to admit that the only way to guarantee our students getting best quality education is counting on professional educators who have been trained by formal colleges and possess enormous experiences to engage in their career. Being different from the parents who might not know what is the best education way, the professional teachers are capable to determine the particular method for education according to the students‘ characters and personalities. At the same time when they teach, the students‘ personalities are also in a progress of establishment, and thus their cognitive ability will be shaped unconsciously.

1. 必须承认,父母对于教育起着至关重要的作用,他们是孩子的第一任老师。他们真心的为孩子着想,在这一点上胜过其他任何人。至于社会,很容易知道有了社会的帮助,教育会得到诸多好处,如赞助,社会教育,人格塑造。

2. 然而,父母虽然一心希望孩子接受最好的教育,可是实际上他们往往并不知道什么对于孩子才是好的。比如schooling at home 虽然可以选择最好的老师,最好的教育条件,但是培养出来的孩子可能会与社会不相融。另一方面,如果父母社会都参与进来,很有可能结果是效率很低,做个决定先讨论争吵半天,可能是正常的教学被影响。

3. 而职业教育者,相对来说,有丰富的教学经验,知道什么对孩子才是好的,并且掌握科学的教育方法,可以成功的引导孩子正常的社会化,帮助孩子塑造人格,不断认识自己完善自己。从这个角度来说,家长和社会是可以放心把教育这项重任交给他们的。

8=====================Issue130=======================

【题目】

How children are socialized today determines the destiny of society. Unfortunately, we have not yet learned how to raise children who can help bring about a better society.

【翻译】现在孩子的社会化程度决定了社会的命运。可惜的是,我们还没有学会教孩子怎么样去建设一个更好的社会。

【提纲】观点:孩子的社会化对于整个社会来说的确很重要,但是显然还有其他因素,所幸人们已经学会了怎样去培养孩子去更好的建设未来社会。

I find the speaker‘s dual claim specious on both counts. The claim that the society‘s destiny hinges on the fact that how our children are socialized, while partially true in some specific respects, is questionable overall. Meanwhile, since nowadays our education system has been developed completely well, it is totally convincing to say that we actually know how to raise our children to bring about a better society.

Admittedly, under some particular circumstances, the society‘s destiny is counting on the extent to which our children are socialized in their early ages. As we all know, most of their

personalities and characters will be formed unconsciously or subconsciously by all the surroundings around them. Thus, it is quite important for the parents and the neighboring community that noticing their own behaviors will definitely affect the shaping progress of children‘s future. For example, the reason why James Wilson became one of the most successful photographers is because the environment where he grew up was fulfilled with the artist‘s inspirations and motivations, the people he had been socialized with are all top professions in the specific area. The future of photography in our society has been changed by him, and his success has to be inevitably attributed to the community he was growing up. There are more similar examples about this, which cover all major specific areas in our lives, hence how the children are socialized is very important to our future.

However, on my defense, our future apparently depends on some other more important factors as well, including technology revolutions, artistic achievements and political figures all round the world. We couldn‘t imagine what our world will look like nowadays if Mr. Bill Gates didn‘t drop the college to establish Microsoft, in that case, our daily lives won‘t be so easily handled as today with all these computers and software, how difficult it would be to give a public speech or make a coast-to-coast video call, nobody knows. That‘s why we say technology revolutions are important for us to prepare for future. The same thing makes a lot of sense in the art world. We are so grateful for Picasso with the reason that it is just his pursuits in impressionism that improved our aesthetic standards, without being limited by the numerous master pieces of realistic works. His accomplishments affected our modern world profoundly, which are pretty obvious to see many different artistic paintings, sculptors and carves everywhere in our lives, also the construction field is deeply touched by his inspiration. Therefore, as we all see in our lives every day, our future are determined by so many factors that it is not true to say that our future relies on how the children are socialized.

Consider next the speaker's claim that we have not yet learned how to raise children who can better society. If we define a "better" society as one characterized by greater tolerance of differing viewpoints and people who are different from ourselves, greater respect for individual rights, and greater cooperation across cultural and national boundaries, then the children of the most recent half-century are creating a better society. The most recent quarter-century has seen an increasing sensitivity in our society toward ensuring public health by policing the food and drug industries and by protecting our natural environment. We're becoming more sensitive to, and respectful of, the rights of women, various ethnic and racial groups, homosexuals, and mentally- and physically-challenged individuals. The re-emergence of political third parties with decidedly libertarian ideals demonstrates an increasing concern for individual freedoms. And there is ample evidence of increasing international cooperation. The former Soviet Union and the U.S. have

worked collaboratively in space research and exploration since the 1970s; peace-keeping missions are now largely multi-national efforts; and nations are now tackling public health problems

collaboratively through joint research programs. In short, the speaker's second claim flies in the face of the empirical evidence, as I see it.

In sum, our future can be assured by the children who will bring great advances into our lives, which is indicated by previous successful experiences, meanwhile, other factors other than

how the children are socialized are playing major roles in the transformation of lives. With all these, we might say a better tomorrow is right at the corner waiting for us right now.

1. 社会化的含义及其对于社会的重要性

2. 除了社会化之外还有许多因素决定着社会未来的命运,比如人们的创新,科学技术水平等等(Roosevelt and his New Deal, no Bill Gates and his Microsoft and no Picasso and his impressionism)

3. 从社会的发展与进步来看,人们已经学会教育孩子区建设一个更好的社会。当然也不可否认,教育中的确也存在着一些问题,但总的来说这并不影响总的趋势。(inoculations to cure diseases,exploring the space,Internet)

9===================Issue 208=====================

【题目】"The way people look, dress, and act reveals their attitudes and interests. You can tell much about a society's ideas and values by observing the appearance and behavior of its people."

【翻译】人们的眼神、穿着和动作都揭示了他们的态度和兴趣。你可以透过观察一个社会中人们的外貌和举止来认识该社会的理念和价值观。

【提纲】

(1)人的外貌就是外表和穿着,人的举止就是动作,这些都能揭示人的态度和兴趣,同时也能反映社会的理念和价值观。

(2)从人的外貌来看,外貌可以体现一个社会的很多问题。比如:阿拉伯国家的女人不能露脸,说明这些社会的女人地位高; 法国人穿着随便休闲,说明他们很浪漫。另外,外貌还能体现一个社会的变化,比如:几十年前在中国穿牛仔裤的人甚至被认为是坏人,说明那时候的人想法很偏激传统,但现在这种想法已经消失了,任何人都可以穿,甚至被认为是时尚。

(3)但是我们不得不承认有时“我们的眼睛会欺骗我们”,根据一个人的外貌可能会产生某些错误认识。比如人们常常认为穿着好的人就是成功的人,反而不愿意和穿着不好的人交往,其实这是有偏见的。但是举止却是人的内心的真实反映。比如人们尊老爱幼、彬彬有礼,可以反映出人们的人品,等等。(举例子邱吉尔曾经是个酒鬼…Vincent Van Gogh比较潦倒)

(4)因此观察一个人、一个社会都要结合外貌和举止两方面来看。

10===================Issue 47=====================

【题目】Society does not place enough emphasis on the intellect-that is, on reasoning and other cognitive skills. (should, already, too much)

【翻译】社会对于智力还是重视不够,比如推理和认知的能力。

【提纲】

(1) 智力是什么?我们的社会真的没有足够重视吗?当然不是的.

(2)每个孩子从出生就开始被教育,“知识就是力量”作为信条,除了上学,还要上各种培训班,给孩子造成了很大的压力,也影响了孩子的一生。

(3)作为与智力相对的feeling的重视却几乎空白,父母忙于工作,更重视孩子的学习成绩,学校也顾不上所有学生的心理,没有专门的心理课,等等。有一项统计说现在每年有几十万的年轻人自杀,可见问题的严重性。

(4)好在现在社会已经越来越意识到这个问题,家长们也不再望子成龙,而只是希望孩子成为一个身体和心理都健康的人。

11===================Issue 83=====================

【题目】"Government should preserve publicly owned wilderness areas in their natural state, even though these areas are often extremely remote and thus accessible to only a few

people."(should, will, how)

【翻译】政府应该保护公共所有的野生地区,使得它们维持自然的状态,即使这些地方十分地偏远因而大多数人无法到达。

【提纲】同意

1、野生地区应当予以保护:因为第一,野生地区有丰富的动、植物资源,具有很高的研究价值,如果没有保护的话,物种可能会灭绝;第二,野生自然地区的状况对于环境、气候影响也有影响;

2、野生地区容易受到人类的影响,即使偏远或者只有很少人能够到达,仍然可能遭受严重的破坏,因此应当予以保护;举例人们对于象牙ivory

(前两点似乎涉及到一些专业知识,需要查一查,不然说起来很空洞)

3、政府是有效的保护手段,如通过法律,很多国家都有相关的规定来保护;如:the 1964 Wilderness Act,自然保护区的建立;除此以外,人类自身也要通过宣传、教育自觉地进行保护;

12==================Issue 150================

【题目】Because of television and worldwide computer connections, people can now become familiar with a great many places that they have never visited. As a result, tourism will soon become obsolete.( + + -)

【翻译】由于电视和全球范围内的计算机网络,人们现在可以熟悉很多以前从未涉足过的地方,结果使得旅游变得过时了

【题纲】Position: It is true that television and worldwide computer connections make people become familiar with a great many places that they have never visited, whereas tourism does not become obsolete as a result, in stead, it stimulated the development of tourism.

1、首先,电视和网络的确让人们了解了很多他们没有去过的地方。因为时间和金钱有限,大部分人不可能到很多地方旅游,网络和电视给他们提供了方便。人们可以不用出家门就可以看见埃及的金字塔,Australian sloth,Hawaii beautiful scene; 2、但是旅游是不能被替代的,旅游有很多好处。第一:旅游能够让人从繁忙的工作中解放出来,这也是很多人旅游的原因,如在California 的beach,你可以享受阳光,呼吸新鲜空气,游泳,这些都是通过网络办不到的;第二:旅游也是锻炼身体,人们去旅游总要travel,要走路,进行各种各样的relax games,而这些也是在家办不到的;第三:看是一回事,亲身体验是另外一回事;(反对后半句)

3、而且,电视和网络不但不会使旅游业萧条,反而会促进旅游业的发展。应为人们以前了解旅游的途径很少,所以人们不大可能跑很远,比如出国去旅游。现在不一样了,在人们从电视上了解信息后,可能帮助他们计划旅游;

13===============issue87===================

87. "In any field of inquiry, the beginner is more likely than the expert to make important discoveries." 【总频率46】

在所有的研究领域中,新手要比专家更有可能获得重要的发现。新手和老手 (Andrew wiles, fermat‘s last theorem)

【提纲】

1 诚然,新手因为刚入门,对事物充满了好奇心,并且由于缺乏专业知识,所以可以在一定程度上排除定势思维。

2 但是我认为在一个领域要有重大发现是需要一定的背景知识做为前提的。【例子,Freud developed his psycho-analysis approach for the treatment of psychological and emotional disorders.这个治疗方法的发现是建立在Freud 深厚的心理学背景知识和多年对心理学的研究上的】牛顿的巨人观点;瓦特发明蒸汽机也是如此;一开始哪能马上达到正确深入的研究呢;那个step by step的话

3 其实要获得重大发现我认为应该结合新手和老手的优势,既要有一定的知识背景的积累,又要有

新手开拓创新的精神。比如碰到一个问题不要只是按正向思维,可以逆向思维【converse thinking】这个没想到例子!!

【关于弗洛伊德的简介】

Sigmund Freud was born on May 6, 1856 at Freiberg, Moravia, now Pribor in the Czech Republic. Freud developed the techniques of "Psycho-Analysis" for the treatment of psychological and emotional disorders.

Freud graduated as Doctor of Medicine from the Medical School of the University of Vienna in 1881. In September 1891 Freud moved to 19 Berggasse in Vienna where he lived and worked for the next 47 years. In 1896 in his paper, "The Aetiology of Hysteria," Freud first used the term "Psycho-Analysis." In October of 1902 a circle of physicians grouped around Freud began a weekly discussion of Psycho-Analysis. From 1908 on the group called itself "Vienna Psycho-Analytical Society." In 1910 the "International Psycho-Analytical Association" was formed in Nuremberg with Swiss psychologist Carl Jung as the first president. Psycho-analysis soon gained acceptance all over the world as a scientific discipline and as a therapeutical approach.

On March 12, 1938 German troops marched into Austria and the Nazis assumed power. Freud's daughter Anna was arrested on March 22 by the Gestapo and held for a day. On June 4, following numerous international interventions, Freud was allowed to emigrate to London with his wife, his youngest daughter Anna, his housekeeper Paula Fichtl and his medical caretaker Josefine Stross. Freud's other children also managed to escape. His brother lost all his property when he left Vienna, and four elderly and infirm sisters were forced to remain in Vienna and killed in concentration camps in 1941. Freud moved to a house at 20 Maresfield Gardens in London's Hampstead section.

Sigmund Freud died on September 23, 1939. "The Sigmund Freud Museum" was opened in his former office at 19 Berggasse, Vienna in 1971.

