高一英语各单元知识点总结及重难点解析Unit1(31600字)

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高一英语各单元知识点总结及重难点解析Unit1-2

☆重点句型☆

1. What should a friend be like? 询问对方的看法

2. I think he / she should be?表示个人观点的词语

3. I enjoy reading / I'm fond of singing / I like playing computer games. 等表示喜好的词语

4. Chuck is on a flight when suddenly his plane crashes.

“when"作并列连词的用法

5. What / Who / When / Where is it that...? 强调句的

特殊疑问句结构

6. With so many people communicating in English everyday,

... “with+宾语+宾补”的结构做状语

7. Can you tell me how to pronounce...? 带连接副词

(或代词)的不定式做宾补的用法

☆重点词汇☆

1. especially v. 特别地 2. imagine v. 想像 3. alone adv. / adj. 单独,孤独的

4. interest n. 兴趣 5. everyday adj. 每天的,日常的

6. deserted adj. 抛弃的 7. hunt v. 搜寻 8. share v. 分享

9. care v. 在乎,关心 10. total n. 总数 11. majority n. 大多数

12. survive v. 生存,活下来 13. adventure n. 冒险 14. scared adj. 吓坏的

15. admit v. 承认 16. while conj. 但是,而 17. boring adj. 令人厌烦的

18. except prep. 除??之外 19. quality n. 质量 20. favourite adj. 最喜爱的

☆重点短语☆

1. be fond of爱好 2. treat?as?把??看作为??

3. make friends with 与??交朋友 4. argue with sb. about / over sth. 与某人争论某事

5. hunt for寻找 6. in order to为了

7. share?with与??分享 8. bring in引进;赚钱

9. a great / good many许多? 10. have difficulty (in) doing做??有困难

11. end up with以??结束 12. except for除??之外

13. come about发生 14. make(a)fire生火

15. make yourself at home别拘束 16. the majority of大多数

17. drop sb. a line给某人写短信 18. for the first time第一次

19. at all根本;竟然 20. have a (good) knowledge of?精通??

☆短语闯关☆

下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语,请你根据汉语在横线上填人一个正确的词,每个词4分,80分才能过关,你一定能过关,做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我们就开始吧? l. be fond ____ 喜欢,爱好 of

2. hunt ____ 搜索。追寻,寻找 for

3. in to ____ 为了 order

4. care ____ 担心,关心 about

5. such ____ 例如,诸如 as

6. drop sb a ____ 给某人写信(通常指写短信) line

7. make oneself at ____ 别客气 home

8. ____ total 总共 in

9. except ____ 除了??之外 for

10. stay ____ 不睡,熬夜 up

11. ____ about 发生 come

12. end ____ with 以??告终 up

13. bring ____ 引进,引来 in

14. a great ____ 许许多多,极多 many

15. be ____ 对??深感兴趣,深深迷上?? into

16. ____ the Internet 上网 surf

17. ____ classes 逃学,逃课 skip

18. get ____ 聚会,相聚,聚集 together

19. be proud ____ 为??感到骄傲 of

20. keep an ____ on 照看,注意 eye

21. be curious ____ 对??感到好奇 about

22. shut ____ (使)住口 up

23. joke ____ 开玩笑 about

24. ____ the name of 以??名义 in

25. ____ the time 总是,一直 all

☆交际用语☆

1. I think…

I like / love / hate...

I enjoy...

My interests are...

2. Did you have a good flight?

You must be very tired.

Just make yourself at home.

I beg your pardon?

Can you tell me how to pronounce...?

Get it.

☆单词聚焦☆

1. argue v. 的用法

▲构词:argument n. 1. [C]争论 2. [U]讨论.辩论3. [C]论据

▲ 搭配:

① argue with / against sb. over / on / about sth. 与某人 争论某事

② argue for / against sth. 辩论赞成/反对某事

③ argue that... 主张,认为,争辩说

④ argue sb into / out of doing sth. 说服某人做/不做某事

▲友情提示:“说服某人做/不做某事”还可表达为:talk / persuade / reason sb. into / out of doing sth.

⑤ settle the argument 解决争端

▲友情提示:an argument with sb about / over sth. 为某事和某人而发生的争执

【考例】What laughing ____ we had about the socially respectable method for moving spaghetti (意大利式细面条) from plate to mouth. (2004全国卷I)

A. speeches B. lessons C. sayings D. arguments

[考查目标] argue名词形式的词义。

[答案与解析] D argument的词义是“争辩,辩论”。

2. compare v. 的用法

▲构词:comparison n. 比较

▲搭配:① compare...to... 比拟;比作 ② compare... with / to... 将??和??相比较 ③ compare notes 对笔记;交换意见

【考例】 ____ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. (2004湖北)

A. Compare B. When comparing

C. Comparing D. When compared

[考查目标] compare的用法。

[答案与解析] D 本句compare用在句首作状语,并有“被比较”的意思。

3. consider v. 的用法

▲构词:consideration n. 考虑,思考;体谅,顾及

▲搭配:① consider doing sth. 考虑做某事 ② consider sb (to be / as)... 认为/觉得某人??③ consider that- clause 认为?? ④ take sth into consideration 考虑 ⑤ under consideration 在考虑中

