初二上【下】册英语语法知识点总结(65200字)

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新目标八年级(上)英语复习提纲

Unit 1: How often do you exercise?

【语言目标】

What do you usually do on weekends? I sometimes go to the beach

How often do you eat vegetables? Every day. Most students do homework every day.

【应掌握的词组】

1. go to the movies 去看电影 2. look after = take care of 照顾

3. surf the internet 上网 4. healthy lifestyle 健康的生活方式

5. go skate boarding 去划板 6. keep healthy=stay healthy 保持健康

7. exercise=take(much)exercise=do sports锻炼 8. eating habits 饮食习惯

9. take more exercise 做更多的运动 10. the same as 与什么相同

11. be different from 不同 12. once a month一月一次

13. twice a week一周两次 14. make a difference to 对什么有影响

15. how often 多久一次 16. although = though虽然

17. most of the students=most students 18. shop=go shopping=do some shopping 购物

19. as for至于 20. activity survey活动调查

21. do homework做家庭作业 22. do house work做家务事

23. eat less meat吃更少的肉 24. junk food垃圾食物

25. be good for 对什么有益 26. be bad for对什么有害

27. want to do sth 想做某事 28. want sb to do sth想某人做某事

29. try to do sth 尽量做某事 30. come home from school放学回家

31. of course = certainly = sure当然 32. get good grades取得好成绩

33. some advice 34. hardly=not nearly / almost not几乎不

35. keep/be in good health保持健康 36.be stressed紧张的,有压力的

37. take a vacation 去度假 48.get back 回来

【应掌握的句子】

1. How often do you exercise? 你(你们)多久锻炼一次身体?

How often + 助动词do(does或did) + 主语 + do sth.? 疑问词how often是问频率(多久一次),(在这里助动

词do(does或did) 是起帮助构成疑问的作用)与一般现在时或一般过去时连用,回答一般是用表示频率的副

,如:once, twice, three times?, sometimes, often, quite, often, never, every day, once a week ,

twice a month , three times a month , three or four times a month 等。

2. ―What do you usually do on weekends?‖ ― I usually play soccer.‖

“周末你通常做什么?”“我通常踢足球。”

第一个do为助动词, 在这起帮助构成疑问的作用;而第二个do则是实义动词。

3. “What’s your favorite program?” “It’s Animal World.” “你最喜欢什么节目?”“动物世界。”

4. As for homework , most students do homework every day .

as for...意思是“至于;关于”,常用于句首作状语,其后跟名词、代词或动词的-ing形式(即动名词)。

5. Mom wants me to get up at 6:00 and play ping-pong with her .

want to do sth. 意思是“想要做某事”;

want sb. to do sth.意思是“想要某人做某事”。

6. She says it‘s good for my health.

be good for...表示“对??有益(有好处)”;其反义为:be bad for...。(这里for 是介词,后跟名词、代词或动

名词)

7. How many hours do you sleep every night?

8. I exercise every day , usually when I come home from school .

9. My eating habits are pretty good . pretty相当于very 。

10. I try to eat a lot of vegetables , usually ten to eleven times a week .

try to do sth.表示“ 尽力做某事 ” ,不包含是否成功的意思而try doing sth.表示“(用某一办法)试着去做某事”。

11. My healthy lifestyle helps me get good grades.

help sb.(to) do sth.帮助某人做某事

12. Good food and exercise help me to study better.

better是well的比较级,而不是good的比较级

13. Is her lifestyle the same as yours or different? =Is her lifestyle the same as your lifestyle

or is her lifestyle different from yours? be the same as … / be different from …

14. What sports do you play ?

15. A lot of vegetables help you to keep in good health .

keep in good health = keep healthy = stay healthy

16. You must try to eat less meat .

try to do sth.表示“ 尽力做某事 ” ,不包含是否成功的意思,less是little的比较级

17. That sounds interesting.

这是“主语+系动词+表语”结构的简单句。sound(听起来),look(看起来),smell

(闻起来),taste(尝起来),feel(觉得),seem(好象),grow(变得),get

(变得)等词在英语中可用作系动词,后跟形容词作表语。

Unit 2 What‘s the matter?

【语言目标】

What‘s the matter? I have a headache.

You should drink some tea. The sounds like a good idea.

I have a sore back. That‘s too bad . I hope you feel better soon.

【应掌握的词组】

1. Have a cold 感冒 2. sore back 背痛 3. neck and neck 并驾齐驱,齐头并进

4. I have a stomachache 我胃痛 = I have got a stomachache = There is something wrong with my stomach = My stomach hurts = I have (got) a pain in my stomach

5. What’s the matter? 怎么了? = What‘s the trouble (with you)? = What‘s your trouble?

= What‘s wrong (with you)? = What‘ the matter (with you)? =What has happened to you?

= Is there anything wrong (with you)? = what‘s up?

6. sore throat 咽喉痛 7. lie down and rest 躺下休息

8. see a dentist 看牙医 9. drink lots of water 多喝水

10. hot tea with honey 加蜂蜜的热茶 11.That’s a good idea 好主意

12.That’s too bad 太糟糕了 13.I think so 我认为如此

14. I’m not feeling well. 我觉得不太舒服 = I‘m not feeling fine/all right.

= I‘m feeling ill/sick. =I feel terrible/bad. = I don‘t feel well.