14

=========================issue152========================

152. "The only responsibility of corporate executives, provided they stay within the law, is to make as much money as possible for their companies." (+ os -)

公司的经营者们唯一的责任就是在法律规定范围之内为他们的公司赚尽可能多的钱。【总频率40】

【提纲】

1 诚然,为公司赚钱的确是corporate executives的responsibility之一,因为一个要发展下去是离不开钱的(给员工发工资需要钱,为公司作宣传打广告要钱,开发新产品新技术要钱)

2 但是赚钱不是corporate executives唯一responsibility,corporate executives have responsibility to give employees motives, including 给员工提供良好的工作环境,为员工塑造融洽的人际关系氛围,给予员工发展和成长的机会。【这里引用赫茨伯格的双因素激励理论】

3 一个公司属于社会的一部分,corporate executives belongs to the company, 所以除了赚钱,corporate executives 还有责任回报社会,做一些慈善事业【charity undertaking】取之于民,用之于民。这样不仅可以树立公司良好的社会形象,还可以帮助需要帮助的人。而且也体现社会对弱势群体的关注。

15

==================Issue17==================

【题目】

"There are two types of laws: just and unjust. Every individual in a society has a responsibility to obey just laws and, even more importantly, to disobey and resist unjust laws."

【翻译】

有两种法律:公正的和不公正的。每个社会成员都有责任遵守公正的法律,但是更重要的是,更应该不遵守和反抗不公正的法律。

【提纲】

1、我们应当自觉遵守维护法律秩序,特别是公正的法律,用以维护社会的秩序,这样一方面能够维护社会的秩序,例如交通法规,另一方面通过约束他人保障公民自己的权利

2、对于不公正的法律,我们更应该不遵守或者反抗以保证维护的正义,例如希特勒二战期间屠杀犹太人的法律

3、然而,在实际生活中,由于价值观的不同,我们很难正确辨别哪些法律是不公正的法律,如对于安乐死euthanasia和死刑death penalty,不同国家法律有不同的规定

4、结论,在可辨认的前提下,我们要坚决遵守公正法律抵制不公正的法律

Is it true that every individual in a society share a universal responsibility to obey just laws and disobey the unjust ones? The speaker might think this as the truth, in my defense, however, this statement is too extreme in two single respects, first, it incorrectly categorizes any law as either just or unjust; and secondly, it recommends an ineffective and potentially harmful means of legal reform.

First, whether a law is just or unjust is not a straightforward issue. The fairness of any law depends on one‘s personal value system. This is especially true when it comes to personal freedoms. For supporting examples, one needs to look no further than the controversial issue of abortion. Individuals with particular religious beliefs tend to view laws allowing abortion as unjust, while others with different value systems might view such laws as just.

The fairness of a law also depends on one‘s personal interest, or stake, in the legal issue at hand. After all, in a democratic society the chief function of laws is to strike a balance among competing interests. Let us take a law regulating the toxic effluents that a certain factory can emit into a nearby river as an example. Such laws are established chiefly to protect the public health in the neighboring areas. However, complying with these regulations will be costly for the factories, because it means that they have to make some extra budget for this progress of waste management, in that case, the factory might have no choice but lay off employees or shutting off altogether, or even raise their products‘ prices to make compensation for the cost. Therefore, at stake are the respective interests of company‘s owners, employees, customers, as well as the opposing interests of the regions residents whose health and safety probably get impacted. In short, the fairness of the law is subjective, depending largely on how ones‘ personal interests are affected by it.

The second fundamental problem with the statement is that disobeying unjust laws often has the opposite effect of what was intended or hoped for. Most anyone would argue, for instance, is that our federal system of income taxation is unfair in one respect or another. Yet the end result of widespread disobedience, in this case tax evasion, is to perpetuate the

system. Free-riders only compel the government to maintain tax rates at high levels in order to ensure adequate revenue for the various programs in its budget.

Yet another fundamental problem with the statement is that by justifying a violation of one sort of law we find ourselves on a slippery slope toward sanctioning all types of illegal behavior, including egregious criminal conduct. Returning to the abortion example we mentioned above, a person strongly opposed to the freedom-of-choice position might maintain that the illegal blocking of access to an abortion clinic amounts to justifiable disobedience. However, it is a precariously short leap from this sort of civil disobedience to physical confrontations with clinic workers, then to the infliction of property damage, then to the bombing of the clinic and potential murder.

16

==================Issue177================

【题目】

The study of an academic discipline alters the way we perceive the world. After studying the discipline, we see the same world as before, but with different eyes.

【翻译】

对于一门学科的研究会改变我们对世界的看法。在学习这门学科之后,我们看到的世界一如既往,但是我们本身的角度和眼光已然不同。

【提纲】

1、对于自然学科的学习,一方面给了我们科学知识,让我们了解了世界的本质;

在天文学领域,人们学习和理解了哥白尼的“日心说”以后就知道“地球是绕着太阳转的”而不是“地球是太阳系的中心”。For the supporting examples, one needs to look no further than Copernicus’ Heliocentric cosmology

在医学领域,人们研究了巴斯德Pasteur的疾病细菌学说才知道许多疾病均由微生物引起。 Microbe(微生物)细菌学bacteriology

在物理学领域,只有我们学习了伽利略扔小球的试验才懂得不同物体是同时落地的。

学习了相对论是我们知道了宏观世界和微观世界的差别principle of relativity

另一方面,让我们严谨,学会看待问题的方法,如critical thinking, causality让我们带有怀疑的态度来看待世界;

2、对哲学和社会学科的学习,让我们学会用辩证,物质、发展的眼光来看待问题;如:dialectic辩证法教给我们将事物一分为二的看待,有好有坏;Every coin has two sides.

3、专业知识的学习,跟使得我们倾向于使用我们的专业知识来看待问题。(例如我们看一栋房子,我学经济会考虑房屋是否经济,我同学建筑会考虑房屋的结构如何,学平面设计或者艺术会首先想到怎样来不知和装饰;再比如,clone从生物学角度是一项很高很难值得研究探索的技术,从心理学和社会的角度却是争议的;

4、总结

17

==================Issue11================

【题目】

“ All nations should help support the development of a global university designed to engage students in the progress of solving the world‘s most persistent social problems.‖

(+ + -)

【翻译】

所有的国家都应该支持发展一所全球性的大学,它的主要目的是要让学生们致力于解决世界上最难缠的社会问题。

【提纲】

agree

1) 各国虽然具体情况不同,但是存在很多共同的问题,且很多问题有相同的根源,global university can help to establish a common ground or reach a consensus(the depletion of atmospheric ozone或green-house effect 或space exploration仅凭一个国家的经济实力难以实现需要各国合作

2)很多问题各个国家看法不同,产生矛盾,共同研究有利于增进了解。如文化冲突,发达国家和发展中国家的经济贸易争端,巴以冲突等

3)全球性大学应该注意一些问题,首先要尊重各国的观点,不能忽视parochial problems因为各国的经济实力和发展不同,解决问题的方法不同。其次,应该使每个国家的学生都能接受平等的教育。

4)倾听各国的声音,减少大国政治上的影响,使每个国家都能参与解决问题并分享研究的成果。 ― All nations should help support the development of a global university designed to engage students in the progress of solving the world‘s most persistent social problems.‖

Is it generally necessary for all nations to cooperate together developing one global university, which is designed to engage students in the progress of solving worlds‘ most persistent social problems? According to the speaker, it is the right thing to do. And I couldn‘t agree more on this, since the grand future which could be brought to us by this university and the fellow graduates, even though such university poses certain risks that all participating nations should be careful to minimize, to prevent them impairing the universities‘ original purpose.

One compelling argument in favor of a global university has to do with the fact that its faculty and students would bring diverse cultural and educational perspectives to the problems they seek to solve. It seems to me that nations. For the students who dedicate their academic career into this global university, they will be able to make acquainted to a huge number of friends, coming from different countries, sharing varying cultural backgrounds and being raised up with various religious beliefs. Also, differing from students studying in ordinary universities around the world who take foreign culture or foreign history as virtual causes, scholars in this college can easily access these types of knowledge without taking courses to learn on purpose. In addition, it is obvious that the academic level in some certain countries around the world is higher than others, so the students and faculties will be able to share their knowledge and experiences with ones who barely heard about them before. Hence, bringing diverse cultural perspectives towards different problems make the odds of improving technology highest ever.

Another convincing argument for the suggestion of global university involves the increasingly global nature of certain problems. For supporting examples, one needs to look no further than the depletion of atmospheric ozone, which has warmed the earth to the point that threatens

the very survival of the human species. Also, we are now learning that the clear-cutting of rainforests can set into motion a chain of animal extinction threatening the delicate balance on our planet upon which all animals, including humans ourselves, depend. At the same time, let us consider that a financial crisis, political situation or a natural disaster in one country can spell trouble for foreign companies, many of which are now multinational in that they rely on the native labor forces, equipment, raw materials and even legal systems to survive. Environmental, economic, political and other problems such as those mentioned above inevitably carry grave social consequences, including increased crime, unemployment, insurrection, hunger, terrorists, and so forth. Only by sticking to international cooperation which can be facilitated by this global university can we solve these problems and make our business or lives move forward.

Although, the establishment of this global university would pose certain risks rather than solve most pressing social problems. The reason why I am worrying about this is the diversity of different backgrounds might not always help. All participating nations, in spite of their different beliefs and cultures, will have to reach agreement on which problems demand the university‘s attention and resources, which areas of academic research are worthwhile, as well as agreeing on policies and procedures for making, enforcing and amending these decisions. The requirement for the boards of trustees will be really high, because they are all obliged in these duties and responsibilities to maintain the balance among all students around the world, and also they must do their best to prevent any possible negative force impeding the normal operation of the whole university.

In sum, even though there are several major concerns we have to worry about while establishing this global university, it is quite convincing that this university will benefit our daily lives in many ways rather than bring troubles. All we need to do is making much effort to maintain the normal operation to make everything would be on the right track all the time.

18

==================issue43==================

Issue43 To be an effective leader, a public official must maintain the highest ethical and moral standards.(must will -)

翻译:一个公仆如果想成为一位杰出的领导者就必须保持最高的伦理和道德标准。

提纲:(有保留的赞同)

1 a leader should possess a high level of ethnical and moral standards, yet not the highest 2 首先,高尚的道德和伦理标准可以使领导者赢得人民的信任和对手的尊重。其次,moral regulations in his mind 防止leaders abuse their authorities and also the corruptions.

3 a leader is not a moralist, 他也有人性的一面,他的行为未必是完美的,但是这并不代表他不能成为一个成功的领导者。(Clinton's sex scandal &the marital discretions of President Kennedy) 4 一个成功的领导者还应该具备其它方面的特征(special knowledge, insight, management ability, creativity and so forth可以举Bill Gates 创造微软神话的例子)

19

===============issue4===================

4 No field of study can advance significantly unless outsiders bring their knowledge and experience to that field of study.(+ + -)

翻译:在任何一个研究领域当中,除非有该领域之外的人引进他们的知识和经验,否则该领域就很难获得巨大的发展。

(geometry, algebra)

提纲:(平衡观点)

1、不可否认,许多基础学科的发展主要的成果都是源自内在的创造,如万有引力定律,哥白尼的日心说astronomy(恩,老掉牙的例子,那就用凯恩斯发现宏观经济学规律吧)Archimedes Theorem(定理)mechanics(力学)law(定律)the law of gravity(万有引力定律)geometry(几何学)Keynes凯恩斯(英国经济学家)

2、但是,一个领域的研究可以借签其它领域的成果而取得巨大的进步(当John Nash把数学的思想用来解释经济现象后,当代的经济领域发生巨大的变化)很多Nobel经济学奖得主是数学家;

3、随着现代科学和社会的发展各个不同领域之间常常互相影响,新的交叉学科应运而生,不但促进了原有领域的发展还具有很高的新起点。(化学和生物的交叉产生了生化领域,促进了近代临床科学的发展,如人造骨骼的应用)随着社会的发展,越来越多的交叉学科出现,各个学科的发展需要多方面的知识。如计算机学科需要多种数学啊,艺术的知识; Frederick Taylor, the father of Scientific Management的科学管理理论是源于生产实践经验等等artificial bones

4、尽管很少,但是其它领域不成熟的经验会对该领域的进步带来不利的影响。(Paul Muller的DDT对global ecological system 的影响)

5、总之,其它领域的成果对该领域进步的促进远大于其带来的不利影响,应该鼓励各个领域之间的相互交流。

20

==================Issue147================

【题目】

Tradition and modernization are incompatible. One must choose between them.

【翻译】

传统和现代化是不相容的。人们必须在二者之间做出选择。

【提纲】

观点:不同意,传统和现代是相容的。

1. 从历史的角度看,很多思想、传统(信仰、价值观、习俗等)一代代传承至今,对于现代的社会影响仍然存在。

思想上:古代的哲学智慧(Socrates, what is love? What is truth? What is justice? Socrates, a philosopher in Athens, ancient Greece, asked big questions like these and tried to make people think, discuss and debate. ),军事思想(Alexander the Great???),政治理想(Plato –the republic影响了美国的国家机构设置)等等

传统上:China, spring festival, set off firework; Bull game in Brazil

宗教上:Christianism, Islam, Buddhism which are all born long ago still greatly influence people in modern world.

