如何写出博士考试英语summary(7200字)

发表于:2021.1.19来自:www.fanwen118.com字数:7200 手机看范文

如何写英语摘要summary

2010-02-13 03:01

摘要是对一篇文章的主题思想的简单陈述。它用最简洁的语言概括了原文的主题。写摘要主要包括三个步骤:(1)阅读;(2)写作;(3)修改成文。 第一步:阅读

A.认真阅读给定的原文材料。如果一遍不能理解,就多读两遍。阅读次数越多,你对原文的理解就越深刻。

B.给摘要起一个标题。用那些能概括文章主题思想的单词、短语或短句子作为标题。也可以采用文中的主题句作为标题。主题句往往出现在文章的开头或结尾。一个好标题有助于确定文章的中心思想。

C.现在,就该决定原文中哪些部分重要,哪些部分次重要了。对重要部分的主要观点进行概括。

D.简要地记下主要观点——主题、标题、细节等你认为对概括摘要重要的东西。 第二步:动手写作

A. 摘要应该只有原文的三分之一或四分之一长。因此首先数一下原文的字数,然后除以三,得到一个数字。摘要的字数可以少于这个数字,但是千万不能超过这个数字。

B. 摘要应全部用自己的话完成。不要引用原文的句子。

C. 应该遵循原文的逻辑顺序。这样你就不必重新组织观点、事实。

D. 摘要必须全面、清晰地表明原文所载的信息,以便你的读者不需翻阅原文就可以完全掌握材料的原意。

E. 写摘要时可以采用下列几种小技巧:

1) 删除细节。只保留主要观点。

2) 选择一至两个例子。原文中可能包括5个或更多的例子,你只需从中筛选一至二个例子。

3) 把长段的描述变成短小、简单的句子。如果材料中描述某人或某事用了十个句子,那么你只要把它们变成一两句即可。

4) 避免重复。在原文中,为了强调某个主题,可能会重复论证说明。但是这在摘要中是不能使用的。应该删除那些突出强调的重述句。

5) 压缩长的句子。如下列两例:

“His courage in battle might without exaggeration be called lion-like.” 可以概括为:”He was very brave in battle.”

“He was hard up for money and was being pressed by his creditor.” 可以概括为:“He was in financial difficulties.”

6) 你还可以使用词组代替整句或者从句。请看下面的例子:

“Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, Lushan Mountain, and Mount Huang, were visited by only a few people in the past. Today, better wages, holidays with pay, new hotels on these mountains, and better train and bus services, have brought them within reach of many who never thought of visiting them ten years ago.”

可以概括为:”Beautiful mountains like Mount Tai, once visited by only a few people, are today accessible to many, thanks to better wages, paid holidays, new hotels and better transportation services.”

7) 使用概括性的名词代替具体的词,比如:

“She brought home several Chinese and English novels, a few copies of Time and Newsweek and some textbooks. She intended to read all of them during the winter vocation.”

可以概括为:”She brought home a lot of books to read during the vocation.”

8) 使用最短的连接词。比如,可以使用but, then, thus, yet, though,不能使用at the same time, in the first place, because of these, on the other hand等较长的连接词。通常,使用分号就能够达成使用连接词的效果。

9) 文章中的第一人称说的话通常在摘要中转换成第三人称,从而把大段的对白简化,比如:

Kate looked at Paul disapprovingly: You use much too much salt on your food, Paul — it’s not good for you!” Paul put down his knife and frowned:”Why on earth not! If you didn’t have salt on your food it would taste awful? like eating cardboard or sand? just imagine bread without salt in it, or potatoes or pasta cooked without salt!” Kate was patient. She didn’t want to quarrel with Paul. She wanted to persuade him. She said firmly:”But too much salt is bad for you. It cause high blood

pressure and latter on, heart-attacks. It also disguises the taste of food, the real tastes which are much more subtle than salt, and which we have lost the sensitivity to appreciate any more.”

可以用第三人称概括为:

Kate suggested to Paul that he should eat less salt. She thought that eating too much salt would do hard to Paul’s health and that it could reduce the real tastes of food. But Paul disagreed. He said that food without salt would be tasteless.