【考例】Charles Babbage is generally considered ____ the first computer. (NMET 1993)

A. to invent B. inventing

C. to have invented D. having invented

[考查目标] consider的几种常见用法。

[答案与解析] C consider本身是被动语态时,后接不定式的各种结构。如果表示已经发生的事情.用不定式的完成形式。

4. deserted adj. 空无一人的;被遗弃的;被抛弃的

(1) 空无一人的a deserted street / area空无一人的街道,地区;The office was quite deserted.办公室里空无一人。

(2) 被遗弃的 a deserted child 被遗弃的孩子

(3) desert ['dezot] n. 沙漠 desert [dI'zo:t] vt. 丢弃;遗弃

He deserted his wife and children after becoming rich.

5. difficulty n.

(1) difficulty (通常作复数) 难事,难点,难题She met with many difficulties when travelling.

(2) 在以下句型中,difficulty是不可数名词,不能用复数形式。

have (some) difficulty (in) doing sth. 干某事有困难

there is (some) difficulty (in) doing sth.

have (some) difficulty with sth.

在某事上有困难

there is (some) difficulty with sth.

do sth. with difficulty / without difficulty 困难地/轻而易举地做某事

We had a lot of difficulty in finding your house.

Do you have any difficulty with your English?

【注意】

(1) 以上句型中,difficulty前可加some, little, much, a lot of, no, any修饰

(2) 以上句型中,亦可用trouble来代替difficulty。

6. favourite = favorite (A. E) 最喜爱的;最喜爱的人或事物

(1) adj. 最喜爱的My favorite sport is playing football.

(2) n. [C] 最喜爱的人或事物He is a favorite with his uncle.

7. fun的用法

▲构词:funny adj. 有趣的.滑稽的,好笑的;奇特的,古怪的

▲搭配:

① make fun of 取笑;嘲弄;开某人的玩笑

② (just)for / in fun = (just) for the fun of it 取乐,非认真地,说/做着玩的

③ be full of fun?? 很好玩

④ have fun with sb. 和某人开一个玩笑

⑤ have (some) fun 玩得(很)高兴,玩得(很)开心

⑥ It's (great) fun to do sth干某事很有趣;干某事真是一件趣事;干某事真开心

⑦ What fun (it is) to do sth! 干某事多么有趣呀!

⑧ have a lot of fun doing sth 干某事玩得很开心

【考例】 (200上海春招) This is not a match. We're play- ing chess just for ____.

A. habit B. hobby C. fun D. game

[考查目标] fun构成的短语for fun的意思。

[答案与解析]C,for fun 常在句中用作状语,意思是“说/做着玩的”。

8. imagine的用法

▲构词:① imagination n. [C / U] 想像,想像力,想像的事物 ② imaginative adj. 富有想像力的

▲搭配:① imagine sth / doing sth ② beyond (all) imagination (完全)出乎意料地

【考例】 I can hardly imagine Peter ___across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. (MET 1991)

A. sail B. to sail C. sailing D. to have sailed

[考查目标] imagine的基本用法。

[答案与解析] C imagine后接动词的-ing形式,本句的Peter是这个动名词的逻辑主语。

9. interest的用法

interest vt. 使??感兴趣 n. 兴趣,爱好 [U] 利息;利润 He has a great interest in politics. 他对政治极感兴趣。/ a broad interest 广泛的利益 / a common interest 共同的利益 / a strong interest 极强的兴趣

▲构词:① interesting 令人感兴趣的(事物) ② interested (某人对某事)有兴趣的

▲搭配:① interest sb in sth 使某人注意,关心或参入某事;使某人对某事感兴趣 ② be interested in 对??感兴趣(关心) ③have an interest in sth. / in doing sth. 对某方面有兴趣 (关心);在??中有股份、权益等 ④ hold one's interest 吸引住某人的兴趣 ⑤ in the interest(s) of 为??利益;为??起见;对??有利 ⑥ lose interest in 对??不再感兴趣 ⑦ show / take (an) interest in / in doing sth. 对??表示关心(有兴趣) ⑧ have / take / feel no interest in 对??不 (不太) 感兴趣 ⑨ with interest 有兴趣地,津津有味地 ⑩develop / find / feel interest in sth. / in doing sth. 在某方面培养/有兴趣 ? lose interest in sth. / in doing sth. 对某方面失去兴趣

有时interest可与不定冠词连用。He developed an interest in science.

另外:interest作“爱好”解时,是可数名词。 His interests include reading and tennis.