2. 现代的好多东西经过演变,成为与传统兼容的产物,同时传统也流传与之成为并行的流派。特别是在建筑、艺术和音乐方面eg. Rococo洛可可; 艺术Picasso的impressionism, cubism; 仍然是现代建筑和艺术的流派之一,被广为借鉴。Classical music, 和pop music尽管风格迥异,但都带给现

代人音乐的享受。

3. 当然,我们必须承认传统中的一些东西与现代的确是格格不入的。比如旧的习俗,对于女性的歧视(discriminate against women),superstition(迷信)等等。

4、我们不能因此而全盘否认传统的作用,对于传统正确的态度应该是去除糟粕取其精华。

21

===================Issue 50=====================

【题目】In order to improve the quality of instruction at the college and university

level, all faculty should be required to spend time working outside the academic world in professions relevant to the courses they teach.

【翻译】为了改善大学的教学质量,所有的教员都应该被要求花一定时间到学术领域以外去参加和他们所教科目相关的工作。(+ - os)

【提纲】

(1)反对观点。

(2)首先这样会使教员分心,有可能面外的工作占用很多精力,而忽略了教学任务,这样反而会降低教学质量。比如,现在计算机行业很热门,有很多计算机系的老师在外面的公司兼职做项目,导致上课质量下降,很多只是应付任务。(可以举自己身边的例子)

(3)有些学科发展很快,确实需要多了解外面的发展,但也不一定非要让教员出去工作,因为还有很多渠道的,比如参加学术讨论会议、通过网络了解最新动态等等。

(4)此外,有些学科,比如基础研究学科数学、物理的发展是需要在实验室里的,不需要到外面工作,且短期内这些都不会有太大变化,这些老师更不需要必须花时间去外面工作。

22

===================Issue 88=====================

【题目】Technologies not only influence but actually determine social customs and ethics.

【翻译】技术不仅仅影响而且实际上是决定了社会传统和道德规范。

【提纲】

(1)技术可以影响社会传统。比如:工业革命是女性的地位提高了,可以走出家门工作;电脑、网络、手机的普及彻底改变了人们的生活方式和相处方式;先进的交通工具可以使人们不再需要必须住在城市。(transportation, communication, automation)

(2)技术可以影响道德规范。遗传学的研究使人们认识到近亲结婚的坏处,而不是“亲上加亲”。(intermarriage, genetics)

New family form: single, divorced, double income with no kids.

(3)但是技术却不能决定社会传统和道德规范,因为技术是为人类服务的,而社会传统和道德规范正是人的一种体现。相反,技术要受到社会传统和道德规范的影响。比如克隆人的研究一直被大多数国家禁止。Nuke(核武器)

23

================issue54================

【题目】History teaches us only one thing: knowing about the past cannot help people to make important decisions today.(历史类)(+ + -)

【翻译】历史只教会了我们一件事:了解过去无助于人们今天作出重要的决定。

【提纲】反对

1、历史对于人们今日的决定是有一定的帮助作用的,培根说历史使人明智,尽管时代不同,人物和

事件是有相似之处的:历史上成功的经验可以给我们今天指明前进的方向,例如根据孙子兵法(strategics)可以用于近现代的军事策略,也可以运用于经济生活

2、历史人物的榜样作用Hitler

3、历史上失败的或者不好的经验可以给人以警示作用,如二战中美国向日本投放两枚原子弹(atomic bomb)造成的严重后果警示我们不可轻易使用核武器;

4、当然,我们不能盲目地复制历史,照搬历史,需要用发展的眼光看待历史,从历史中汲取经验用于今天的决策(体现在人类社会的变革上,就是奴隶时期曾经出现过鼎盛,如Old Rome, at the height of power and splendor)

4、总结

24

================issue141================

【题目】"Most people recognize the benefits of individuality, but the fact is that personal economic success requires conformity."

【翻译】虽然大多数人都承认个人的利益,但是事实上个人的经济成功需要的是合作。

【提纲】平衡观点

1、现代经济社会中,追求个人经济的成功,个性和服从一致都很重要

2、服从一直在某种程度上意味着合作,对于经济的成功有着重要作用;例如,现代经济市场中强调的所谓供应链管理,就是包含生产者上游、下游在内的整个供应链实体的和谐统一,形成强大的资金、技术基础,共担风险,共享利润,仅凭一人之力很难获取经济的成功;

3、个性意味着创新,有助于在今天竞争日益激励的经济社会里取得优势;一方面随着社会的发展,人们的需求越来越趋于个性化、多样化;另一方面,从供应者角度,产品差异化是保持竞争的有效手段;如Dell电脑的自我配置服务;

4、两者需要结合起来,才能有效地实现个人经济的成功

25

===========================Issue10=============================

【题目】

"Governments must ensure that their major cities receive the financial support they need in order to thrive, because it is primarily in cities that a nation's cultural traditions are preserved and generated."

Culture, in anthropology, the patterns of behavior and thinking that people living in social groups learn, create, and share. Culture distinguishes one human group from others. It also distinguishes humans from other animals. A people’s culture includes their beliefs, rules of behavior, language, rituals, art, technology, styles of dress, ways of producing and cooking food, religion, and political and economic systems.

(+ o -)

【翻译】

政府必须要确保主要城市发展所需的财政支持,因为一个国家的文化传统主要是在城市中得以保存和发展。

【提纲】

观点:不同意。大城市的经济文化的确繁荣,但是一个国家的文化传统却并不是在大城市中而是在小城镇或者乡村中得以保存和发展。

1.审视当今的大城市,经济高度发达,各种各样的文化在这里汇聚,并且相互融合发展,大城市成为了一个国家的经济文化中心。比如,在纽约几乎每一周里都有各种游行,中国新年的游行,St. Patrick‘s Day (爱尔兰的节日)游行等等

2. 然而我们应该明白一个国家的文化传统和文化是不同的两个概念。大城市作为文化中心,更多的起到的是一个文化交流平台的作用,而不是作者所说的传统文化的发源地。实际上,大城市在一定程度上是非常不利于产生和保存文化传统的。文化交流必然会趋于同化,相互影响,一个地区的文化传统很难在这样的冲击下独立生存下去。比如我们现在整天大吃KFC Pizza 看美国大片,即使不懂英语的人也能说出好多英文商标品牌。

3.相对而言,我们应该更重视乡村以及小城市,它们往往更完整的保留了传统文化,如美国乡村音乐,blues and jazz 都起源于南方小城镇,而美国的小说也大多起源于中部平原地区。

4.关于政府的财政支持,政府的确是应该支持大城市的,如果它需要的话,毕竟大城市的发展关系着整个国家的经济发展。然而,我们应该明确的是政府绝不是因为文化的考虑而支持大城市,相反,为了保留文化传统,国家应该加大对小城镇或农村的支持力度。

26

===========================Issue167=========================

【题目】

It is impossible for an effective political leader to tell the truth all the time. Complete honesty is not a useful virtue for a politician.

【翻译】

对于一个英明的政治领导者来说,总是坦白是不可能的。彻底的诚实对于一个政治家

来说是无用的美德。

【提纲】

观点:对于一个政治领导总是坦白的确不是一件好事,但是从长远来看,诚实对于一个政治家来说是也是至关重要的。

1. 诚实坦白对每个人来说都是美德。对于政治家,能够树立良好的公众形象,赢得公民的赞赏和支持。例如Lincoln家里很贫寒,他在竞选的时候丝毫没有掩饰自己的贫穷,赢得了下层阶级people from low class的支持;反例,就是比如窃听门事件对于布什的影响 还有那个用烂了的water gate也算一个吧,导致下台(查)

2、对于政治家自身来说,他不能总是说真话。比如选举时。对于社会来说,政治家还是不能总说真话。比如国家机密,或是一些引起起社会动乱的消息要尽量回避。

3. 对于个人隐私的事情,事实上,民众也并不期盼政治家是个完美的人,对于一个政治家来说只要把公民的利益国家的利益放在首位,他就是称职的。比如南非总统曼德拉Mandela。还有华盛顿。带领人们取得自由。(缺例子,怎么找Clinton sex scandal)

4. 总结

27

=========================Issue212=========================

【题目】

If a goal is worthy, then any means taken to attain it is justifiable

【翻译】

只要目标是值得,不择手段达到目的是合理的。

【提纲】

观点:目标是值得的,竭尽全力去达到无可厚非,但是要采取适当的手段。

1. 竭尽全力去达到目标这种做法不但是合理的,并且是应该提倡的。在一个社会中,没有科学家竭力的钻研,怎么会有科技的进步。没有政治家竭力的谋划,怎么会有人们的普遍福利。没有企业家竭力的追逐利益,怎么会有社会经济的持续发展。对于个人来说也是如此,个人不懈努力取得成功的例子让人称赞不已。如爱迪生试验了上百次作灯丝的材料,前N-1次都失败了,但他坚持不懈,最终成功;拿破仑(Napoleon)开始的时候战争总是失败,看到蜘蛛坚持不懈的织网重又燃起了希望;Nobel为了研制detonator差点forfeit his life

2. 即便如此,我们要强调的是凡事都要适度,毕竟个人目标不同,难免会产生矛盾,如果这时还不择手段,后果是可怕的,要在法律允许的前提下,要以不损害他人的利益为前提。比如,Hitler为了自己的政治目标,不择手段,结果给世界人民带来了重大灾难;如经济领域的恶性竞争;政治界的互相诋毁,denigrate(诋毁);科学界的剽窃或者作假(如哈福教授伪造科研数据被开除,黄锡余?)

28

===================Issue 218=====================

【题目】In order for any work of art-whether film, literature, sculpture, or a song-to have merit, it must be understandable to most people. 【总频26】

【翻译】任何的艺术作品为了有价值,例如电影、文学、雕塑或者歌曲,都必须让大多数人易于理解。

【提纲】

(1)艺术作品的价值与大多数人是否理解是没有关系的,一个艺术作品只要是作者的真实情感、感受、想法的表达,那它就是有价值的。

According to what Freud has said(and I paraphrased) art, in essence, is a kind of release of individual lust, converting the human libido into plentiful creativity. It is through the work of art that artists express their passions, emotions, and desires. From this we can see, art is therefore, first and foremost, concerning with the inner world rather than with the outside one as a whole.

Austria, neurologist

(2)艺术作品不一定需要人们的理解。一方面:因为人们的知识有限,也不是每个人都是心理学家,所以不可能完全揣摸出艺术作品所代表的作者的真实想法,但是只要能够欣赏就足够了。比如:对于某些音乐作品,只要我们听到以后感到很美或者心灵受到撞击,那它就是有价值的。如有些诗,我们不能体会作者的真实意思,但是我们感受得到诗中作者的感情和情趣;另一方面:艺术作品正是因为不容易被理解,才有了见仁见智的感受,才给人想象力,才full of humor and wit,才有价值;‖一千个人眼中就有一千个哈姆雷特‖ hamlet,你能说有谁真正读懂了莎士比亚么?(Shakespeare),但这不影响hamlet to be a noted masterpiece.

(3)一个艺术作品如果不是忠于作者的真实想法,而是为了迎合观众或者让大多数人理解,那它就很难有长久的价值。比如很多无聊的商业片,虽然被大多数人欢迎,但却不被评论家看好,很快就会被大家遗忘。

29

===================Issue 207=====================

【题目】Rituals and ceremonies help define a culture. Without them, societies or groups of

people have a diminished sense of who they are. 【总频25】

【翻译】礼节和典礼有助于定义一个文化。如果没有这些,社会或者团体就会逐渐地迷失自我。

【提纲】

(1)同意前半句,反对后半句。

(2)礼节和典礼确实有助于定义一个文化,比如:中国的春节,西方国家的圣诞节,就是代表了两种不同的文化。

(3)但是礼节和典礼并不是唯一的定义文化的方面,因此也不会因为没有这些,社会和团体就会逐渐迷失自我,因为还有很多其他的方面,比如:穿着,语言,习惯,艺术等等。

(4)此外,有些礼节和典礼可能是不太好的方面,应该逐渐被取代,比如:中国古代要求子女为长辈下跪,如果父母去世,要厚葬,陪葬很多奢侈品,有些地方还规定三年守孝,不能结婚等等,其中的很多礼节都是不太合理或者过于苛刻的,因此有时候这些礼节的消失不会不会让社会和团体迷失自己,反而还代表着社会的一种进步。

30

===================Issue 221=====================

【题目】

The chief benefit of the study of history is to break down the illusion that people in one period of time are significantly different from people who lived at any other time in history.

【翻译】

研究历史最大的好处就是打破了这种假象:不同时代的人们之间基本上是完全不同的。

【提纲】

(1)部分同意;

(2)不同时代的人们是有很多相同的地方的,因为人类的发展是个逐渐的过程,比如:basic human nature-our desires and motives, as well as our fears and other basic characteristics

(3)但是,不同时代的人们也有很大的不同,比如对待妇女、宗教、新事物的态度等等,cultural mores, customs, values, and ideals。

(4)研究历史还有很多别的好处:解除人们对自身发展的困惑,很多历史经验和成果可以借鉴。

31

===================Issue 69=====================

【题目】

Government should place few, if any, restrictions on scientific research and development.

