10英语摘要写作summary(5500字)

发表于:2021.1.14来自:www.fanwen118.com字数:5500 手机看范文

abstract summary executive summary

? abstract: a statement summarizing the important points of a text.(摘要)

指面向专业读者的摘要,如学位文(dissertation)、学术刊物论文(journal paper)的摘要、学术会议论文(conference paper)的摘要及展示论文(poster)的摘要。

? summary(概要, 综述)

一般指面向专业水平低一些的普通读者的摘要,读后能理解其大意、主要论点及新发现和见解等。但有时abstract、summary也可互换。如果正文前无abstract或executive summary,正文开始的第一段通常就是summary;如果前面有abstract,在短的论文中summary经常位于文章最后,功能相当于conclusion。

? executive summary(概要)

通常指面向专业水平可能更低的公司、基金会决策人员的摘要,篇幅比abstract、summary长得多。在正式项目报告中可以既有abstract,又有executive summary。executive 在此指“执行官”“管理人员”“经理”等。

Summary Writing

1. Accurate, clearly organized and clearly written

2. A brief restatement, in your own words, of the content of the passage

3. Indicate all the main points

4. State their order and their emphasis

5. For longer passages, important illustrations and examples should be included.

6. Should not contain any of your own ideas, opinions, or conclusions.

Length: no longer than one-quarter the

length of the original passage

Qualities of a summary:

? Objectivity: No idea and judgment that are not the author’s should be included in the

summary.

? Completeness: The summary should include every main idea in the article.

? Balance: Giving equal attention to each main idea that the author stresses.

Questions to judge a valid summary:

a) Did I include all the important ideas?

b) Did I omit all unnecessary words and phrases?

c) Does the summary read smoothly?

d) Would a reader of my summary who had not read the article get a clear idea of the

article?

How to write a summary?

Here is a five-step process for writing summaries:

1) Read the article carefully, try to understand it accurately and look for main ideas.

2) Write a list of points in note form while reading the passage or the article.

3) Connect your points to write a rough draft of the summary in your own words.

Refer to the passage or the article only when you want to make sure of some points. Do not count the number of words until you have finished your rough draft.

4) Revise the rough draft, inserting transitional words and phrases where necessary to

ensure coherence.

5) Write a fair copy of the summary within the word limit after checking for

grammatical corrections, punctuation and spelling.

Suggestions on writing summaries:

1) Omitting the details

2) Reducing the examples

3) Simplifying the descriptions

4) Eliminating all repetitions

5) Using phrases instead of sentences or clauses while writing a list of the points

6) Using the shortest possible transitions

but, then, yet, for, thus

7) Avoiding figurative language

8) Putting the main points of a dialogue in indirect speech

Summarize the following article:

As the plane circled over the airport, everyone sensed that something was wrong. The plane was moving unsteadily through the air, and although the passengers had fastened their seat belts, they were suddenly thrown forward. At that moment, the air-hostess appeared. She looked very pale, but was quite calm. Speaking quickly but almost in a whisper, she informed everyone that the pilot had fainted and asked if any of the passengers knew anything about the machines—or at least how to drive a car. After a moment’s hesitation, a man got up and followed the hostess into the pilot’s cabin.

Moving the pilot aside, the man took his seat and listened carefully to the urgent instructions that were being sent by radio from the airport below. The plane was now dangerously close to the ground, but to everyone’s relief, it soon began to climb. The man had to circle the airport several times in order to become familiar with the controls. But the danger had not yet passed. The terrible moment came when he had to land. Following instructions the man guided the plane towards the airfield. It shook violently as it touched the ground and then moved rapidly across the field, but after a long run it stopped safely. Outside, a crowd of

people who had been watching anxiously, rushed forward to congratulate the “pilot” on a perfect landing. (230 words)

Making a list of main points:

1. pilot fainted

2. Air-hostess found a person

3. Moved the pilot aside and listened to instructions.

4. Plane flew low, climbed and circled the airport

5. The man guided the plane--airport

6. Touching ground, moved rapidly, stopped safely

7. People rushed to congratulate

Writing a rough draft:

As there was something wrong with the plane, the passengers were thrown forward. At that moment, the air-hostess appeared and she looked for someone who could drive a car. Then, a passenger was led into the pilot’s cabin. When he moved the pilot aside, he sat down and listened to the urgent instructions which were being sent by radio from the airport below. Though the plane flew dangerously low, it soon climbed, and rounded the airport several times. Then, acting on instructions, the man guided the plane towards the airfield. On touching the ground, the plane moved rapidly until it stopped safely. After this, anxious people rushed forward to congratulate the “pilot” on a perfect landing. (116words)

Making a fair copy:

As the pilot fainted, the air-hostess managed to find a passenger to fly the plane. He followed instructions sent by radio from the airport below. The plane was flying dangerously low, but soon it began to climb and circle the airport. Acting on instructions, the man guided the plane toward the airfield. After touching the ground, the plane moved rapidly and stopped safely. People rushed to congratulate the “pilot” on the landing. (72 words)




第二篇:英语摘要写作 5400字

英语摘要写作应试要点

写文章摘要,最忌讳逐字逐句地翻译汉语原文中的一些句子。不幸的是,许多考生往往这么做,尤其喜欢翻译第一句,这是因为他们不得写文章摘要的要领。在英语写作水平还没有到达高级程度的情况下,死译的结果就是写出来的东西错误百出,让人不忍卒读。由于时间和英语水平的限制,许多考生翻译的句子往往是东一句西一句,写出来的摘要没有逻辑,杂乱无章,成绩自然不会好。写好摘要的要点是:

总结出原文的中心思想。拿到原文,不要马上动笔,要用5――10分钟对原文进行再加工。这点非常重要,考生千万要记住。首先,看看阐述的是什么事物或事情,也就是文章的主题。看看是说明或描写事物的客观性质、作用、特征、前因后果、过程、意义、及方法,还是表明对事物的主观看法与态度。这样,找出作者的主要观点或论点。其次,看看作者是如何表达他的中心思想的,是描述、说明、比较、例证、定义、还是分类,并找出主要的论点。这里特别要注意的是,由于中文写作的散点思维的特点或者作者的思维素质,医学博士生英语入学考试所节选的中文文章,往往显得内容杂乱、观点不明,条理不清,很难总结。但无论如何,考生必须总结出一个条理大致清楚的、有若干主要论点支持的中心思想来。再加工是关键。在总结的过程中,考生可以将原文中的带有结论性的重要句子用笔划出来,帮助自己整理思想。近年来写作考试反映出来的考生的一个最大问题是,写出来的东西杂乱无章,东一句西一句,大大影响了考生作文的得分。记住,一定要使你写出来的摘要有一个明确中心思想,语句要连贯,有逻辑。

最好写出一个粗略的非常简单的汉语提纲和中心思想,形式不拘。汉语提纲和中心思想必须简单。语言和思想都要简单,否则考生无法用简单的规范的英语表达出来。可以说,总结再加工就是简化。考生要时刻想象,你的短文的读者是小学三年级的学生,你写出的东西要让他们明白。做到这一点,考生要摆脱原文语句的影响和束缚,因为那是为成年人看的。

汉语提纲和中心思想必须要有足够的概括性和总结性。概括性和总结性的语句往往是原文中没有的,需要考生自己写出来。许多考生往往受原文语句的影响和束缚,爱用原文中的一些语句,这样写出来的话缺乏概括性和总结性,影响了摘要的质量。

说你会说的。同一篇文章,不同人有不同的概括和总结;同一个意念,不同人有不同的语言表达。所以,文摘写作是允许有合理的个人再加工的差异的。考生在选择表达的语句时,要考虑自己的英语表达能力。也就是说,考生要尽量展示自己会的东西,尽量用有把握的表达方式表达原文的意思,或者说,尽量把原文的意思往自己掌握的句型上靠。

在以后的实战练习部分,将用例证说明如何写出粗略的非常简单的汉语提纲和中心思想。

考生在进行英语写作时,往往是先用汉语思维,再经过一个翻译转换的过程,表达成英语的。这样写出的英语毫无疑问地会受到汉语语句的表达方式的影响。面对一篇汉语原文时,情况就更是如此了。中国学生的英语写作中出现的种种毛病,根源就在此。