【考例】____, they immediately suggested that she put them together to make a single one long story and paid Tracy a $50,000 advance. (2004全国卷 II)

A. Interested B. Anxiously

C. Seriously D. Encouraged

[考查目标] interest派生词的词义和用法。

[答案与解析] A interested指(出版商)对这件事有兴趣。

10. prove的用法

▲构词:① proof n. 证据。试验,考验,(印刷)校样

▲搭配:① prove sth to sb 向某人证实?? ② prove to sb that 从句向某人证实?? ③ prove (oneself) to be 证明(自己)是,表现出

【考例】It was in the neighboring country — United States that such resistance to spray was first ____. (05长春模拟)

A. proved B. killed C. thought D. discussed

[考查目标] 考查prove的意思。

[答案与解析] A 本题was proved的意思是“得到证实”,有被动意味。

11. provide的用法

▲构词:① provider n. 供给者,供应者,养家者 ② provided / providing conj. 倘若 ▲搭配:provide sb with sth / sth to sb 给??提供;以??装备

【考例】His son ____ the old man with all the food and the money he needed.

A. provided B. fed C. afforded D. charred

[答案与解析]A provide与with搭配,意思是“向某人提供某物”。

12. share的用法

▲搭配:① share (in) sth. with sth. 和某人分享、分担、共用某物 ② share sth (out) between / among... 将某物分配、分给?? ③ share joys / happiness and sorrows (with sb) (和某人) 同甘共苦 ④ share one's opinion 同意某人的意见

【考例】Let Harry play with your toys as well, Clare — you must learn to ____. (NMET 2000)

A. support B. care C. spare D. share

[考查目标] 此题主要考查在语境中选择动词的能力。

[答案与解析] D 四个选项的含义分别为:support 支持;care 在意,关心;spare 挤出(时间),匀出某物;share分享,分担,与某人合用。根据语境可知说话者是想让Clare学会与人共享——把玩具(拿出来)和Harry一起玩,share在此意为“合用玩具”,解此题的关键是信息play with your toys as well。故D为最佳答案。

13. solve的用法

▲构词:solution n. 1. [C] (问题的)解答;(困难的)解决方法 2. [U] 解答,解决 3. [U] 溶解 ▲搭配:the solution to 解决??的办法

【考例3】In the end, one suggestion seems to be the solution ____ the problem. (2001北京春招)

A. with B. into C. for D. to

[考查目标] solve名词solution的相关搭配。

[答案与解析] D “对于??的解决办法”,介词用to。

14. total n. / adj. 全部(的)

(1) in total 加起来In total, there must have been 20000 people there.

(2) a total of 总共His expenses (支出) reached a total of $100.

(3) the total of...??的总数 The total 0f the bill is 230 dollars.

15. when conj.

when并列连词,= and then,表示“就在那时,突然”,常见以下句型中:

(1) be doing...when...正在做??突然??I was wandering through the streets when l caught sight of a tailor's shop.

(2) had done...when...刚做了??突然??I had just sat down when the light went out.

(3) be about to do...when...刚要做??突然??I was just about to go swimming when our guide saw me and shouted at me.

16. while conj.

(1) while从属连词,引导时间状语从句,从句动词用延续性动词,主句的动作发生在从句动作发生的过程之中。Come on, get these things away while I make the tea.

(2) 并列连词,表前后两个分句意义相反或相对,意为“然而”。Some people waste food while others haven't enough.

(3) 放在句首,表示“尽管;虽然”,相当于although。While we don't agree, we continue to be friendly.

[牛刀小试1] 用所给单词的适当形式填空:

(compare,interest,fun,solve,argue,consider,share)

1. All the novels are considered ____ the young readers in the 1980s. (to have interested)

2. Bob thought it ____ to solve maths problems while others hated it. (fun)

3. The headmaster ignored the ____ between Mrs. Wang and his nephew. (argument)

4. We can't decide. The plan needs to be ____. (considered)

5. ____ with Class Two, ours has more boy students. (Compared)

6. I find a better way ____ this problem. (to solve)

7. Nearly half of the companies ____ the same opinion with the government. (share / shared)

【词语比较】

1. especially, specially

especially adv. 特殊地;尤其是

(1)侧重于多种事物或人中比较突出的。I like all the subjects at school, especially English. (尤其是英语)

(2) especially 后可接介词短语或从句。I like the Yuelu Mountains, especially in spring. (尤其是在春天) Noise is unpleasant, especially when you are trying to sleep.

specially 侧重特意地、专门地做某事 (后面常接for sb. 或to do sth.)

I made a chocolate cake specially for you.

2. boring, bored, bore

boring adj. 令人厌烦的 The book is very boring.

bored adj. 感到厌烦的 I'm bored with the book. bore vt. 令人厌烦 This book bores me. 有些表示情感的及物动词,有与bore类似的用法。如:interest, excite, surprise, amaze, frighten, astonish, move, inspire, touch, scar , disappoint, puzzle, worry 这类词的现在分词形式,为“令人??”;过去分词形式,为“感到??”。

3. except for, except, but, besides

表示“除了”的词或短语有:except; but; except for; besides; except that (when...) 等。

(1) except 和 but 都表示“除了??之外。没有”,二者大多数情况下可以互换;但在no, all, nobody, nothing, no one 等词后多用 but。No one knows our teacher's address except / but him. (排除him)

(2) besides 除??之外,还??,有附加性。What other foreign languages do you know besides English? (English与other languages都属于know的范围)

(3) except for 只不过??,整体肯定,部分修正,用于排除非同类事物,for表示细节上的修正。 Your article is well written except for a few spelling mistakes.