【翻译】

政府应该少限制科学研究和发展。(+ - how)

【提纲】

(1)部分同意观点。

(2)科学研究和发展是一项创新和超前的工作,政府很难判断它的好坏,因此应该给予充分的支持。比如:Einstein的相对论开始很难被人理解,莱特兄弟的飞机实验可能被嗤笑为异想天开,如果当时加以限制,可能会带来很大的损失。

(3)但是,科学研究是一个双刃剑,有些研究尤其是在应用阶段,可能会被使用在不好的方面,这

是政府应该加以限制。比如:核反应堆用来发电就是好的应用,但如果用来制造核武器就可能给世界带来灾难。

(4)因此政府应该保持一个平衡,既要给科学研究充足的自由和空间,又要对它的大方向给予指导和限制。

32

========================issue160=======================

160. "The most essential quality of an effective leader is the ability to remain consistently committed to particular principles and objectives. Any leader who is quickly and easily influenced by shifts in popular opinion will accomplish little."

【翻译】强有力的领导者来说,最关键的能力就是要对一些原则和目标坚定不移。任何领导如果很频繁的、很轻易的为大众意志而转移的话,他将会一事无成。

少数和多数之领导与大众 【总频29】

【提纲】

1 的确,对正确的原则和目标坚定不移是成功的保证

实施某个计划肯定会对一些人有利,但同时对一些人就会失利,那么失利的人势必会站出来反对,这时领导一定要坚持决定才能达到目标,但有个前提是这个计划正确的。计划的正确与否我认为有一点就是它是否能对大多数人有利,比如一位政治领导人做的决定是否是有利于人民的,是否可以推动经济的发展,是否可以有利于国家在国际上地位的提高?

2 另外一方面就是,虽然要坚定不移的坚持原则和目标,但有时候也有必要听取大众的意见,以完善自己的计划

A 一个人的想法有时候难免会不全面,可能会忽视一些问题而自己没发觉,这时如果听取并修改了自己的计划,那么计划会更完整

B 就是加入自己的计划完全就是错的,而自己还要坚持,而不听人劝,那么只会给自己、社会甚至世界带来危害。【典型的例子就是希特勒,他当时实施的很多方案是遭到他的部下的反对的,但是由于他自己一意孤行,给世界带来了这么大的灾难】

3 总结

33

=====================Issue 13=====================

【题目】"Many of the world's lesser-known languages are being lost as fewer and fewer people speak them. The governments of countries in which these languages are spoken should act to prevent such languages from becoming extinct."

【翻译】许多世界上鲜为人知的语言由于越来越少的人使用而逐渐消失。使用这些语言的国家应该采取措施防止这些语言绝迹。

【提纲】Position:agree

Some countries should take actions to prevent there languages that are facing extinct from dying out. So does the people themselves who own the languages.

1、世界上鲜为人知的语言的确是在遭受灭顶之灾。

1〉在国际上,随着全球化的发展,很多殖民地国家开始放弃自己的土语,转而学习英语或者法语;也是国际化的要求不可否认,国际间的紧密合作首先要克服的就是语言障碍。如果语言不通,它不仅阻碍了国际经济贸易,甚至有时也导致了误解和武装冲突的升级。

2〉在国内,少数民族和汉族的通婚导致了少数民族的同化,包括语言在内的一些风俗习惯也在逐渐消失;

2、任何地区的方言是这个地区的重要的文化遗产,对研究地区的历史文化有着重要的意义,因此国家应该采取措施保护。比如说:非洲部落的中口头流传的民间故事可以帮助考古学家寻找失落的古文明。

3、同时作为这些语言的拥有者,也应当自觉主动地从个人做起保护和继承其语言。

4、结论

34

=============================issue8======================

【题目】8. "It is often necessary, even desirable, for political leaders to withhold information from the public."

【翻译】对于政治领导者来说,向人民大众隐瞒信息通常是必要的,甚至有益的。

少数和多数的关系之true lies, the truth is out there. 【总频22】

【提纲】

1 向人民大众隐瞒一些信息在一些情况下是有必要的,甚至是有宜的

例子,政府准备到某个state进行人们生活质量的考察,之前就很有必要不要告诉大家,因为如果告诉了the public,那么那个state的领导可能会做一些表明工作,那么考察到的就不是真实情况了【这是看的别人的例子,实在没想出来】

2 在一些情况下告诉the public 实情还能帮助政府度过危机【例子就是SARS在20xx年在中国,如果不告知民众,那么很有可能大家不知道如何预防这种virus,使得更多的人染上它,但告知后,人民在政府的领导下,降低了感染上这种virus的人数,成功的控制了virus】

Is it often necessary, even desirable, for political leaders in one certain country to withhold information from the public? I choose agree with the speaker. This particular requirement springs from the very nature of politics, where not much straightforwardness and complete honesty is involved. However, we must not allow our political leaders to hold every bit of information to their own administration, not us. Otherwise, we risk sanctioning demagoguery and undermining the philosophical underpinnings of any democratic society.

To begin with, one major reason for my fundamental agreement with the speaker is that in order to gain the opportunity for effective public leadership, a would-be leader must first gain and maintain political power. In the game of politics, complete forthrightness is a sign of vulnerability and na?ve, neither of which earn a politician respect among his or her opponents, and which those opponents will use to every advantage to defeat the politician. In my defense, were all politicians to fully disclose every personal foibles, character flaw, and details concerning personal lives, few politicians would be ever elected. For supporting examples on this view, we need to look no further than the Clinton-Lewinsky scandal in recent years. Without any doubt, this unintentional disclosure of personal life of United States president, seriously undermined President Clinton‘s respect among his fellow Americans, his opponents and even the political colleagues around the world. While this view might seem cynical, personal scandals have in fact proven the undoing of many a political career so far, thus, I think this view is realistic.

Another reason why I essentially agree with the speaker‘s view is that fully disclosing to the public certain types of information would threaten public safety and perhaps national security. For example, if the President of United States were to disclose the government‘s strategies for thwarting specific plans of an international terrorist or a drug trafficker, those tactics would surely fail, and consequently the public health and the national securities would be on the line. Meanwhile, withholding information from public also helps necessarily to avoid public panic. While such cases are rare, they do occur occasionally. Let‘s just take a moment to recall what happened during the first few hours of the new millennium, the U.S. Pentagon‘s missile defense system experienced a Y2K-related malfunction. This emergency was immediately taken as classified top secret, and was not open to the public until later in the day when the scientists and technician fixed the problem and make all equipment back into function. In this case, disclosure of information would have served no useful purpose, instead, it might cause mass hysteria.

However, the speaker definitely should not take this view to far, we should be clear about to what extent the political leaders are allowed to withhold information from public. For the matter which might be having major impact on fellow citizens‘ daily lives, in my defense, the political leaders should let the public know what is going on. Recall the so-called Star War defensive initiative, championed by the Reagan administration in the 1980s. As always, President Reagan kept this initiative completely classified information, he chose not to let the public know even the ultimate purpose and final objectives about this initiative, as ironical as it is, the administration was running this with taxpayers‘ money. Unfortunately, this initiative is ill-conceived and largely waste of taxpayers‘ dollars. And few would dispute that this exorbitant amount of money would have gone a long way if they were use to solve other issues on that day-by establishing after-school programs for delinquent latchkey kids, by enhancing the global awareness and education of AIDS and so forth. Since the purpose of this initiative is too vague for the public‘s observation, at the end of the program, we are left by not better future and more comfortable and secure society, but increasing delinquent crimes and global AIDS epidemics.

In sum, the game of politics calls for a certain amount of disingenuousness and a lack of forthrightness that we might otherwise characterize as dishonesty. And such behaviors would benefit the final objectives of effective political leadership. Nevertheless, in any democracy a leader who chiefly relies on deception and secrecy to preserve that leadership, to advance a private agenda, or to conceal selfish motives, betrays the democracy. 3 总结

35

=====================Issue159=====================

ISSUE159. The human mind will always be superior to machines because machines are only tools of human minds

翻译:人类的智慧将总是高于机器,因为机器只是人类智慧的工具。

提纲:(同意)

1、机器在人类社会的发展中的确起到了重要的作用,促进生产(工业革命)、方便生活、星外探索;

首先,就家庭而言,家用电器如air-condition, refrigerator方便了人们的生活。其次,就community, 现在许多工厂采用自动化生产,提高了效率,降低了人类的工作负担和危险.第三,就全人类而言,spaceship, telescope and some machines such as American Mars probe machine-"Courage"

2、但是机器是人类思维的成果

3、而且机器的运行必须依赖人的控制和命令、操作

4、除此之外,人脑会思考、会判断善恶好坏(机器给命令就动)、会有感情,机器永远不会有(independent thought, subjective judgment, emotional response)

5、总结

36

=====================Issue127=====================

ISSUE127 Facts are stubborn things. they cannot be altered by our wishies, our inclinations, or the dictates of our passions.

翻译:事实都是固执的。它不可能随着我们的愿望,喜好或者情绪而改变。

提纲:(有保留的赞成)

1 首先,应该如何定义facts,如果它意味着真理,则不能改变;如果是客观存在的事物,则可以被我们的愿望,喜好,热情所改变。

2 一方面,从历史的角度,我们无法由意志来改变the past historical incidence(the world war II);另一方面,从科学的角度,真理是永恒的(Newton-three theories of physics),尽管有些科学论断可以在当时被认为是事实,后来被证伪。(the Earth center theory,Corpernicus disprove it by his theory-the revolutions of the heavenly spheres)

3 in the real world, we can change our situation even the socity(Jack Welch used his uncanny instincts and unique leadership strategies to run GE, the most complex organization in the world, increasing its market value to $400 billion over two decades) 我们在不断的改变现实。 4 总结

37

=====================Issue151=====================

151."High-speed electronic communications media, such as electronic mail and television, tend to prevent meaningful and thoughtful communication."

翻译: 高速的电子通讯媒介,如电子邮件和电视,阻止了人们有思想、有意义的交流。

提纲:有保留地同意

1.高速的电子通讯媒介有着它的高速、经济的特点,一定程度上促进了人与人之间的更多的交流,例如电邮可以省掉昂贵的电话费,省掉无数的交通费用等等

2.电子通讯媒介拥有一切传统方式的功能,而且比起传统的方式提供了更丰富的功能。例如:电邮可以发起群体讨论,电视可以提供vivid画面以辅助交流等等。

3.(让步)电子通讯媒介由于其快速,很容易造成被动地交流,阻碍了面对面的交流。

这里有个问题是meaning and thoughtful communication到底是什么,传统的communication media包括电话,书信吗?

38

=====================Issue11=====================

11"All nations should help support the development of a global university designed to engage students in the process of solving the world's most persistent social problems."

翻译:所有的国家应共同建立一所全球性大学,用来培养学生们解决世界的最顽固的社会问题。 提纲: 反对

1.全球性大学教育学生,更注重于全球化的某些问题,譬如毒品,环境等问题,在这一点上应该是有帮助的。

2.但是,建立一所全球性大学是不现实的,这需要各国家的强力支持,必须消除各种矛盾,克服文化差异等,总之要达到真正公正地解决世界社会问题困难重重。

3. 另外,建立一所全球性大学也是没有必要的,随着网络的普遍应用,很多学者可以在因特网平台上互相交流,致力于世界社会问题。

39

===========================Issue186=========================

【题目】

Practicality is now our great ideal, which all powers and talents must

serve. Anything that is not obviously practical has little value in today's world.

【翻译】

实用主义是我们现在主要的追求,一切的力量和才智都必须为其服务。任何并非显著实用的东西在当今世界几乎是没有价值的。

【提纲】

观点:不同意。虽然实用主义在这个物质社会中无可厚非,但是实用主义并不是我们的主要追求,并且从长期来看那些看似不实用的东西其实也是有价值的。

1.诚然,在这个物质社会中,我们追求实用性是自然而然的事情,毕竟人类的生存于发展是需要物品的实用性来支撑的。比如,我们的每天的衣食住行。特别是在科学技术方面,许多发明创造都是收到实用性的驱使。比如人们想要进行大规模计算,计算机应运而生;人们想提高交通速度,飞机也因此而诞生,人们要与世界交流,互联网也随之产生。从这一点上看,实用主义是人们生存发展的必然趋势。

2.然而,我们要注意到在人类的文明进程中,实用主义并不是唯一的主题。人类对于宗教,信仰,理想,艺术的追求同样推动了人类历史的发展。比如华盛顿,甘地,马丁路德金等人为自由而奋斗。

3.必须承认,一些东西在当时可能是没有价值的,如人类探索外太空,但是从长远来看,这是对人类有巨大意义的。

40

=============================Issue56===========================

【题目】

Governments should focus more on solving the immediate problems of today rather than trying to solve the anticipated problems of the future.