15. get some rest 多休息 16. I have no idea = I don’t know 我不知道

17. stressed out 筋疲力尽 18. I am tired 我累了 He is tired. 他累了

19. a healthy lifestyle健康的生活方式 20. traditional Chinese doctors传统中医

21. a balance of yin and yang阴阳调和 22. you have too much yin.你阴气太盛

23. to eat a balance diet饮食平衡 24. healthy food 健康食品

25. stay healthy 保持健康 = keep healthy = keep in good health = keep fit

26. enjoy oneself (myself, yourself, herself, himself, themselves, ourselves, itself

反身代词) 玩得高兴,过得愉快

=have a good time = have a wonderful time = have fun

27. enjoy sth. =like sth. (名词)喜欢某物, enjoy doing sth.喜欢做某事=like dong sth practice doing sth.练习做某事, mind doing sth. 介意做某事, finish doing sth.完成某事, give up doing sth.放弃做某事, can’t help doing sth.忍不住做某事,

keep ding sth. 坚持做某事. (keep on doing sth. / keep sb. doing sth. )

be busy doing sth. 忙着做某事 be used to doing sth.习惯于做某事

make a contribution to doing sth.为..做贡献 go on doing sth. 继续做某事

forget doing sth.忘记做某事 remember doing sth. 记得做某事

spend....(in) doing sth. 花(时间)来做某事

prefer doing sth.to doing sth.比起(做...)来更愿意(做...)

28. at the moment = now 此刻 29. Host family 东道家庭

30. Conversation practice会话练习 31. I’m sorry to hear that.听到此事我很难过

【应掌握的句子】

1. What’s the matter? I have a bad cold.

2.Maybe you should see a dentist.

3.I hope you feel better soon.

4.Traditional Chinese doctors believe we need a balance of yin and yang to be healthy.

5.Eating Dangshen and Huangqi herbs is also good for this. 6.People who are too stressed out and angry may have too much yang.

7.It’s easy to have a healthy lifestyle, and it’s important to eat a balanced diet.

8.When you are tired, you shouldn’t go out at night.

9.I believe him, but I can’t believe in him.

10.I am not feeling very well at the moment.

I‘m tired and I have a lot of headaches.

11.I’m stressed out because my Mandarin isn’t improving.

12.I practice playing the piano every day.

13.She had finished writing the letter when I went in.

14.The doctor asked him to give up smoking.

15.Do you mind closing the window?

16.Mary couldn’t help laughing at his jokes.

17.They kept working though it was raining.

Unit 3 What are you doing for vacation?

【语言目标】

What are you doing for vacation? I‘m spending time with my friends.

When are you going? I‘m going next week.

How long are you staying? We‘re staying for two weeks.

【应掌握的词组】

1. babysit one’s sister 照顾妹妹 2. visit one’s grandmother 看望奶奶

3. spend time with friends 和朋友们一起度过时光 4. visit cousins 看望表弟等

5. go to sports camp 去运动野营 6. o to the beach 去海滩

7. go camping 去野营 8. Go shopping 去买东西

9. go swimming 去游泳 10. go boating去划船

11. go skating 去溜冰 12. go walking去散步

13. go climbing 去登山 14. go dancing去跳舞

15. go hiking 去徒步远足 16. go sightseeing 去观光

17. go house-hunting 去找房子

18. o on a hike 徒步旅行, go bike riding 骑自行车旅行, go fishing 去钓鱼

19. do some shopping 买东西 20. do some washing 洗衣服

21. do some cooking 作饭 22. do some reading 读书

23. do some speaking训练口语 24. do some sewing 做缝纫活

25. that sounds nice 那好极了 26. at home 在家

27. how about=what about ??怎么样? 28. how long 多长时间

29. how far 多远 30. how often 多长时间一次

31. how much, how many 多少

32. have a good time =have fun= have a wonderful time= enjoy oneself 玩得高兴,过得愉快

33. show sb. Sth.=show sth. to sb.出示某物给某人看

give me the book=give the book to me 给我书,

pass me the cup=pass the cup to me 把杯子递给我,

sell me the house=sell the house to me 把房子卖给我

buy me a book =buy a book for me 给我买书,

make me a cake = make a cake for me给我做蛋糕

34. get back=come back回来 35. rent videos租借影碟

36. take walks=go for a walk散步 37. think about 考虑

38. decide on= decide upon决定一个计划 39. something different 不同的事情

40.a great vacation 一个愉快的假期 41. I can’t wait 我等不及了

42. the famous movie star 著名的影星 43. an exciting vacation 激动人心的假期

44. Ask her about her plans 向她询问她的计划 ask sb. about sth.向某人询问某事

45. forget to do sth. 忘记要做某事 forget doing sth. 忘记做过某事

【应该掌握的句子】

1.What are you doing for vacation? I’m babysitting my sister.

2.Who are you going with? I’m going with my parents.

3.When is he going camping? He is going on the 12th of February, 2005.