第三步:修改成文

草稿拟好以后,对它进行修改。首先,与原文比较看是否把所有重要的观点都概括了,摘要中的观点是否与原文中的完全一致。其次,如果摘要中出现了不必要的词汇、短语或长句子,删除它们。第三,检查拼写、语法和标点符号的错误。最后,保持语言简单明了。

经过上述步骤和方法,一篇摘要就可以完成了。

考博英语冲刺第六课例题习题

时间:2009-09-01 14:41来源: 作者: 点击:

如何写出博士考试英语summary

3次

Read the following passage carefully and then write a summary of it in English in about 120 words。 Europe was the first

Read the following passage carefully and then write a summary of it in English in about 120 words。

Europe was the first of the major world regions to develop a modern economy based on commercial agriculture and industrial development。 Its successful modernization can be traced to the continent’s rich endowment of economic resources, its history of innovations, the evolution of a skilled and educated labour force, and the interconnectedness of all its parts-both naturally existing and man-made—which facilitated the easy movement of massive quantities of raw materials and finished goods and the communication of ideas。

Europe’s economic modernization began with a marked improvement in agriculture output in the 17th century, particularly in England。 The traditional method of cultivation involved periodically allowing land to remain fallow; this gave way to continuous cropping on fields that were fertilized with nature from animals raised

as food for rapidly expanding urban markets。 Greater wealth was accumulated by landowners at the same time that fewer farmhands were needed to work the land。 The accumulated capital and abundant cheap labour created by this revolution in

agriculture fueled the development of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century。 The revolution vegan in northern England in the 1730s with the development of water-driven machinery to spin and weave wool and cotton。 By mid-century James Watt had developed a practical steam engine that emancipated machinery from sites adjacent to waterfalls and rapids。 Britain had been practically deforested by this time, and the incessant demand for more fuel to run the engines led to the

exploitation of coal as a major industry。 Industries were built on the coalfields to minimize the cost of transporting coal over long distances。 The increasingly surplus rural population flocked to the new manufacturing areas。 Canals and other improvements in the transportation infrastructure were made in these regions, which made them attractive to other industries that were not necessarily dependent on coal and thus prompted development in adjacent regions。

Industrialization outside of England began in the mid-19th century in Belgium and northeastern France and spread to Germany, the Netherlands, southern Scandinavia, and other areas in conjunction with the construction of railways。 By the 1870s the governments of the European nations had recognized the vital importance of factory production and had taken steps to encourage local development through subsidies and tariff protection against foreign competition。 Large areas, however, remained virtually untouched by modern industrial development, including most of the Iberian Peninsula, southern Italy, and a broad belt of eastern Europe extending from the Balkans on the south to Finland and northern Scandinavia。

During the 20the century Europe has experienced periods of considerable economic growth and prosperity, and industrial development has proliferated much more widely throughout the continent; but continued economic development in Europe has been handicapped to a large degree by its multinational character—which has spawned economic rivalries among states and two devastating world wars-as well as by the exhaustion of many of its resources and by increased economic competition from overseas。 Governmental protectionism, which has tended to restrict the potential market for a product to a single country, has deprived many industrial concerns of the efficiencies of large-scale production serving a mass market (such as is found in the United States)。 In addition, enterprise efficiency has suffered from government support and from a lack of competition within a national market area。 Within inpidual countries there have been growing tensions between regions that have prospered and those that have not。 This “core-periphery” problem has been particularly acute in situations where the contrasting regions are inhabited by different ethnic groups。




第二篇:英语博士专业课考试: 6200字

业能力部分: 1.英译汉,考的主题大概是一个国家的衰落如何首先在文学及语言的衰落显现出来,语言不算难,偶有生词,比如你要知道Tacitus怎么翻译,divagation是什么意思等。其他不难。

2.汉译英,考得是一篇比较西方哲学辩证法和中国古典哲学辩证法的区别的一片文章,语言不难,只要知道辩证法、二元论、词源学等专业术语怎么说就行了。

3.句子改写和写作,改写题,就是把拗口的难句改写成简单句,文章经后来考证,是出自联邦党人文集,文字有些难度,好多人没看懂,其实讲的就是hereditary monarchism,democracy以及representative republic各自的优劣,看明白这个结构和层次,改写很容易,后面的作文也是建立在理解文章的基础上,以问题的形式提出,文章看不懂,作文是没法写的。以下是考试的文字部分,全篇请参看链接:http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/fed48.asp