【翻译】

政府应该把更多的注意力放在解决当务之急,而不是试图解决将来预期的问题上。

【提纲】

观点:平衡。当务之急和将来的问题都很重要。

1. 政府应该着力解决当务之急,如贫困,恐怖主义,环境污染,疾病,事业等等,毕竟这些问题直接威胁着人们的普遍福利。

2. 然而这并不意味着我们可以忽视将来预期的问题。比如人口中男女比例失调,如果不予以考虑,将来会出现一系列的社会问题如犯罪和心理问题,再比如,环境问题,如果早考虑,可能不会像现在这么严重。还有AIDS的问题也算一个

3.而且,政府如果只注重现在而忽视了长远,显然是对后代不公平的。还是环境污染的例子,现代人无节制的污染与破坏损坏了将来人的利益。而且这样做也是目光短浅的,我们在试图解决将来预期问题的同时也会受益,比如对于外太空的探索,对现实的意义也很重大。(这个例子我觉得不恰当,但又没想出来别的,请大家帮忙)

41

==================issue 26 95 85======================

26"Most people would agree that buildings represent a valuable record of any society's past, but controversy arises when old buildings stand on ground that modern planners feel could be better used for modern purposes. In such situations, modern development should be given precedence over the preservation of historic buildings so that contemporary needs can be served."

大多数人都同意一个社会的建筑物代表了它有价值的历史纪录,但是当现代规划者们觉得这些以前的建筑物所占据的土地可以被更有价值的使用于新目的时,就产生了争议,现代发展应该比保留历史建筑物更受重视以便于满足眼下的需求。

提纲:同意

1.首先得承认历史建筑有很高的历史价值,比如古代建筑艺术,古代庭院设计等等,一旦被破坏掉就再也不存在了,我们应当为了我们自己以及后代保护历史建筑。

2.此外,很多历史建筑已经成为了当地的标志emblem,很好的旅游景点等,因此要尽量保护。

3.但是,有很多历史建筑已经相当破旧,并且和周围的现代化环境很不协调。考虑到城市的发展的土地需求,一些古建筑就应该拆除,或者平移到另外一个地方。

4.总之,我们应该尽量保护历史建筑,但是当现在发展需求的利益大于保护古建筑的利益时,我们应该牺牲古代建筑来满足当代的发展。

The speaker asserts that in some particular cases where modern development arises controversies with the preservation of old historic buildings, the precedence should be given to the contemporary needs. In my defense, however, which interest should take precedence should be determined on a case-by-case basis and should account not only for practical and historic considerations but also aesthetic ones.

In determining whether to raze a historic building, planners should of course consider the community‘s current and anticipated utilitarian needs. For supporting examples, let us assume that a new community hospital should be established due to the fast growing community, which results in contemporary needs for health care, this compelling interest might undoubtedly outweigh any interest in preserving one historic building that sits on the proposed site. Or if additional parking lots in a developing downtown area are seriously needed, this interest should take precedence immediately, otherwise, the development of the whole city will be impeded and the economic growth might be also impaired significantly. On

the other hand, if the need is mainly for some extra office space, in some cases an architecturally appropriate add-on or annex to an old structured building will serve functionally as well as razing the old building to establish a new one. Hence, when we are facing several hard decisions about whether should we raze a old historic building or not, why don‘t we just take a few more minutes to think about whether razing is will be necessary and urgent, or how much can we lose if several extra add-on came into minds.

Competing with a community‘s utilitarian needs is an interest preserving the historical record. Again, the weight of this interest should be determined on a case-by-case basis: perhaps an older building has been uniquely representing a entire bygone era, or once playing a central role in one civilization‘s development or appearing in the past as an municipal structure of certain society. Or perhaps the older building which needs to be preserved once served as home of a founding family of one country, or some houses where one of the most significant figures had been living in, or several locations where most striking historic events took place. Any of these scenarios might justify saving the building at the expense of the practical needs in modern community. On the other hand, if several older buildings represent the same historical eras just as effectively, or if the building‘s history is an unremarkable one, then the historic value of the building might pale in comparison to the value of a new structure which meets a compelling practical need.

Also competing with a community‘s utilitarian needs is the aesthetic and architectural value of the building itself-apart from historical events with which it might be associated. It is possible that a building might be one of the only a few constructions which represents one particularly unique type of architecture, or it turns out to be one of the only a few works left by any remarkable architect or designer, or even more important, some of these historic building can be some symbol of a lost art category. In these cases, no matter how urgent our contemporary needs are, it is best for us to save these building for future value. Also, when some constructions are substantially beautiful, as a result of the prehistoric craftsman and raw materials employed in its building progress, we need to hesitate no time to make a decision to preserve it, because it is difficult to quantify aesthetic value and weigh it against utilitarian considerations.

In sum, whether to raze an older building in order to construct a new one should be determined on a case-by-case basis, weighing the community‘s practical needs and the building‘s historic and aesthetic values.

42

95. "People work more productively in teams than individually. Teamwork requires cooperation, which motivates people much more than individual competition does."

人们在团队中工作比独立工作要更加有效率。团队协作需要的合作能够比个人间的竞争更加激励人们。

提纲:同意

1.团队工作比起个人竞争有更多的优势:信息资源丰富等等,另外,队员的互相帮助是使工作更有效率的一个因素。

2.工作越来越趋向更专业化,个人的力量不能完成一项庞大的工程,只有每个人贡献自己的所长,才能让工作持续下去。

3. 个体竞争在一定程度上可以促进小组工作,例如工作积极性的表现,小组的一种友好气氛的形成等等

43

85"Government funding of the arts threatens the integrity of the arts."

政府资助艺术会威胁到艺术的完整性。(must, will, much)

Movie,building,

提纲:不完全反对

1.为了得到政府的资助,有些艺术家可能会趋向于创造一些哗众取宠的作品,在这个方面,政府资助可能会影响到艺术的完整性。

2.但是,艺术家需要资助来解决衣食等基本需求,这样他们才能更好地进行艺术创作。因此,政府资助非但不会威胁到艺术的完整性,反而有利于艺术的发展。

3.艺术需要被公众了解才能体现其integrity,因此在普及,宣传需要的资金也是很大的数目,需要funds.

4.尤其是庞大的建筑艺术,更需要政府的资助才能得到发展。

这个怎么举例子啊,实在想不出来,大家帮帮忙啦?

44

===================Issue 175=====================

【题目】

It is always an individual who is the impetus for innovation; the details may be worked out by a team, but true innovation results from the enterprise and unique perception of an individual.

【翻译】

革新的动力往往来自于个人;革新的细节可能来自于团队,但是实质的革新都是个人努力和独特思维的结果。

【提纲】

(1)反对观点。

(2)在以前,确实革新的动力往往来自于个人,很多的发明都是源自于个人的努力,例如:爱迪生发明的灯泡,比尔盖茨写的MS-DOS操作系统等等。

(3)但是,随着社会越来越复杂,不仅革新的细节需要来自于团队,实质的革新也不能单单依靠个人努力,比如:航空事业、生物研究等等。

(4)而且,个人努力和团队努力并不冲突,比如一个团队每个人在一个不同的方面有所创新,结合起来可能取得很大的成就。

45

===================Issue 195=====================

【题目】

The goal of politics should not be the pursuit of an ideal, but rather the search for common ground and reasonable consensus.

【翻译】

政治的目的不应该是追求一种理想,而是寻求共同点和合理的一致。

【提纲】

(1)政治应该有理想。For example, without Martin Luther King's great idealism and onerous conflict, the American black perhaps would still have to sit at the back on the bus; without Mohandas Gandhi’s great political idealism to achieve social and political independence, India might still be one colony of Great Britain.

(2)但是光有理想有时可能会遇到困难。Consider the case of the failure of the Utopian Owen. He believed the status of a perfect world where there were no wars and fights, every one was born equal, and no information need to be hided. Owen once tried to establish such an ideal society, however he failed to take into account of certain practical conditions and existing difficulties during its construction. As a result, his plan did not obtain the general support and finally faced up with his predetermined failure.

(3)因此,有理想的同时还要寻求共同点和合理的一致,这样才能赢得支持和认同。Chairman Deng, for instance, rather than sticking to the idealism of communism, enacted the marvelous and far-reaching policies of "one country, two systems", which earned not only national support but also international acknowledgement.

【参考资料】

/bbs/viewthre ... ;highlight=issue195

46

=====================Issue59=====================

ISSUE 59 Too much emphasis is placed on role models. Instead of copying others, people should learn to think and act independently and thus make the choices that are best for them.

翻译:太多的注意力被放到了模式化方面。与其模仿别人,人们还不如学习独立思考和作出最适合自己的选择。

提纲:(有保留的赞同)

1 很多model是人们成功经验的总结,值得我们思考和借签。(例子???)

2 学习独立思考和行动是个人能力的体现,能够锻炼我们的判断力和对事物的洞察力,使我们做出正确的选择。(阿基米德定律Archimedes' theorems)

3 独立思考和行动能够培养人们的创新意识。(yahoo搜索引擎)

4 与别人的协作也很重要cooperative(联想lenovo并购IBM全球PC业务,Nobel Prize' winners are a group of people)

47

=====================Issue46=====================

ISSUE 46 While some leaders in government, sports, industry, and other areas attribute their success to a well-developed sense of competition, a society can better prepare its young

people for leadership by instilling in them a sense of cooperation.

翻译: 当政府、体育界、工业界和其他领域中的一些领导者将他们的成功归因于一种高度的竞争意识时,一个社会还是应该更好的为那些即将成为领导者的年轻人灌输一种合作的意识。

提纲:(平衡观点)

1 无可否认,现代社会充满了竞争。竞争是社会进步的动力:从政治角度,候选人之间的竞争使政治更加公开化,民主化,有利于选民(美国总统大选);从经济角度,商家,产家之间的竞争促进产品质量的提高,消费者受益(yahoo and google这个例子很烂,谁能帮我换一个??)从体育角度,individual之间的竞争体现了人类超越自我的人性(Olympic spirit)

2 培养youth的竞争意识能使他们具备适应社会的生存能力,为追求自己的理想而奋斗。

3 然而合作意识teamwork也很重要,只有和他人合作才能共同进步(Nobel prize winner are a group of scientists)

4 应该培养当代年轻人同时具有竞争和合作意识(mutually compensate)

5 总结

According to the speakers, it is suggested that the young generation of one society can be better prepared for leadership in the future by counting in a sense of cooperation. Whereas this assertion is definitely true and I can‘t agree more on this, it doesn‘t cover all factors which major influence their leadership formation. On my defense, I will have to say competition plays just equally important role in this forming progress of leadership. Only by combing the teamwork spirits and also the competitive passion together can this young generation be able to confront coming challenges successfully.

Admittedly, no matter in government, sports area, industrial development and other specific areas, cooperation is everywhere. It is quite fair to say none of our government systems will function well without encouraging all departments cooperating together to get one particular policy implemented. For example, when we say the medical reform is approaching, the department of medicine has to apply their expertise into use to come up with the best newly established policy which is surely beneficial to all citizens in our country. At the very same time, the legal department and other related units are supposed to follow up. There will be a lot of work in this whole progress which the Department of Medicine couldn‘t accomplish by themselves. In sports area, there is no way for any team to win any championship if the team members don‘t dedicate themselves into the game. Same thing just happens in the industrial world, no single company can be survived without depending on other units or companies, one IT company, for instance, has to work together with banks, manufactures and even accounting agencies if they want to develop a new product and put it into the market. All of these mentioned above just ensure all people in modern society that cooperation is so important for any specific field.

At the same time, competition is just as significant as cooperation nowadays. The reason is quite simple, because competition brings us passion. As long as we handle this passion under control, the leadership of our new generation will be good to go. In political world, competition makes all candidates better serve their people, all the duties they are obliged will be inevitably finished at a higher quality level so they could hold still the chance to win the campaign. Competition also helps the candidates to realize their shortage of ability, then

they will try their best to improve themselves really hard to maintain the position. Their leadership would be simultaneously developed. In science world, competition works in the very same way. Nowadays, business chances are everywhere around the world, so it is unavoidable for two companies competing in one field or even more specific, a certain product. Their competition will absolutely improve their products‘ quality which is just the right thing all customers are looking forward. Generally, competition is an essential factor which has a major impact on the leadership of young generation.

As I said, the only way for us to prepare young generation‘s leadership in a perfect way is to combine the competing passions and teamwork spirits together. Competition is just the motivation for our young generation to become a leader and if they want to succeed, they have to rely on cooperation. Both of them are major and necessary parts of this success puzzle. Based on the specific situation, young generation will be motivated by the competition to become a leader, and once they made it to the title, they couldn‘t accomplish anything without getting helps from other people, which we call it cooperation, during which the leadership will be developed consciously or unconsciously because it is their obligation as a leader to hold the team together and make every member of the team give their best performance. Finally they will make their major achievements. So our best solution to prepare our young generation to a good sense of leadership is combing cooperation and competition.

In sum, even though the speaker is right about the cooperation‘s role in the preparation of leadership, he or she just ignored the equal importance of competition without taking the major influences into consideration.

48

=========================Issue142===========================

【题目】

The well-being of a society is enhanced when many of its people question authority.

【翻译】

当很多人都质疑权威的时候社会才会繁荣昌盛。

【提纲】

观点:同意但有让步。适度的质疑权威对于社会各个方面都具有监督和促进作用。

1. 在社会领域,适度的质疑揭露社会问题并且让人们团结起来去改变现状从而使社会进步。比如人们对殖民地统治的质疑,使得华盛顿,甘地在人民的支持下进行变革带领人们获得自由,如果人民都是顺民,光凭他们个人的力量美国和印度可能仍然是英国的殖民地。

2. 在学科领域,适度的质疑权威有利于推动科学水平的提高进而推动社会的发展。比如日心说,进化论,相对论在当时都与宗教权威或人们的信仰相抵触,但是不可否认,今天来看它们的确在人类社会的进步上起了巨大的推动作用。

3. 但是我们必须承认的是过度的质疑权威对于社会是有害处的,有可能造成社会的动荡,经济的倒退。比如恐怖主义,人民的暴动

法国的人民暴动2005

The current unrest began last month after two young people were accidentally killed at an electric power station. They were apparently hiding from police. The two were of North African ancestry. Their deaths incited riots in communities with large African and Arab

populations.