4. know, know of, know about

(1) know 用作动词,意思是“(直接地)获知,懂得,认识,熟悉”。I don't know whether he is here or not. / I know him to be honest.

(2) know of和know about的意思都是“(间接地)获知”,指听别人说到或从书报上看到,二者没有什么区别。

5. for example; such as

(1) for example“例如”,用来举例说明某一论点或情况。一般只举同类人或物中的“一个”为例,作插入语,可位于句首、句中或句末。可用for instance替换。For example, air is invisible. / His spelling is terrible! Look at this word, for example.

(2) such as “例如”,用来列举事物,一般列举同类人或事物中的几个例子。插在被列举的事物与前面的名词之间,as后面不可有逗号。Some of the European Languages come from Latin, such as French, Italian and Spanish.

[注意]如把前面所述情况全部举出,用that is或namely。

☆短语归纳☆

1. 含all的短语

1) first of all 首先 (强调顺序) 2) in all (=in total=altogether) 总共

3) after all 毕竟,终究 4) at all 到底,根本

5) above all 最重要的是 (强调重要性) 7) all the time 始终,一直

6) not (...) at all (= not (...) in the least) 根本不,一点也不

8) all of a sudden (=suddenly) 突然,冷不防 9) all right 行,可以

10) all at once 立刘,马上 11) all day and all night 日日夜夜

12) all over 遍及 13) all alone 独个儿,独立地

14) all but 几乎,差一点 15) all in all 总的说来

16) all together 一道,同时,总共 17) for all 尽管

[例句] I woke up and didn't hear him at all. 我醒了,一点儿也没有听到他说话。/ He had so many falls that he was black and blue all over. 他摔了很多跤,以至于浑身青一块紫一块的。/ You shouldn't scold her. After all, she is only five years old. 你不应该责怪他,毕竟,她只有五岁。/ Children need many things, but above all, they need love. 孩子需要许多东西,最重要的是,需要爱。/ You must have known it all the time. 你一定一直知道这事。

【考例】 People may have different opinions about Karen, but I admire her. ____, she is a great musician. (2004甘肃、青海)

A. After all B. As a result C. In other words D. As usual

[答案与解析] A after all意为“毕竟.终究”;as a result意为“结果”;in other words意为“换句话说”;as usual意为“像往常一样”。本句意思是:虽然人们对她看法不一。但我还是佩服她。因为她毕竟是一个伟大的音乐家。

【考例】I'd like to buy a house -- modern, comfortable, and ____ in a quiet neighborhood. (2004福建)

A. in all B. above all C. after all D. at all

[答案与解析] B in all意为“总共”;above all意为“最重要的是”; after all 意为“毕竟”;at all 意为“到底”。本句话意思是:我想买一个房子,现代的、舒服的,但最重要的是在一个安静的地区。

2. at all

(1)用在肯定句中,“竟然” I'm surprised that you came at all.

(2)用在否定句中,“一点也不” There was nothing to worry about at all.

(3)用在疑问句中,“到底”“究竟” Have you been there at all?

(4)用在条件句中,“真的,确实” If you do it at all, do it well.

3. 含“be + 形容词 + 介词”的短语

1) be good at 擅长于 2) be interested in 对??感兴趣

3) be pleased / satisfied / content with 对??满意 4) be famous for 因??而出名

5) be kind / good to 对??好 6) be lost in 沉湎于

7) be active in 在某方面积极 8) be sure about / of 确信

9) be afraid of 害怕 10) be full of 充满

11) be filled with 充满 12) be made of / from 由??组成

13) be generous to 对??慷慨 14) be popular with 受欢迎

15) be confident of 确信 16) be fond of 喜欢,喜爱

17) be angry with / at 对??发脾气 18) be late for 迟到

19) be amazed / surprised / astonished / shocked at 对??感到惊讶

20) be busy doing 忙着做?? 21) be excited about 对??感到兴奋

22) be worried about 担心 23) be used for / as 用于

24) be curious about 对??好奇

[例句] Lin Lin is confident of his ability to get work for himself. 林林确信自己有能力做这活。He was generous to everybody with money, as a result, he saved little. 他对谁花钱都很慷慨,结果没有攒到多少钱。She is very active in helping the poor. 在帮助穷人方面,她很热心。Pop music is popular with the young generation. 流行歌曲受年轻一代的欢迎。Lost in thought, he didn't realize that I came in. 他陷入思考之中,没有意识到我进来了。I was amazed at the sight so that I didn't know what to do. 看到这一幕我非常惊讶,不知道该做什么。Students in Senior 3 are busy preparing for the coming final exam. 高三学生在忙于准备即将到来的期末考试。

【考例l】(2005重庆)

-- You know, Bob is a little slow ____ understanding, so...