然而,英语思维的能力,或者说习惯,决不是一年半载能够培养出来的。那么,考生首先要做到的是,有意识地尽量克服汉语语句对自己英语语句写作的束缚和不良影响。头脑中出现的要写成英语的汉语语句,不能基本上字对字地直接转换成英语的语句。要找一个规范的符合英语思维表达习惯的英语句型,来表达大体相当的意思。字面上不要相等,但只要意思或者说意念大体相同就行了。这是一个从汉语思维到英语思维的过渡阶段,这种过渡能力就是我们考生应该慢慢培养的能力和习惯。有了这种能力和习惯,考生写出的英语才能象英语,才基本规范。

考生怎样才能培养和运用这种过渡能力呢?

就目前考生的水平而言,我们提出一条很实用很奏效的建议,希望考生牢记心中,尤其是在开始阶段以及考试的时候,那就是,写你会写的,不要写你想写的。这一点前面提到过,这里再详细说明。

出现在考生头脑中的,首先是具有成人特点的地道的汉语思维的语句,把这种语句直接写成英语,难度很大,结果往往弄巧成拙、适得其反、出力不讨好。我们需要把具有成人思维特点的地道的汉语的语句转换成具有儿童思维特点的简单的汉语语句,再转换成我们能够掌握和表达的规范的简单英语,这样就容易多了。

具体到医学博士生英语入学考试的摘要写作,要做到“写你会写的,不要写你想写的”, 有两个技巧。一是规避,二是变通。下面举例说明规避。

规避不仅仅是因为意思及语句复杂,难以用英语表达,而且因为其意思及语句不属于主要论点,避而不谈之后,对中心思想的完整性影响不大。例如:

在97年的考题中,“碳水化合物是最主要也是最经济的功能营养素。1克碳水化合物能提供的热量为16.7千焦。蛋白质的供热量虽与碳水化合物相同,但价格较贵。1克脂肪能提供的热量为37.7千焦,但食物易产生饱腻感,无法摄入过多。”,“但是在碳水化合物提供热量不足的情况下,蛋白质和脂肪将首先被消耗以提供热量,不能发挥它们原有的功能,从而导致肌体生长发育迟滞。严重者可引起营养不良,表现为体重不增、食欲不振、各器官功能低下、容易反复感染等。”,“以3岁小儿为例,每日应得到的总热量为5.86兆焦,其中碳水化合物提供的热量应为3.5兆焦,约需碳水化合物210克,折合大米约280克。”,这些句子都可以避而不写。

又如,在04年的考题中,“民营医院的出现让人想起十几年前人们对超市的概念认识也是比较模糊的。即使总认为里面装修豪华、高档,但因货物很贵而不愿意进门。而今超市大大普及了,人们纷纷进入购物,因为物有所值。民营医院或许正有类似的经历,它也将有一个自然成长的过程。而20xx年我国政府又提出了在卫生资源相对过剩的地方,鼓励投资者通过收购、重组现有公立医院的方式举办赢利性医疗机构和民办非赢利性医疗机构,提出了社会资本投资着重于目前服务能力较欠缺的老年慢性病护理、康复、婴幼儿保健等领域”,“不同于民营医院的是,医药费还可以报销。”,这些大段的话都可以基本不去考虑怎么用英语表达。

有时原文的语句很重要,不能规避,但用英语表达又有困难,这时可以考虑部分规避,也就是简化。如在04年的考题中,“随着社会观念的变化和政策环境的改善,民营医院必能与公立医院相辅相成,互争高低,成为医疗卫生界一道独特的风景,从而为人民群众提供更多更好的医疗服务。”是一句重要的结论性的句子,最好用英语表达出来。那么可以简化为“随着社会观念的变化和政策的改善,民营医院必能与公立医院一道为人民提供更好的医疗服务。”还有,“为了留住病人,公立医院开始实施全方位的改革措施,不仅在管理体制上、人事制度上进行改革,而且更多的是纷纷打起了技术、服务、