The violence intensified and spread from Paris to other parts of France on the eleventh night. Riots were reported in many areas, including Toulouse, Cannes, Nice, and Strasbourg -- the headquarters of the European Parliament. More than five thousand vehicles have been burned since the unrest began. One man beaten by rioters has died. Police have arrested more than two thousand people.

According to the speaker, it is suggested that a well-being of one certain society will be enhanced when a number of their people capable questioning the authority. I couldn‘t agree more with the speaker about this assertion. Even though under some extremely special circumstances, the citizens of one country should not be questioning about the authority, these exceptions will not be able to change my stance with the speaker.

Admittedly, under some special conditions, the citizens are not supposed to question about the authorities in one country. Back to medieval Europe and ancient China, monarchs were everywhere. The only person who could be able to make the decision was the king or, we say, the emperor in China. During those periods of days, almost all the countries in the whole world was in the middle of war, which brought disasters to all the citizens. The royal families were obliged to make decisions for the whole country because the war had already devastated people‘s life without any mercy, they might be not capable to make decisions by themselves anymore because they were weak and helpless. Only by depending on what the royal families chose to do could they be able to survive. So to some point, majorly in previous societies, the setting and structure of one certain society will be enhanced when people don‘t question the authorities.

However, things change all the time. Nowadays, our society will be improved significantly by counting the citizens‘ opinions in. Modern society, peaceful and harmonious as we all know, was established on one universal rule: freedom, which can be applied to a political term Democratic. We have the freedom to talk, we have the freedom to behave and we have the freedom to question about the authorities which wasn‘t allowed to be questioned before. The government grants us the rights to take part in the establishment of constitution, our suggestions and advices will be officially discussed in the congress conference, no matter how ridiculous or unacceptable they appear. The reason why we can perform our own role to question the authorities is that we live in this society which means we know best about the situation of our daily lives. We have such real experiences about how do we feel about the tax system, how do we feel about the entertainment life and how do we feel about the governing of authorities that they couldn‘t find any better candidates to give them ideas to improve. As long as our suggestions and voices can be heard by the authorities and taken into consideration, it will be possible for them to build up policies and rules based on our interests. The well-being of our society will for sure be enhanced.

Meanwhile, the actions which enhance the well-being society are not limited in the political world, for the science area, they all work in the very same way. Unlike the political field, for science, no matter in the history or nowadays, people who challenge the authorities have been

always helpful to help the society and even the world rolling forward. How can we imagine what our world looks like if Columbus had not doubted about the authorities on the obviously incorrect Flat Earth Theory? How can we imagine what the physics world would be if Gilbert Einstein had not questioned about the academy of science‘s wrong position of gravity? All major scientific discoveries throughout the whole history of human beings were brought by great and brave scientists who don‘t get scared by the power and rich. They stick to their own thoughts until they find the truth, no matter what it takes when they confront with all the pressure and misunderstanding coming from the traditional ideas. Our world has became so much better than before with all advanced devices that we are using every day and high end technological facilities that filled our daily lives. Nowadays, even though our lives have been changed significantly by technologies day by day, we still have the rights to question all the authorities. For example, it is true that Microsoft is dominating the IT industry right now, but it doesn‘t necessarily imply that we can‘t question about their products like windows XP or vista. Only by keeping questioning the authorities in our lives can we be able to make everything right, and the whole society will be going on flourishing as it has always been.

In sum, the speaker‘s assertion that well being of society will be enhanced significantly makes a lot sense in many different conditions. Only by sticking to this universal rule can we avoid getting our society into immobilized cycle. So even though the authority shouldn‘t be questioned all the time, generally it will benefit us and the whole world when we express our own opinions and pass our own ideas along.

49

==================Issue214=====================

【题目】Society should identify those children who have special talents and abilities and begin training them at an early age so that they can eventually excel in their areas of ability. Otherwise, these talents are likely to remain undeveloped.

【翻译】社会应该找出那些具有特殊天才和特殊能力的孩子,并在他们小时候就训练他们,这样他们最终就能超越他们的同龄人。否则他们的特殊的潜能和可能就被浪费掉

【提纲】

Position: Although giving special training may easily make the children who have special talents achieve success, however the factors affecting the success of talents are various, while identifying a talent is hard as well.

1、判断一个小孩是否有潜力是很难的事情,仅看IQ或者EQ是不能得出结论的。比如Einstein小时候别人就认为他是个普通的小孩,读大学前人们也没看出什么优点,但是没有人否认他是20世纪最伟大的物理学家。

2、片面因果法

1〉成就的原因有多种,比如自身努力;

即使对这些小孩重点培养了,他们也不一定能够成为科学家,艺术家。Genetic reason固然重要,但是后天的努力是占很大的比例的,Edison就说过,achievement equals to 1% genius plus 99% diligence。所以自身努力是很重要的。

2〉 其他相关培养

只注重于这些小孩特别技能的培养而忽视其他方面比如心理,文化知识的教育,会对他们的成长有损害。他们很可能因此人格有缺陷,这样反而可能对社会带来危害。

3、让步

不可否认,有些神童的确是在小时候开始培养的。例如莫扎特和贝多芬。但是这是建立在识别神童、培养及其自身努力的共同基础之上。(Gauss)

50

=====================Issue108=======================

【题目】In many countries it is now possible to turn on the television and view government at work. Watching these proceedings can help people understand the issues that affect their lives. The more kinds of government proceedings-trials, debates, meetings, etc-that are televised, the more society will benefit.

【翻译】在很多国家中,现在通过电视来观看政府的运作已经成为可能。观察这些过程有助于人们理解影响他们生活的决议。可以供传播的政府运作越多----审判、辩论、会议等---对社会的好处就越多。

【提纲】Position: It is beneficial to televise government proceedings, but not the more the better.

1、随着信息技术的发展,人们能够很容易的知道政府的工作情况;政府也乐于公开他们的政务,为了民主,为了广泛听取建议。

2、通过公开政务,能够防止腐败以及任何有损政府形象的事情,比如Clinton的sexual scandal被媒体曝光,对政府官员的决策,起到监督的作用

3、但是不是所有的事情都能公开,关于国家机密的——军队的部署情况,高科技的开发核心内容,开重要会议。

4、公开的手段,除了电视以外,还有报纸、杂志、广播和Internet等多种形式

5、总结,可以运用多种媒体手段对政府工作进行传播,但需要适度公开

51

===============issue5===============

【题目】5. "A nation should require all its students to study the same national curriculum until they enter college rather than allow schools in different parts of the nation to determine which academic courses to offer."

【翻译】 一个国家应该要求所有的学生在进入大学之前都学习由国家统一制定的课程,而不是允许由国家不同地区的学校去决定课程的安排

国家统一和地区单独安排课程

【提纲】:不完全赞同

1 为了保证在大学入学考试时的公平性,以及培养一个人生存所必备的能力,国家需要制定统一的必修课【比如数学培养logic ability in order to form rigorous thought; history makes people get a general view of a nation?】

2 考虑到一些特殊情况,地区可以根据需要开设一些有自己特色的课;(例子,比如艺术院校的学生,除了学习国家规定的课程外,还必须学一些专业方面的知识;还有一些少数民族地区可以开必要的语言课程以及了解自己民族发展历史的课程;还有就是为特殊学生开设特殊的课程,包括handicapped one and generous one【这点不晓得有没有偏题】)

3 以统一课程为主,地方辅以需要的地方课。

52

==============issue121===============

【题目】121 At various times in the geological past, many species have become extinct as a result of natural, rather than human, processes. Thus, there is no justification for society to make extraordinary efforts, especially at a great cost in money and jobs, to save endangered species.【总频率23】

【翻译】

在过去不同的地质时期,许多的物种因为自然作用而非人类行为而灭绝。因此,人类社会为了挽救濒危物种而付出的巨大努力,尤其是以大量的资金和工作机会为代价,这样做是毫无道理的。

人类和自然 当务之急(资金、工作)和长远考虑(物种)

不是人类造成的并不代表人类不必保护物种

过去不是人类的作用,现在不然

【提纲】主要是反对

1 诚然,一些species的确是自然死亡的

2 However human beings are a part of the ecological system, if the equilibrium of ecological system is destroyed, it also could have effect on people‘s life.

(1)从植被方面来说,如果一个地方的植被遭破坏,那么就会影响到当地动物的生活,因为有些动物是靠吃植物为生的;而且植物大多以绿色为主,绿色是生命的象征,如果没有了绿色,就缺乏朝气;

(2)To save endangered species is beneficial to the continuable development of human beings and welfare for the future generations.

3 As far as I know, destruction of species has something to do with human actions to a large extent.【例子 非洲很多人屠杀大象,甚至在街上卖大象的肉】既然人类做出了破坏物种的事,理所应当补救。

4 虽然是要take actions to save endangered species,但是一定也要有个度,governmental finance is limited,therefore the most efficient way is to balance between making efforts and guaranteeing other works in effective operation.

关于非洲象被杀的例子

53

=====================Issue61=====================

ISSUE 61 High-profile awards such as the Nobel Prize are actually damaging to society because they suggest that only a few people deserve such recognition.

翻译: 最高荣誉比如诺贝尔奖实际上是在损害社会, 因为这种奖项在暗示只有少数人才配的上这样的荣誉。

提纲(disagree)

1 Nobel Prize and Pulitzer等荣誉是为了奖励那些在某领域有突出贡献的人才的,一方面是对他们成就或贡献的肯定,另一方面激励其它人做出进一步的研究

2 这些荣誉是社会进步的推动力,也是无数scientists, artists, journalists奋斗的目标。它的权威性使只有少数人才deserve,它不像社会福利,没有必要很多人获得。

3 认为这些奖一般人得不到所以它们是在damage to society得说法ridiculous,一方面,每个人都有获得此奖得平等得机会,另一方面,这个奖不是人类得终极目标,许多laureates of Nobel Prize 的成就被后人所超越。

4 Nobel Prize 象里程碑,记录着人类一百年来在各个领域的进步,但它不是完美的,也有失误的时候,比如DDT-milluer

5 总结:荣誉是社会进步的象征,肯定了个人成就,推动了社会的发展,而人类的进步是永恒的。

54

========================issue70=======================

70 "In any profession—business, politics, education, government—those in power should step down after five years. The surest path to success for any enterprise is revitalization through new leadership."

翻译:在任何领域中——商业、政治、教育、政府——掌权者应该在五年后就让位。这是任何机构获得成功的最好的方式:通过更新领导者而保持活力。

参考了网上下载的一个提纲,不错

提纲:有保留地同意

1. 提纲出观点 Limiting the term of leadership is an effective way to prevent corruption and lack of initiatives.

2. 在government, politics领域最好是要定期更新领导者, 因为when leaders have no fear of losing their power, they tend to abuse their power.

3. 新的领导可以带来新的思想,更好的管理理念,给企业注入新的活力。

4. 当然在一些领域尤其是business领域,更新领导者未必是获得成功的最好方式

可用名言:Absolute power leads to absolute corruption. ------Sir. Acton

55

===================Issue 109=====================

【题目】

The purpose of many advertisements is to make consumers want to buy a product so that they will 'be like' the person in the ad. This practice is effective because it not only sells products but also helps people feel better about themselves.

【翻译】

很多广告的目的是要消费者去购买一件产品以使得消费者们"像"广告中的人物。这类的广告很有效因为它不仅是在销售产品更是在帮助人们自我感觉更好。

【提纲】

(1)反对观点。

(2)广告的目的就是为了促进产品的销售,而不是为了帮助人们自我感觉更好,比如,电器、厨具等等的广告,怎么能让消费者“像”广告中的人物,使他们自我感觉好呢?

(3)广告很有效通常有两种情况:第一种是有些广告找明星来作主角,这样很多追星族因为对偶像

的认同,也会来购买偶像所推荐的产品,这样的例子很多;第二种情况是消费者受到广告中宣传的效果的鼓动而购买产品,比如化妆品的广告赚足了女性的钱

56

===========================issue184=================

184"It is a grave mistake to theorize before one has data."

翻译:在掌握足够资料之前建立理论会导致严重的错误。

提纲:反对

1.建立理论一般情况下需要足够的数据资料作为坚实基础

2.从历史上科学界的发展看来,很多理论是在掌握足够资料前建立起来的,先是被假设出来,之后再被验证的(这个应该举什么例子啊,大家提示提示啊!)

3.过分强调资料的充分会阻碍理论的形成

57

===================Issue 190=====================

【题目】

As long as people in a society are hungry or out of work or lack the basic skills needed to survive, the use of public resources to support the arts is inappropriate-and, perhaps, even cruel-when one considers all the potential uses of such money.