-- So I have to be patient ____ him.

A. in; with B. on; with C. in; to D. at; for

[考查目标] 同定搭配中介词的选择。

[答案与解析] A be slow in 意为“在??方面反应迟钝”,be patient with 意为“对??有耐心”。

4. end up with...以??结束

(1) end up with + n. 以??结束

The party ended up with the singing of Auld Lang Syne.

(2) end up as...最后成为?He will end up as a president some day.

(3) end up + 地点状语最后(有??结局) If you drive your car like that, you'll end (up) in hospital.

5. “make + 名词” 短语

① make a noise 吵闹 ② make faces 做鬼脸,做苦脸

③ make room for 给??腾出地方 ④ make the bed 整理床铺

⑤ make phone calls 打电话 ⑥ make friends with 交朋友

⑦ make money 赚钱 ⑧ make use of 利用

⑨ make a decision 做出决定 ⑩ make a mistake 犯错误

[例句] The boy made a face at his teacher when she turned her back. 老师转身时,男孩朝老师做了个鬼脸。

Working in the kitchen made the boy into a good cook. 在厨房里干活使男孩成为一位优秀厨师。

They were moved out to a nearby hotel, to make room for more important persons. 为了给更重要的人物腾出

地方,他们被搬到了附近的一家旅店。

【考例】 The idea puzzled me so much that I stopped for a few seconds to try to ____. (2003北京春招)

A. make it out B. make it off

C. make it up D. make it over

[考查目标] 主要考查make短语。

[答案与解析] A make out意为“领悟、弄明白、发现真相” make off 意为“连忙跑掉”;make up 意为“弥补、打扮、组成”;make over 意为“转让、改造”。因为受到迷惑,所以应该是试图发现真相。

【考例】

-- When shall we start?

-- Let's ____ it at 8:30. Is that all right? (2002北京)

A. set B. meet C. make D. take

[考查目标] 此题主要考查 make 短语。

[答案与解析] C make it“规定时间”为固定短语。本句话意思是“把出发的时间定在8点半”。set意思是“对时间”、“调时间”。

6. make fire点火

有以下fire (n.) 短语: be on fire 着火了(表示状态) / catch fire 燃着;着火(表示动作) / play with fire 玩火;干冒险的事 / Set sth. on fire = set fire to sth. 放火烧?? / make (a) fire 点火;生火 / start (cause) a fire引起火灾

[注意] fire作“火灾”“一堆火”解时,为可数名词。

7. a great / good many许多

(1) a great / good many + 名词复数,中间无“of”。A great many people have seen the film.

(2) a great / good many + of + the / these / those / one's + 名词复数 A great many of the people have seen the film.

8. make yourself at home 别拘束

(1) make yourself at home 别拘束(主人对客人说的委婉语) -- Good evening, Jim. -- Good evening, Mary. Come in and make yourself at home.

(2) (all) by oneself 独自(没有别人帮助) You can't possibly do it all by yourself.

(3) enjoy oneself = have a good time 玩得高兴 Please enjoy yourself while you're spending your holiday in Hawaii.

(4) for oneself 亲自; 为自己The student wants to think it for himself. / One should not live for oneself alone.

(5) of oneself 自动地The door closed of itself suddenly.

(6) be oneself 身体或情绪好 I am not myself today.

(7) help oneself to + n. / pron. 随便?? Please help yourself to the fish.

(8) in oneself 本身 This is not a bad idea in itself.

(9) come to oneself 苏醒The injured man came to him- self in five minutes.

(10) between ourselves 私下说的话 All this is between ourselves.

9. the majority of... 大多数的??

(1) a / the majority of + 名词复数,作主语时,谓语动词多用复数。the majority 单独作主语,谓语动词用单数或复数形式均可。The majority of people seem to prefer watching games to playing games./ The majority were (was) in favour of the proposal.

(2) by a majority of + 数字,以超过??票的多数She won the election by a majority of 900 votes.

10. treat ? as ? 把?看做? The kind lady treated me as her own daughter.

【比较】 表示“认为”的短语还有:

regard…as… consider…(as)… think of…as…

look on / upon…as… take…for…

[注意] 在consider?as?短语中as可省略,其他短语中不可。

[牛刀小试2]

1. If you are ____ about Australian cities, just read the book written by Dr. Johnson.

A. interested B. anxious C. upset D. curious

2. Her son, ____ whom she was so ____, went abroad 10 years ago.

A. of; loved B. for; cared

C. to; devoted D. on; affected

3. In order to continue to learn by ourselves when we have left school, we must ____ learn how to study in the school now.

A. in all B. after all C. above all D. at all

4. -- I am sorry I didn't do a good job.

-- Never mind. ____, you have tried your best.