The founders of our republics have so much merit for the wisdom which they have displayed, that no task can be less pleasing than that of pointing out the errors into which they have fallen. A respect for truth, however, obliges us to remark, that they seem never for a moment to have turned their eyes from the danger to liberty from the overgrown and all-grasping prerogative of an hereditary magistrate, supported and fortified by an hereditary branch of the legislative authority. They seem never to have recollected the danger from legislative usurpations, which, by assembling all power in the same hands, must lead to the same tyranny as is threatened by executive usurpations. In a government where numerous and extensive prerogatives are placed in the hands of an hereditary monarch, the executive department is very justly regarded as the source of danger, and watched with all the jealousy which a zeal for liberty ought to inspire. In a democracy, where a multitude of people exercise in person the legislative functions, and are continually exposed, by their incapacity for regular deliberation and concerted measures, to the ambitious intrigues of their executive magistrates, tyranny may well be apprehended, on some favorable emergency, to start up in the same quarter. But in a representative republic, where the executive magistracy is carefully limited; both in the extent and the duration of its power; and where the legislative power is exercised by an assembly, which is inspired, by a supposed influence over the people, with an intrepid confidence in its own strength; which is sufficiently numerous to feel all the passions which actuate a multitude, yet not so numerous as to be incapable of pursuing the objects of its passions, by means which reason prescribes; it is against the enterprising ambition of this department that the people ought to indulge all their jealousy and exhaust all their precautions.

专业知识部分:

1.英国文学试题,二选一:

a.discuss the difference between Richardson and Fielding, and how each in their own way contributes to the development of english novel.

b.ilustrate by specific textual examples how Milton in Paradise Lost applied the Bible.

2.英国文学试题,二选一:

a.Victorian age is one of complexities and paradoxes...discuss in detail two vicotrian novels how, by their characterization, plot, etc., reflect the victorian society.

b.引述了Elizabeth Browning的一段诗,然后问这句诗体现了什么"problem",细节记不清楚了。

3.美国文学部分:三选二:

a.elaborate and discuss how, both in prose and poetry, imagery was applied in Puritan writings.

b.关于southern dialect的题目,细节不记得了。

c.考了一首十四行诗,要求对其进行close textual analysis,描述to which aspect of the poem do you most strongly respond to,以及从多方面对诗歌进行分析。后经考证,是Edna St. Vincent Millay所写。

Hearing your words, and not a word among them

by Edna St. Vincent Millay

Hearing your words, and not a word among them

Tuned to my liking, on a salty day

When inland woods were pushed by winds that flung them

Hissing to leeward like a ton of spray,

I thought how off Matinicus the tide

Came pounding in, came running through the Gut,

While from the Rock the warning whistle cried,

And children whimpered, and the doors blew shut;

There in the autumn when the men go forth,

With slapping skirts the island women stand

In gardens stripped and scattered, peering north,

With dahlia tubers dripping from the hand:

The wind of their endurance, driving south,

Flattened your words against your speaking mouth.

等了这么久,还是没见20xx英语语言文学方向的试题,没法,自己动脑回忆一下吧。事先申明,因为是时隔一月的回忆,很多东西都只能得个大概,肯定也有一些记错的地方,欢迎纠正哦。

先回忆专业能力。专业能力分三大题,英译汉,汉译英和作文。每题50分。

英译汉我恍惚记得讨论的是诗歌和散文的区别和联系,相较于以前最大的不同是这篇散文和文学理论不大挂钩。翻译总体来看不是很难,生僻词低于往年,长度短于往年。但有些长句并列句还是比较难翻的,惯有的名作家人名作品翻译我也不是很顺手。英译汉我答的不好。 英译汉这条应该是历年最容易的,关于读书的翻译,原文琅琅上口,大意是:读书不是给别人看的,读许多书但都浅尝辄止,不如精读一本书,读通透。还说到了一般人读书和做学问读书的区别。这篇小散文我本人非常喜欢,我觉得把它看成英语专业研究生入学考试的小指导也是很不错的。翻译的难度适中,以往的谚语翻译也有涉及。这题我答的也不好,应为英语的词汇量小,基本功不扎实,只能勉强翻通。

今年的作文是历年来最容易的一篇吧。取消了xx年和xx年那具难的paraphrase,选取的短篇还是考研指定教材《二十世纪西方文学理论》中的节选,根据短篇写出对文中观点的看法和评价即可。这篇节选我已经找到了,就在全书的导言(文学是什么)部分开头,应该是第二至第四段。这几段文字都是讨论关于文学的定义和本质,分别列举了浪漫主义和俄国形式主义对此的看法——文学是想象力或是一种语言的组织。我具体是怎么写这个作文的,我基本忘记了,好像关于形式主义的批判有点太多了,行文间还是一如既往的小傲慢(这到底是为什么啊),语言的组织有时过于简单,举例不充分说理不清晰。总之,答得也并不好。唯一值得庆幸的就是作文应该没有偏题(这点我也不敢肯定呢)