【翻译】

一旦人们陷于饥饿、失业或者缺乏谋生的基本技能,运用公共资源去扶持艺术是很不恰当的--并且甚至是残忍的--尤其明知这些资金所有可能的用途。

【提纲】

(1)无论社会发展到什么程度,都会有人陷于饥饿、失业或者缺乏谋生的基本技能,比如某些残疾人等等,所以是不可能等到没有这种情况存在的那一天的,这样按照speaker的说法艺术就不可能发展了。

(2)资助艺术有很多好处,第一:艺术作品可以给人精神动力,比如革命时期的一些鼓舞人心的歌曲、小说。第二:艺术也可以帮助那些饥饿、失业或者缺乏谋生的基本技能的人,比如通过慈善晚会号召大家捐款等等,SARS时期、地震时都会有这样的活动。

(3)当然,也不能过于偏激,一味的扶持艺术,应该在物质和精神建设之间保持一个平衡。

58

=================Issue7=====================

【题目】"The video camera provides such an accurate and convincing record of contemporary life that it has become a more important form of documentation than written records."

【提纲】数码相机可以精确地拍摄当代人们的生活,它的重要性已经超过了纸笔记录。

【翻译】Position:balance,两者配合使用

1. 摄像机优点:准确、生动、真实、能够记录瞬间、移动物体

(摄像机纪录的优点是显而易见的.认它能生动、充满细节的记录事情。对当时场景的百分百重现,包括图像声音,这使得接受者更直接的获得信息(在诉讼过程中作证据),而文字记录的阅读着还需

要在脑中重现,并且由于记录者的原因可能产生误读。)

eg. Video surveillance cameras are objective witnesses with perfect memories, thus play a vital evidentiary role in legal proceedings, such as those involving robbery and motor vehicle violations

2. 摄像机缺点:记录时间短暂、成本高、不灵活-携带不方便、无概括提炼

(然而,摄像机纪录的缺点也是难以弥补的。首先是时间广度不够,不能记录时间跨度很大的事件。其次是概括性不强。只能记录下具体的画面,不具概括性。三,成本过高。与纸笔纪录比起来,而且不灵活。)

3、纸笔纪录的优点:经过思考、提炼、加工;随时记录;大众方式-摄像机没普及

(For certain other purposes written records are advantageous to and more appropriate than video records. To the extent that personal interpretation adds dimension and richness to the record, written documentation is actually more important than video.)

4、总结

59

=================Issue235=================

【题目】"Most people are taught that loyalty is a virtue. But loyalty—whether to one's friends, to one's school or place of employment, or to any institution—is all too often a destructive rather than a positive force."

【翻译】大多数人都被教育成认为忠诚是一种美德。但是忠诚,不管是对一个人的朋友、一所学校、受雇的公司或者其他任何机构,经常是一件坏事而不是一件好事

【提纲】反对+让步

1、夫妻之间或者朋友之间需要一定程度的信任才能久远,忠诚是这种感情维持的主要部分,例如有些divorce是由于夫妻双方猜忌,或者一方不忠诚导致

2、公司员工之间要彼此互相信任,这属于忠诚的一部分,没有这种信任,合作无法达成社会生产效率将必然停止;公司员工对公司也需要忠诚,否则可能不利于公司的发展。如,不忠诚的员工可能为了一己私利去泄漏公司的商业机密,给公司造成损失

3、作为公民对国家也需要忠诚,这样才能维持国家的长治久安,否则严重的可能遭致国家灭亡。例如,例子??

4、然而,过分忠诚会有负面作用eg神父、对犯罪分子的忠诚可能招致杀身之祸或是犯罪

60

===================Issue 48=====================

【题目】

The study of history places too much emphasis on individuals. The most significant events and trends in history were made possible not by the famous few, but by groups of people whose identities have long been forgotten.

【翻译】

历史研究过于关注个人。历史上最有意义的事件和潮流能够成为可能不是因为几个少数的名人而是一些身份早就被淡忘的人群。

【提纲】

(1)同意观点。

(2)历史研究确实过于关注个人,翻开历史书籍,会看到很多的关于名人的传记,人们也常常将一项成功归功于少数名人。这样有一定好处:给人们树立榜样,鼓舞人心。但是也有很多坏处,尤其是在现在社会,因为过分关注个人,容易给人们灌输个人英雄主义的意识,但在现代的强调合作的社会,英雄主义已经不能适用。

(3)历史上最有意义的事件和潮流绝大部分是因为一些普通的人,而那些少数的名人只是代表。从历史上的革命运动来看,如果没有广泛的群众基础,是不可能有革命的成功的。从现代的改革来看, 虽然发起人是少数的名人,但是一定是改革被广大人民接受,才能使改革进行下去。

61

===================Issue 197=====================

【题目】

"The material progress and well-being of one country are necessarily connected to the material progress and well-being of all other countries."

【翻译】

一个国家的物质进步和其他所有国家的物质进步和安定是紧密相关的。

【提纲】// 注:这是从明明的写作综述里看到的提纲

(1)一个国家的经济发展离不开其他国家。随着全球化,各国的经济紧密联系在一起,无论是对发达国家还是对发展中国家。比如美国,他的经济同世界紧密相连。它的石油来大部分来自阿拉伯,它的投资遍布世界各个角落,产品也分布很广,比如在哪都可以看到Coca cola的广告,所以它的经济和其他国家紧密相连。又如中国,虽然他在外国的投资远没有美国,日本多,但它吸引了很多外国投资,这些投资关系着中国经济的发展,中国经济的发展正是由于大量吸引外国投资发展自己的市场所致。

(2)一个国家的科学技术及教育的发展也离不开其他国家的参与。很多科研项目不能由一个国家来完成,需要国际合作,技术,资金。比如genome,和international space station。教育也需要各国合作,这样促进学术交流,越来越多的学生到其他国家学习,很多学术会议也是国际性的。

(3)和平——各个国家well-being的基本环境也需要世界各国来维持,一个国家的力量很有限。联合国的作用,比如在Israel和Palestine的冲突,世界各国在避免良方战争,不然整个阿拉伯世界将会卷入灾难。

62

=============================Issue31======================

【题目】

Money spent on research is almost always a good investment, even when

the results of that research are controversial.

【翻译】

花在研究上的资金基本上都是不错的投资,即使研究的结果是有争议的。

【提纲】

观点:花在研究上的资金都是很好的资金,但是我们应该适当的关注它的结果避免因由之引起的社会问题。

1.研究在人类的发展中起了不可忽视的作用,研究是对未知领域的探索,发现问题并且解决问题,

推动社会进步。它也满足了人们不断的求知欲望,帮助人们认识自己与世界。在对基因的研究中,人们从根本上认识了自己,从而有助于治疗疾病并可以通过改变基因而改变世界。在对永动机的研究中,人类了解了自然能量守恒的发则,从而人类懂得了在自然的框架下实现理想。在对宏观经济的研究中,人类摸索出了世界经济运行的规则,从而使人类更从容的面对今天经济的变幻莫测。因此,花在研究上的资金是很值得的。

2.一些持反对意见的人可能会指出克隆和原子能的研究的例子。的确它们有不好的一面,违背社会伦理道德,造成核战争。但是我们应该看到,在和平时期核战争是可以控制的,克隆也正在受社会伦理道德的约束。并且在当下,这两种技术的确都为社会科学技术的发展做出了巨大的贡献。

3.然而值得注意的是我们还是应该注意研究的结果的。因为我们知道从经济学的角度讲,凡事都是有机会成本的,与其去做那些有争议的研究,不如把这些钱投入其他更有前途收效更大的研究中,或拿去解决社会当前所面临的社会问题。比如Star Wars。(老外280中的例子,没想出来其他例子,大家帮忙想想吧^-^)

I totally agree with the speaker‘s broad assertion that money spent on research is generally well invested. However, the speaker unnecessarily extends this broad assertion to embrace research hose results are ?controversial‘, while ignoring certain compelling reasons why some types of research might be unjustifiable. My points of view involve the fundamental objectives and very nature of research, as discussed below.

Admittedly, research funding should be always given precedence to make sure the research could be continued without difficulties. After all, research is the exploration of the unknown for true answers to our questions, and for lasting solutions to our enduring problems. Research is also the chief means by which we humans attempt to satisfy our insatiable appetite for knowledge, and our craving to understand ourselves and the word around us. Only by keeping doing research can we never stop discovering new miracles about our humans, our planet and even the universe. Even though sometimes the funding for a certain research is quite high to consider, we will get more passionate and yearning about what can be brought into our lives by these fascinating researches. So the speaker‘s assertion is on the correct philosophical side of this issue.

While we must invest in research irrespective of whether the results might be controversial, at the same time we should be circumspect about research whose objectives are too vague and whose potential benefits are too speculative to see. After all, expensive research always carries significant opportunity costs-in terms of how the money might be spent toward addressing society‘s more immediate problems that do not require research. One apt illustration of this point involves the so-called ―star wars‖ defense initiative, championed by the Reagan Administration during the 1980s. In retrospect, this initiative was ill-conceived and largely a waste of taxpayer dollars; and few would dispute that the exorbitant amount of money devoted to the initiative could have gone a long way toward addressing pressing social problems of the day-by establishing after-school programs for delinquent latchkey kids, by enhancing AIDS awareness and education, and so forth. As it turns out, at the end of the Star Wars debacle we were left with rampant gang violence, and AIDS epidemic, and an unprecedented federal budget deficit.

The assertion‘s troubling in two other respects as well. First, no amount of research can

completely solve the enduring problems of wars, poverty and violence, for the reason that they stem from certain aspects of humans‘ nature, including aggression and greed. Although human genome research might eventually enable us to engineer away those undesirable aspects of our nature, in the meantime it is up to our economists, diplomats, social reformers, and jurists-not our research laboratories-to mitigate these problems. Secondly, for every new research breakthrough that helps to reduce human suffering is another that serves primarily to add to that suffering. For supporting examples, one needs to look no further than the atom power. While some might argue that physics researchers who harnessed the power of the atom have provided us with an alternative source of energy and invaluable ―peace-keepers‖, this argument flies in the face of the hundreds of thousands of innocent people murdered and maimed by atomic blasts, and by nuclear meltdowns. And also, in fulfilling the promise of ―better living through chemistry‖ research has given us chemical weapons for human slaughter. In short, so-called advances brought about by scientific research often amount to net losses for humanity.

63

==========================Issue168==========================

【题目】

Critical judgment of work, in any given field has little value unless

comes from someone who is an expert in that field.

【翻译】

批判性的判断在任何领域当中都是没什么用处的,除非它是来自于该领域中的专家

【提纲】

观点:不同意。在某些领域或情况下,比如政治,商品经济领域,群众的意见往往比专家的更有用,和专家的意见相互补充。

1.诚然,在科学领域中,一些科学成就只能由该领域之内的专家来评判。拿爱因斯坦的相对论来说,它的正确与否是需要领域内的科学家来证实的。这需要很专业的知识,来自其他领域的学者专家或者老百姓根本就搞不懂它是什么,谈何去评论它呢?

2.但是显然在一些情形下,外领域专家或学者的作用也是不可忽视的。他们相互合作解决某一个领域的问题。比如,环境问题,除了环境问题的专家,往往还需要气象专家(评判一个地区气候对环境污染的影响),动物学家(评判一个地区的污染对动物造成的影响),甚至经济学家(评判环境政策在经济上的可行性与实际收益)的帮忙。

3.特别的,在某些特定领域,如政治领域,公民对于某项政策的反应以及建议对于保持国家的政治民主和国家稳定有着重要意义。如商品经济领域,对一个商品好还是不好的评判, 消费者最有发言权,他们意见往往比设计商品的专家更有用。

64

==========================Issue142==========================

142 "The well-being of a society is enhanced when many of its people question authority." 翻译:当很多人都质疑权威的时候社会才会繁荣昌盛。

提纲:有保留地同意

1. 让步段:过分纵容挑战权威的行为(或者说violent challenge to authority)可能会导致社会的

不稳定,甚至瓦解(例子:社会暴乱的例子,搜一下)

2. 同意理由一:在社会,政治领域,质疑政治权威在一定程度上可以监督权威,使权威机构更加democratic,efficient, responsible and honest (例子:甘地的和平抗议)

3. 同意理由二:在科学领域,质疑学术权威可以促进学术进步。没有向学术权威挑战,那就不会有什么新的发展,就不会有新技术,新理论的产生,就会停滞在原来的地方

(这个例子就多了,like Copernicus, Kepler, Newton, Darwin, Einstein, and Hawking等等的新理论)

4.同意理由三:延伸到其他领域,质疑权威可以带来新的突破和进展。譬如在艺术领域,挑战权威可以带来新的艺术流派,形成百家争鸣的景象。

(例子缺)

65

==========================Issue190==========================

190 "As long as people in a society are hungry or out of work or lack the basic skills needed to survive, the use of public resources to support the arts is inappropriate—and, perhaps, even cruel—when one considers all the potential uses of such money."