A. Above all B. In all

C. At all D. After all

5. Since we can't find a bigger apartment, we'll have to ____ what we have.

A. hope for the best B. make room for

C. make the best of D. lay our hope on

(DCCDC)

【句型归纳】

1. I don't enjoy singing, nor do I like computers. 我不喜欢唱歌,也不喜欢电脑。/ Rock music is OK, and so is skiing. 摇滚音乐还可以,滑雪也行。

这两句中nor与so用于倒装结构。例如:I don't know, nor do I care. 我不知道,也不关心。so的常见句型有:

(1) so + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语 (意为“主语也 ??” )

(2) neither / nor + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 + 主语(意为“主语也不??” )

(3) so it is / was with sb / sth和so it is / was the same with sb / sth (意为“主语也??” ) (用在前文有两个或以上的从句,而且分句有不同的谓语或既有肯定又有否定以及既有系动词义有行为动词的情况)

(4) so + 主语 + be / 助动词 / 情态动词 (意为“主讲确实如此”),表示进一步肯定。

(5) 主语 + did + so (意为“主语按照吩咐做了”)。

【考例】 Mary never does any reading in the evening, ____. (2005全国 III)

A. so does John B. John does too

C. John doesn't too D. nor does John

[考查目标] nor表示“也不”引导的倒装结构。

[答案与解析] D 由never可以判断该句为否定句。空格处句意为“约翰也没读书”。nor, so, neither可引起倒装句。

2. Chuck is a businessman who is always so busy that he has little time for his friends. 查克是个生意人,他总是那么忙,几乎没有时间和朋友在一起。

该句中so...that... 和such...that... 都能连接结果状讲从句,但要注意词序不同。例如:Joan is such a lonely girl that all of us like her. = She is so lovely a girl that we all like her.

常见句型:

(1) such + a / an + 形容词 + 单数可数名词 + that clause

(2) such + 形容词 + 复数可数名词 + that clause

(3) such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that clause

(4) so + 形容词 + a / an + 单数可数名词 + that clause

(5) so + 形容词 / 副词 + that clause

(6) so + many / few + 复数可数名词 + that clause

(7) so + much / little + 不可数名词 + that clause

注意:① 当little不表示数量“少”而表示“小”的意思时,仍然 要用such。② 当so + adj. / adv. 或 such + n. 位于句首时,主句需要倒装。

【考例】 So difficult ____ it to live in an English-speaking country that I determined to learn English. (2001上海)

A. I have felt B. have I felt

C. I did feel D. did I feel

[考查目标] so + adj. 位于句首时,主句倒装。

[答案与解析] D A、C语序不对,排除。B时态不对。

3. One day Chuck is on a flight across the Pacific Ocean when suddenly his plane crashes. 一天,查克在飞越太平洋时.他的飞机突然坠毁了。

该句中的“when”表示“正在这时”,相当于and just或and at that time. 这时不能用while / as 替换。

常见句型:(1) be about to do sth when... (2) be doing sth when... (3) be on the point of doing sth when...

【考例】We were swimming in the lake ____ suddenly the storm started. (2004北京春招)

A. when B. while C. until D. before

[考查目标] "when" 作连词,表示“正在这时”。

[答案与解析] A 意为“我正在湖中游泳,突然暴风雨来了。”只有when才能用于这种句型。

4. He has to learn how to collect water, hunt for food, and make fire. 他不得不学会收集淡水.寻找食物,生火什么的。

该句中的“how I to collect...”为动词不定式短语作宾语。例如:We must decide which one to buy. 疑问词which, what, how, when, where等与小定式构成不定式短语。

【考例】 I've worked with children before, so I knew what ____ in my new job. (NMET 2000)

A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects

[考查目标] what to do sth 不定式短语作宾语。

[答案与解析] B 该句需要填非谓语动词。排除A、D。句意为“以前我与孩子在一块儿工作过。因此我知道我的新工作需要什么。”C不表示进行,排除C。

5. In order to survive, Chuck developed a friendship with an unusual friend — a volleyball he called Wilson. 为了生存下去,查克和一位不寻常的朋友--“排球”建立了友谊,查克叫他威尔森。

1. 该句中的"in order to",意思为“为了,以便”,作目的 状语。在句子中作同的状语的常见句型有五种结构:to do sth / in order to do sth / so as to do sth / in order that clause / so that clause

注意:(1) so as to do sth 不能位于句首。(2) 如果主句与从句的主语一致时,四个结构可以相互转换。(3) 在in order that / so that 引导的从句中,谓语动词常与can, could, may, might 等情态动词连用。

【考例】(2005北京) I'd like to arrive 20 minutes early ____ I can have time for a cup of tea.

A. as soon as B. as a result C. in case D. so that

[考查目标] 目的状语。

[答案与解析]D as soon as “一?就?”;as a result“结果是”;in case “万一”;so that“以便,为的是”。句意:“我想提前二十分钟到以便有时间喝杯茶”。

2. 该句子中 volleyball 是作同位语。例如:He advised farmers to choose the best seed-heads, the ones that had the best color.