环境、价格牌。”也可以简化为“为了留住病人,公立医院在管理上开始实施全面改革”。

在摘要写作的考试中,规避是比较容易掌握的技巧,但规避得恰到好处还需要有意识的注意,考生可以通过实战练习提供的参考摘要细心揣摩。

一个意念功能,可以用几种大体相当的语言方式表达出来,这是语言能力熟练的表现和结果。英语专业的学生,都经过长期的这方面的训练,才达到熟练的英语表达能力。这种训练叫paraphrase。Paraphrase的能力,就是变通的能力。非英语专业的学生,往往没有这种训练,也就很难用多种不同形式来表达同一种意念。但他们在培养英语写作能力的过程中,要有意识地注意练习和培养这种能力。

一个重要的意念,我们不能规避,但它的汉语表达形式让我们感到用英语表达不出来,或者感到硬用英语表达出来,结果多半是错的。这时,我们就需要运用变通的技巧,或者说能力。变通就是将汉语的意念,用我们能够掌握的英语形式大体相当地表达出来。变通的原则是把不会的变成会的,把复杂的变成简单的。这和上面说讲的“写你会写的,不要写你想写的”原则是一致的。后面课文中的句型讲解与练习,有大量的变通的实例,尤其是斜体标明的句子,考生们可以自己体会。

变通有词与词组层面上的和句子层面上的两种,下面再举例说明。

雌激素(estrogen)可以用female hormone来表示,冲动(impulse)可以用sudden excitement来表示,悲剧(tragedy)可以用sad result来代替,诱发(induce)可以lead to或result in来代替,慢跑(jog)可以用slow running 来表示。“打技术、管理牌”肯定不能说成“play technological and management cards”,可以根据不同上下文,变通成“改善技术、管理”(improve technology and management)或者“利用技术、管理”(make use of technology and management)。

要表达“乡村一级卫生院医疗质量无法保证。”,如果有考生觉得“质量无法保证”不好说,一下子又想不起来“保证”如何拼写,最好变通一下,说一个大概类似的意念就行了:“乡村一级卫生院医疗质量通常不好。”或者“你无法有好的医疗质量在乡村一级卫生院。”变通成我们熟悉的形式之后,表达起来成功的把握就大多了:You can not have good medical services in village clinics.,或者The quality of medical services in village clinics is usually poor.

另外,同一种意念有多种表达方式时,我们的选择要注意使得文章中的句式有变化,或者是我们最有把握的那一种。如果原句为“洋医院的优势在于,病人能得到医务人员的尊重和周到的服务。”,可以表达的句式有“The advantage of foreign-invested hospitals is that a patient can enjoy respect and considerate medical services from medical workers.”(表语从句),“It is to the advantage of foreign-invested hospitals that a patient can enjoy respect and considerate medical services from medical workers.”(主语从句),“It is a great advantage of foreign-invested hospitals that a patient can enjoy respect and considerate medical services from medical workers.”(主语从句),以及“Foreign-invested hospitals have an advantage that a patient can enjoy respect and considerate medical services from medical workers.”(同位语从句), “Foreign-invested hospitals have an advantage, because a patient can enjoy respect and considerate medical services from medical workers.”(原因状语从句)。考生可以根据自己的具体情况来选择。再例如,“忽视人的心理社会背景,影响了医疗服务的质

量。”可以有以下表达:“If a doctor overlooks the social and mental background of his patient, his medical service can be weakened.”(条件关系、忽视),“Ignorance of the social and mental background of a patient can have a negative effect on the outcome of the medical service.”(忽视、影响),“Neglect of the social and mental background of a patient can harm the medical service.”(忽视、有害),“When a doctor does not pay attention to the social and mental background of a patient, he can not provide good medical services.”(注意、提供),以及“Ignorance of the social and mental background of a patient can result in poorer outcome of the medical service.”(忽视、因果关系)。考生可以根据自己所掌握的句型的熟练程度或上下文,在心中作出选择。

变通是一种必需的、有效的写作策略,考生在后面的句型讲解和练习中可以看到更多的运用。随着英语语言能力的提高,变通的能力和技巧也会日益熟练,写作不再是一件让人头痛的苦差事。

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