专业能力说完,来说专业知识。今年的专业知识只有三大题,每题50分。取消了以往5道题目的设置,并取消诗歌评述。这样的卷面设置看着是比以前简单不少(要知道北大外文系老师选诗的眼光那个可怕,xx年和xx年那两首现代诗我50%没看懂),但事实上,因为题量减少,如果其中一条出现偏题,那你其他两题答得再好,都非常危险。

第一大题考察的是英国文学,有两题任选(选其中之一作答),任选题1:有评论家说米尔顿的撒旦和莎士比亚戏剧中的人物有共通之处,你同意还是反对这种看法?说说你对此的看法;任选题2:试比较笛福的《鲁滨逊漂流记》和斯威夫特的《格列夫游记》的异同。因为我对鲁滨逊漂流记和格列夫游记都很不熟悉,所以我选择答第一题。但因为我对《失乐园》里的撒旦和莎士比亚的戏剧也不是很熟悉,这一题是我三题中答的最短的。大概说了下撒旦的叛逆精神和邪恶本质,把他和《李尔王》中的李尔(为什么是李尔)以及莎士比亚的《威尼斯商人》中的Sherlock做了下比较。

第二大题仍然考察英国文学,都是关于十九世纪小说的,也有两道任选题。任选题1:在英国的十九世纪小说中,有很多小说中涉及到旅行(travel)的描写,请举两例说明旅行这一因素对于小说中角色的成长和小说情节所起的作用;任选题2:节选了一段狄更斯的Hard Time中的人物描写(那个非常著名的,什么东西都拿来算一番的牛人),试让人阐述一下雪莱,尤其是写《诗辩》的雪莱会对以上人物描写作何评价。该题我选择第一题作答。举的是《名利场》和《傲慢与偏见》两书中主角的出游(Becky Sharp的法国游和伊丽莎白到她的牧师堂兄家做客的旅行)感觉这两个例子不是很好。但我19世纪小说看的不是很多,也没有更好的例子了。感觉这一题答题的关键点在说清楚人物怎样在旅行作用下成长的,以及旅行在情节中起到了怎样的作用(伏笔,承上启下,象征等等)

第三大题考察美国文学,也有两道任选题。但我不记得任选题1了。任选题2如下:结合你所看到相关美国小说,说说现实主义写作和现代主义写作在对人物刻画上有何不同。我个人感觉这题比以往美国文学选题要好(以前不是清教就是黑色幽默的题目实在有点雷到我了)。我选的现实主义小说是亨利 詹姆斯的The Real Thing,现代主义小说威廉 福克纳的A Rose for Miss Emily。关于这两篇文的选择我是非常满意的,不过要是把福克纳的小说改成Barn Burning可能更好些,只可惜Barn Burning这篇我是怎么也看不懂啊。虽然选择的文章似乎还不错,但这道题其实我一开始是答偏题了的,没有注意“关于角色”(characterization)

20xx年北京大学英语语言文学专业专业课考试试题回忆

这一点,而是把所有的不同都拿来泛泛而谈。题目答到一半的时候突然注意的这个问题,所以这道题就悲剧了一半。

以下是我专业知识答完以后记在转考证后面的关键词:第一大题任选题1 Satan Shakespeare characterization;第二大题任选题2 travels, novel in the 19th century, the effect , growth of character and the plot;第三大题任选题2 modernism, realism, characterization, difference

总结一下专业知识的试卷,我发现今年试卷的两大主题就是“角色的刻画”和“旅行”了,关于旅行的题是第一大题任选题2,第二大题任选题1,关于角色的刻画是第一大题任选题1,第二大题任选题1和2,第三大题任选题2。忍不住小小感慨一下,原来答卷是有主题的。再小小的感慨一下,明年的试卷出现相关主题的几率不高了。

另外补充一下北大历年专业知识测试必考的提醒:对比分析题——关于作品和作者的对比都有;节选段落分析题——选一篇小说中的一段话,说出该小说的作者和文名,并做某种分析(万恶的马克吐温,万恶的卡城名蛙);文学理论应用题,关于某个作品,某种写作手法的具体理论分析。以前还有诗歌分析题,选一篇小诗(基本是近现代的,基本有点抽象,基本生词有点多,基本生词都是关键词)做相关分析,这个题型xx年取消了,不知道以后还会不会有。

再补充一下考试注意点,其实大家也都知道的,答卷字迹清晰,格式正确。

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