注意:这种同位语(不是同位语从句)与非限制性定语从句的区别。

【考例】(NMET 2002) Meeting my uncle after these years was an unforgotten moment, ____ I will always treasure.

A. that B. one C. it D. what

[考查目标] one作同位语,指代a moment。

[答案与解析] B that不能引导非限制性定语从句,排除A;if不能作同位语,排除C;what既不能引导非限制定语从句,也不能作同位语。可以填which,这样就成了非限制性定语从句。

6. For a long time the language in America stayed the same, while the language in England changed. 长期以来,美国英语保持不变,但英国英语变化了。

1. 该句中的“while"用作并列连词.表示前后对比,意为 “然而”。“while"充当连词,还能引导时间状语从句。意为“during the time that?”;引导让步状语从句,意 为“although?”。

2. 该句中的 "stay" 为系动词。后接表语 (the same)。 除了stay外,常见的系动词还有: become, get, turn, grow, go, come, run, fall, keep, stay, remain。

【考例】(NMET 2003) Why don't you put the meat in the fridge? It will ____ fresh for several days.

A. be stayed B. stay C. be staying D. have stayed

[考查目标] 系动词的用法。

[答案与解析] B 系动词没有被动语态,一般不用进行

时态,排除A、C;句意不是表示完成,排除D。系动词表示状态。

7. for the first time 第一次

(1) for the first time 第一次,后面不加从句,在句中作状语 They came to Beijing for the first time.

(2) the first time 名词短语,在从句中充当连词,后接时间状语从句,不接that,when等连词。有同样用法的短语还有:every time; next time; the last time

They liked Beijing the first time they went there.

(3) It's / This is the first time that + 从句(用现在完成时)这是??的第一次 It's the first time that I have ever been abroad at all.

8. What is it that...? 是什么???

强调句的用法:

(1) 结构:It is / It was (过去时间) + 被强调部分 + that / who (专指人) + 其他部分

(2) 用法:除了谓语动词不能强调,句子的每部分均可强调。 Jim met the student in the street last week.

主语 宾语 地点状语 时间状语

强调主语:It was Jim who / that met the student in the street last week.

强调宾语:It was the student whom / that Jim met in the street last week.

强调地点状语:It was in the street that Jim met the student last week.

强调时间状语:It was last week that Jim met the student in the street.

(3) 注意点:

一般疑问句的强调句:

Was it Dr Wang who spoke to you just now?

特殊疑问句的强凋句:

Who is it that will visit our class? Where is it that he has gone?

When was it that she went?

not ? until ? 用于强调句:

It was not until then that I realized I was wrong.

[牛刀小试3]

1. -- I would never ever come to this restaurant again. The food is terrible! -- ____. (2004广西)

A. Nor am I B. Neither would I C. Same with me D. So do I

2. We can't imagine ____ little mice can eat up ____ many crops every year.

A. so; so B. such; so C. such; such D. so; so

3. Jasmine was holidaying with her family in a wildlife park ____ she was bitten on the leg by a lion.

A. when B. while C. since D. once

4. It is said in Australia there is more land than the govern- ment knows ____. (NMET 2002)

A. it what to do with B. what to do it with

C. what to do with it D. to do what with it

5. Roses need special care ___they can live through winter.

(2004 天津)

A. because B. so that C. even if D. as

(BBACB)

【交际速成】

1. Talking about likes and dislikes. 谈论喜欢和不喜欢

-- I enjoy Chinese food very much. -- ____. (03东北三校)

A. Please taste quickly B. Have more, please

C. Help yourself D. Eat slowly while it is hot

[答案与解析]C本题主要考查具体语境下“对事物喜好”的表达及应答。A项不礼貌,B、D两项属汉语习惯,C项符合此时英语语境。

【归纳】英语中常见表达喜欢和不喜欢态度的用语有:

(1) This book is very interesting.

(2) I like / love the movie (very much).

(3)I like / love to play computer games.

(4) I like taking photos.

(5) I enjoy listening to music.

(6) I'm interested in science. My hobbies / interests are...

(7) He is fond of music.

(8) This song is bad / awful.

(9) I don't like the movie very much / at all.

(10)I don't enjoy collecting stamps.

(11)I hate to do homework. I hate dancing,

(12)I'm not into classic music.

(13)I think that classic music is terrible / boring.

2. Making apologies 道歉

-- I'm sorry I'm calling you so late. -- ____ Okay.

(2003北京春招)

A. This is B. You're C. That's D. I'm

[答案与解析] C 本题主要考查英语中道歉及应答用语。A、B、D三项不符合交际英语的习惯,故C项正确。

【归纳】英语中常见道歉用语有:

(1) I'm very sorry. I didn't mean to (hurt your feelings).

(2) I'm terribly sorry about that.

(3) I'm afraid I've brought you too much trouble.

(4) Please excuse me coming late.

(5) Please forgive me.

(6) Excuse me, please.

(7) I beg your pardon.

应答表达有:

(1) That's / It's all right.

(2) That's / It's OK.