翻译:一旦人们陷于饥饿、失业或者缺乏谋生的基本技能,运用公共资源去扶持艺术是很不恰当的——并且甚至是残忍的——尤其明知这些资金所有可能的用途。

提纲:反对

1. 首先,人们陷于饥饿,失业等状况历史上从没有间断过,虽然我们确实要花钱财来改善这一情况,我们不可能因为这种状况而不投资于艺术以促进其发展,而使艺术处在空白时期。

2. 并且,艺术本身也可以产生经济利益,当其被纳入经济体系,通过美术馆,音乐厅以及剧院,艺术成为商品化,形成一个体系的时候,政府对艺术的资助就不会需要那么多了。例如:近年来重要的表演艺术活动,经常吸引大量观众不远千里而来,如在北京举办的三大男高音的表演,与歌剧阿伊达的表演,带来了很大的经济利益。

3. 更进一步地说,艺术还可以帮助解决饥饿贫穷。譬如利用艺术来吸引国际观光旅客,发展旅游经济,这可以促进当地许多行业的发展,一定程度上解决了饥饿,就业的问题。例如。巴黎、伦敦、罗马等,如果不是其文化资产与艺术积藏,不可能成为欧洲观光中心。还有譬如世界上很多著名的音乐家,艺术家都不需要政府的赞助,相反还能捐献给慈善事业,帮助贫困人民。

66

==========================Issue90==========================

93. "The concept of 'individual responsibility' is a necessary fiction. Although societies must hold individuals accountable for their own actions, people's behavior is largely determined by forces not of their own making."

翻译:个人责任的概念是一种很必要的虚构。尽管社会必须让个人对他们自己的行为负责,但是人们的行为很大程度上不是自己能够左右的。

提纲:部分同意,部分反对

1.首先,individual responsibility对于社会安定是一个重要的方面。每个人都在社会上扮演着各自的不同的角色,承担着不同的responsiblity。只有每个人都担当了各自的responsiblity,社会才得以正常发展下去。

2.在社会大环境下每个人的行为会受到外界很大的影响,但这并不代表人的行为不是自己能左右的,内因才是决定个人行为的重要因素。

3.因此,政府有责任创造出一个和谐的利于个人发展的环境,而且应该让他们对各自的行为负责。

67

============================Issue110========================

【题目】

When we concern ourselves with the study of history, we become storytellers. Because we can never know the past directly but must construct it by interpreting evidence, exploring history is more of a creative enterprise than it is an objective pursuit. All historians are storytellers.

【翻译】

当我们通过研究历史来考虑自身问题的时候,我们就会变成说故事的人。因为我们不可能直接了解过去,只有通过解释一些史料来构造历史,所以探索历史更多是一件创造性的事业而不是客观的追寻。所有的历史学家都是讲故事的人。

【提纲】

观点:反对。历史学家绝不等同于讲故事的人。

1.首先必须承认我们对于过去的了解只能通过史料,包括建筑,文学作品,法律案件,艺术等等来完成。从这个角度说历史的确是一种创造性的事业,但是这并不意味着它不追求客观,实事上,历史必须是建立在事实的基础上的,否则它就是myth了

2.而且,历史学家也并不是讲故事的人。历史学家通过获得的大量史料,进行整理,研究,有必要的话进行修改和修饰,从而构建起历史。历史并不是史料的简单堆积,也不参杂历史学家的感情在里面,而是经过历史学家在反映客观实际的框架下研究整理而成的。因此,探索历史是一种对于客观的追求。

3.然而对于一写研究远古时代历史的历史学家来说,似乎他们是在讲故事了,毕竟那个时候的史料几乎没有。但是,他们也是通过其他学科的辅助,比如考古学,物力帮助检验出有限资料的相关信息,在此基础上进行的推断,并不是凭空想象的。

69

=============================Issue72=======================【题目】

One can best understand the most important characteristics of a society by studying its major cities.

【翻译】

人们可以通过研究一个社会的主要城市来了解它最重要的特点。

【提纲】

观点:

1.在发达国家,地区发展相对均衡,研究大城市可以直观的了解整个社会的特征。毕竟大城市是一

个国家经济政治文化的中心。如美国纽约,文化的多样性,社会经济的高度发达,崇尚自主和个性。

2.而在发展中国家,情况就不同了,发展中国家相对来说地区差异很大。如中国的北京和上海与西部的省份就完全不同,如果只研究北京上海,那我们就会得出中国社会高度发达的结论,但显然这与中国的国情不符。

3.而且,我们知道随着世界全球化趋势的增强,各国的大城市越来越像,我们很难从他们身上区别社会的不同,从这个角度看,大城市又不是一个国家主要特点的体现。上海跟纽约很像,就此得出中美社会特征相似是很荒谬的。

4.实际上,通过研究一个社会中小城市或农村更能反映一个社会的主要特征,因为一个社会的文化主要在这些地方产生和发展,尤其对于发展中国家来说,小城市更体现一个社会的各方面水平。

70

=====================Issue120======================

【题目】"So much is new and complex today that looking back for an understanding of the past provides little guidance for living in the present."

【翻译】 现代社会是如此的崭新和复杂以至于回首了解过去对于当代生活已经没有太大帮助了。

【提纲】平衡

1、培根说读史可以使人明智,历史上成功的经验对于当代生活是有一定的借鉴作用的,例如根据孙子兵法可以用于近现代的军事策略,也可以运用于经济生活;又如抗击非典,告诉我们众志成城就能战胜困难的道理;历史上失败的或者不好的经验可以给人以警示作用,如二战中美国向日本广岛、长崎投放两枚原子弹造成的严重后果警示我们不可轻易使用核武器;

2、诚然,现代社会是崭新的、复杂的和进步的,尽管历史有借鉴作用,但不能一切都照搬历史,在新的社会里需要运用新的方法来处理现代生活;例如,中国的一国两制以往历史上从来都没有,但为了国家的统一,面对香港回归的新形势创造性地运用,取得了很好的效果;如果当初还坚持一个国家一种制度,可能不能这么快的实现中国的统一;

3、总结,历史的作用是适度的

71

=================Issue173=================

【题目】 "Originality does not mean thinking something that was never thought before; it means putting old ideas together in new ways."

【翻译】创新并不意味着一定要想一些人们从未想过的东西;它意味着用新方法来重组老观点。

【提纲】同意

1、创新分为两种,一种是创造出以往没有的,一种是用新的方法来重组老观点

2、很多科学领域的发现是完全的创造,例如如瓦特发明蒸汽机,爱迪生发明电灯炮;爱因斯坦发明相对论;

3、但是更多的时候,创新是重组老的观点。在科学领域,很多研究是在以往的研究中而来的,例如万有引力定律其实就是将力学对比运用于天体运动之间

4、在文学艺术领域,很多小说、诗歌之类是源于生活,很多都是有历史和生活背景的。例如汤姆叔叔的小屋,就是以黑暗的奴隶制度为背景的;而马克.吐温的小说也是来源于现实生活;荷马史诗不是荷马本人所写,而是他整理其他诗人的成果而成;这些都属于创新,但却不是凭空想象。

5、在政治领域,邓小平的一国两制不是凭空创造没有的国家制度,而是将两种制度综合起来而创造出的新制度。

6、总结

72

=====================Issue241====================

【题目】 "An individual's greatness cannot be judged objectively by his or her contemporaries; the most objective evaluators of a person's greatness are people who belong to a later time."

【翻译】一个人的伟大是无法为他的同代人所客观判定的,而是应该由后人来评判。

【提纲】二者结合,平衡

1、对greatness的评价可以说是个主观的过程,不同的人处于不同的历史和社会环境、拥有不同的知识背景,都会有不同的评价。

2、一个人的伟大之处,可能由于评判标准的不同,而不被同时代的人所接受,只能期待后世的评判;例如梵高就不被当代人接受,但是后世却将他的画视为珍宝

3、同样,由于一个人的伟大之处是需要时间来检验和证明的,由于知识水平的局限,所以有时很难为同时代人所客观判定,需要由后人来评判。例如哥白尼就惧怕日心说被教会反对,所以在临死之前才将这个言论发表;布鲁诺也因此被烧死。

4、但也有很多伟人是在他的时代就被认可的,比如牛顿,爱因斯坦等等

5、总结

Can one individual‘s greatness only be determined and justified by objective observation in retrospect, rather immediately recognized by contemporary judges? The speaker‘s assertion about the recognition progress of one individual‘s greatness might appear strong in some particular circumstances like ones in the science world, while in other areas including arts and business, the situation is turn into the opposite way.

Admittedly, we don‘t require a rear-view mirror to recognize artistic greatness-whether in music, visual arts, or literature. The reason for this situation is as simple as it is: art can be judged or evaluated at face value. There is nothing to be later proved or disproved, affirmed or discredited, or even improved upon or refined by further knowledge or newer technology. History is replete with examples of artistic greatness immediately recognized, then later confirmed. Through his patronage, the Pope recognized Michelangelo‘s artistic greatness, while the monarchs of Europe immediately recognized Mozart‘s greatness by granting him their most generous commissions. Mark Twain became the best-selling author and household name even during his lifetime. And the leaders of modern architecture even as Frank Floyd Wright were elevating their notions about architecture to new aesthetic heights.

In the science areas, however, it is unreliable to judge values of any discoveries or inventions without counting in historical perspectives. Since the real value of one scientific breakthrough has the possibilities to be disproved by tomorrow, the greatness of science couldn‘t be recognized immediately by its contemporary values. Or perhaps the theory might withstand centuries of rigorous scientific scrutiny. In any event, a theory may or may not server as a springboard for later advances in theoretical science. A current example involves the ultimate significance of two opposing theories of physics: wave theory and quantum theory. Some theorists now claim that a new so called ―string‖ theory reconciles the two opposing theories – at least mathematically. Yet ―strings‖ have yet not been confirmed empirically. Only time will tell us whether the string theory indeed provides the unifying laws that all mater in the universe obeys. In short, the significance of contributions made by theoretical scientist can‘t be judged by their contemporaries-only by scientists who follow

them.

Meanwhile, in the realm of business, when one significant breakthrough or one individual important figure in the business world can be recognized is on a case-by-case basis. Consider on the one hand Henry Ford‘s assembly-line approach to manufacturing affordable cars for masses. Even Mr. Ford himself had no idea what kind of impacts of this new established approach can make on tomorrow car industry. While the contribution of this innovations on American economy and industrial development has been proved empirically by nowadays figures and successes, it was unpredictable at the beginning when the original proposal was presented. On the other hand, by any measure, Microsoft, founded by Mr. Bill Gates in 1980s‘, has proved its economic status around the whole world, and furthermore, the technological innovation spurred by the fast growth of Microsoft can be surely responsible for lifting United States to the global status of economic powerhouse and technological leader of the world. And this recognition is undoubted by any judging standards nowadays, because it is still happening.

In sum, I concede that the speaker‘s assertion is quite affirmative when it comes to any situation of science world and particular cases in the business field, however, we should not overlook other immediately recognized greatness, which might be typical in the artistic world, being proved by repletion of examples throughout the whole history.

73

================Issue94===================

【题目】"Universities should require every student to take a variety of courses outside the student's field of study because acquiring knowledge of various academic disciplines is the best way to become truly educated."

【翻译】大学应该要求每一个学生在自己专业课外选修各种学科,因为获得各种学科的知识才是获得真正教育的最好途径。

【提纲】同意

1、教育的目的对于个人而言是成才,对于社会而言是输送合适的人才;社会的复杂要求学生不只掌握一种知识,这样才能更好的为社会服务;对个人,多种知识能够相辅相成促进其成才;如达芬奇即是科学家也是艺术家,毕加索将几何学用于绘画,出现了立体派。因此,从满足教育的目的而言,对各种知识的学习是真正教育的最好途径;

2、学校应该提供环境给学生有选择多种学科的机会并且进行鼓励,不过没有必要强制要求如,开设选修课程,设置各种科目的奖学金进行鼓励等等;

3、但是,不能放弃对主要科目的深入研究,这也是高校设置major的目的所在,浅尝辄止对个人和社会都无裨益;

4、总结,在保证深入学习钻研专业的前提下,扩大知识面,才能获得真正的教育

74

====================Issue153=====================

【题目】"Students should bring a certain skepticism to whatever they study. They should question what they are taught instead of accepting it passively."

【翻译】无论学生们学习什么都应该带着一定的疑问。学生们应该质疑老师教授的东西而不只是被动的接受。

【提纲】同意

1、Skepticim具有很多优点:一是有利于创新,如哥白尼质疑地心说,发现日心说;二是有利于发现错误;如伽利略质疑两个铁球同时着地;有怀疑才能有进步

2、对于学生,学生应当带有怀疑精神来学习,老师不可能不犯错误,当老师犯错误的时候,学生只有持有怀疑态度才能发现错误,更好的进步

3、不适当或者过度的质疑也是有害的。学生应当首先信任老师,才能接受和学到知识;

4、总结

[这个怎么都想不到好的例子,是有关学生学习过程中质疑的

Skepticism—error---trial-

—by Kito9695(小别)

One apt illustration for this situation is the so called “star war” defense initiative, championed by the Reagan administration. This initiative is ill-conceived and largely waste of taxpayer dollars. Few would dispute that this exorbitant amount of money had possibly already gone a long way if used to oppose more pressing social problems by that day-by establishing after-school programs for delinquent latchkey kids, by enhancing the public awareness of AIDS and related education to avoid getting affected, or by founding many more social-beneficial charitable organizations. Unfortunately, as a result at the end of the initiative, we are left with rampant gang violence, global AIDS epidemic, and unprecedented federal budget deficit.



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