(3) Never mind.

(4) It doesn't matter.

(5) It's nothing.

(6) Forget it.

(7) Don't worry about that.

(8) Don't mention it.

3. Talking about language difficulties in communication 谈论语言交际困难

-- I'm sorry. I can't catch you. ____

-- OK, it's B—L—A—C—K.

A. Would you please walk slowly?

B. I don't understand you.

C. What's the meaning of this word?

D. Would you please repeat it more slowly?

[答案与解析] D本题主要考查语言交际困难的功能意念。catch 在整个语境中是“听见,听清”的意思,A项错误理解了catch 在此处的意思,B、C两项语义不连贯, 故正确答案是D。

【归纳】英语中常见的谈论语言交际困难的用语有:

(1) Pardon? / I beg your pardon.

(2) Sorry, I can't follow you.

(3) Can you speak more slowly, please?

(4 )How do you say...in English.'?

(5) I don't know how to say that in English.

(6) I don't know the word in English.

(7) How do you spell it, please?

(8) I'm sorry I only know a little English.

(9) Could you repeat that, please? Could you say that

again, please?

(10) What do you mean by killing time?

[牛刀小试4]

1. -- ____ I didn't hear you clearly. It's too noisy here.

-- I was saying that the party was great.

A. Repeat. B. Once again.

C. Sorry? D. So what?

2. -- Do you like a house with no garden?

-- ____. But anyhow, it's better to have one than none.

A. Not a bit B. Not a little

C. Not really D. Not specially

3. -- I'm sorry for stepping on your foot? -- ____.

A. It's OK B. You are welcome

C. It's your fault D. Never you mind

4. -- What you said at the meeting hurt me badly!

-- Sorry. But ____.

A. I didn't mean it B. I didn't mean to

C. I don't mean it D. I don't mean to

5. -- You seem to show interest in cooking.

-- ____? On the contrary, I'm tired of it.

A. Really B. Pardon C. OK D. What

(CCABD)

【精典题例】

1. -- David has made great progress recently.

-- ____, and ____.

A. So he has; so have you B. So has he; so have you

C. So he has; so you have D. So has he; so you have

【解析】选A 答句中的he指David,不倒装。“So have you” 意为“你也一样(取得了进步)”。

2. Little ____ what others think.

A. does he care about B. care he about

C. about he eared D. about cared he

【解析】选A little为否定副词,置于句首时,句子使用部分倒装。

3. At school, what he enjoys ____ football.

A. playing B. to play C. is playing D. played

【解析】选C what he enjoys为主语从句,谓语动词为be,表语为playing football。不要误以为playing是enjoy的宾语而误选A。

4. At the ____news, all the women present burst out crying.

A. unexpecting B. disappointing

C. disappointed D. interesting

【解析】选B联系语境,所有在场的妇女都哭了,因此为disappointing"令人失望的(消息)”。

5. He was about to tell me the secret ____ someone patted him on the shoulder.

A. as B. until C. while D. when

【解析】选D "when"表示“就在这时,突然”。

6. The wolf said in a ____ voice and the scholar felt ____.

A. frightening; frightened B. frightened; frightened

C. frightened; frightening D. frightening; frightening

【解析】选A frightening“令人害怕”;frightened“感

到害怕”。

7. In our ____ life, English is ____ used.

A. everyday; wide B. everyday; widely

C. every day; wide D. every day; widely

【解析】选B everyday“日常的,每天的”;widely“广泛地”。

8. -- Hello, Mary. I've got a girlfriend. -- What's she like?

-- ____.

A. I don't know B. She's like her mother, not father

C. She likes music D. Not had! Quite pretty

【解析】选D表外表给人的印象。

9. The fire ____ for half an hour before the fire fighters arrived.

A. had put out B. was put out

C. had been out D. had broken out

【解析】选C be out"火熄灭”,表示状态。

10. It has been suggested that the land ____ equally among the peasants.

A. be shared B. should be spared

C. saved D. be spent

【解析】选A suggest后用虚拟语气。be shared前可

省略should。

11. She took ____ in physics and read ____ on the subject.

A. interest; as books many as she could

B. an interest; as many books as she could

C. interested; as many books as she can

D. interests; as books as she could

【解析】选B根据短语搭配和时态一致可知。

12. -- How's the young man? -- ____.

A. He's twenty B. He's a doctor

C. He is much better D. He's David

【解析】选C how is sb. “某人身体如何”。

13. Let Harry play with your toys as well. Clare, you must learn to ____.

A. support B. care C. spare D. share

【解析】选D share“分享”;support“支持”;care“在意”;spare“抽出(时间)。节余”。

14. The new dress looks wonderful on you ____ the collar.

A. besides B. except C. beside D. except for

【解析】选D“美中不足的是领子”,表示部分修正。

15. -- What about your classmate, Susan?

-- Our teacher ____ her a good and clever student.

A. regards B. believes C. suggests D. considers

【解析】选D consider as?“认为??是??”,as可省略。



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