4.I’m going to Tibet for a week.

5.What are you doing there? I’m going hiking in the mountains.

6.Show me your photos when we get back to school.

7.Where are you going for vacation? I’m going to Hawaii for vacation.

8.What is it like there?

11. He thought about going to Greece or Spain, but decided on Canada.

12. He is leaving the first week in June and staying until September.

13. Please don‘t forget to close the door when you leave.

14.She couldn’t wait to get home to see he parents.

Unit 4 How do you get to school?

【语言目标】

How do you get to school? I take the bus.

How long does it take? It takes 20 minutes.

How far is it? It‘s 10 miles.

【应掌握的词组】

1. get to school 到校 2. get home 到家

3. how about=what about ??.怎么样? 4. take the subway 乘地铁

5. ride a bike 骑自行车 6. take the bus乘公共汽车

7. take the train乘火车 8. take a taxi乘坐出租车

9. go in a parent’s car 坐父母的车

10. by bike, bike bus, by subway, by taxi, by car, by train (乘坐??车,放在句尾)

11. have a quick breakfast 迅速吃早饭 12. the early bus 早班车

13. how far多远 14. take sb. to sp.带某人到某处

15. doing sth. takes sb. Some time/ money

=It takes sb. some time/money to do sth.=sb. spends some time/money (on sth.)

=sb. spends some time/money (in) doing sth.=sth. costs sb. some time/money

=sb. pay some money for sth.花费某人多少时间/金钱做某事/某人花费多少金钱/时间做某事

16. bus stop公共汽车站 ,train station火车站, subway station地铁站, bus station客运站

17. want to do sth.想做某事 18. walk to school 步行上学

19. in North America 在北美 20. in other parts of the world 在世界的其他地区

21. depend on=depend upon 依靠,靠??决定 22. not all 不是所有的

23. need to do sth.需要做某事 24. number of students学生数

25. a number of=many 许多 number前可用large, great, small修饰其谓语是复数

26. the number of?.的数量,谓语是单数

27. don’t worry(about sth./sb.)别着急(为某人/事担心

28. around the world= all over the world世界各地,全世界

【应掌握的句子】

1. How do you get to school? I walk to school.你是怎样到校的?我步行。

2. How about the white shirt? 这件白衬衫怎么样?

3. I usually walk but sometimes I take the bus.我通常步行,但有时坐公共汽车。

4. How long does it take you to get to school? It takes about 10 minutes to walk and 15 minutes by bus.你需要多长时间到校?步行大约10分钟,乘汽车15分钟。

5. How far is it from his home to school? About 10 kilometers. 从他家到学校有多远?大约10公里。

6. Lin Fei’s home is about 10 kilometers from school.林飞的家离学校大约10公里

7. He leaves for school at around six-thirty. 他大约在6点30分动身去学校。

8. Then the early bus takes him to school.然后,他乘坐早班车到学校。

9. Thomas wants to know where Nina lives.托马斯想要知道尼娜住在哪里。

10. In Japan, most students take trains to school, although others also walk or ride their bikes.

在日本,大部分学生乘坐火车上学,尽管其他人也步行或骑自行车。

11. A small number of students take the subway to school. 小部分学生乘坐地铁上学

12. What do you think of the transportation in your town? 你对你们镇的交通认为怎么样?

13. She is dead but her memory still lives on.她虽然死了,但人们仍然怀念她。

Unit 5 Can you come to my party?

【语言目标】

Can you come to my birthday party? Yes, I‘d love to. /Sorry, I can‘t .I have to study for a test.I‘m sorry. I‘m playing soccer on Saturday.

When is the party? It‘s at seven-thirty.

【应掌握的词组】

1. come to one’s party 参加某人的聚会 2. on Saturday afternoon 在星期六的下午

3. I’d love to 我非常乐意 4. I’m sorry 对不起

5. study for a test为测验而学习 6. go to the doctor 去看医生

7. visit one’s aunt 看望某人的姑姑 8. have a piano lesson 上一堂钢琴课

10. too much homework 太多家庭作业 11. much too interesting 有趣得多

12. maybe another time 也许下一次吧 13.Thanks for asking(inviting)谢谢邀请

14. go to the baseball game 参加棒球比赛 15. Birthday Party 生日聚会

16. go to the mall 去购物中心 17. soccer practice 足球练习

18. look for 寻找 19. find out 找到,弄清楚,查明

20. study for the math test 为数学考试而学习 21. play tennis with me 和我一起打网球

22. I have a really busy week 我一周很忙 23. football match足球比赛

24. my cousin’s birthday party 我表弟的生日聚会 25. write soon 尽快回信

26. study for my science test 为科学考试而学习

27. 给某人打电话的几种说法:

call sb. up, call sb. phone sb., phone to sb. telephone sb. telephone to sb.

phone sb. up,ring sb. give sb. a ring, give sb. a phone

make a telephone call to sb.

28. on Thursday night 星期四晚上 29. be (go) on vacation 度假

30. next week下周 31. join sb.加入某人一起

32. Please keep quiet! 请保持安静, keep+形容词表示“保持某种状态”,

keep+(sb.)+doing 表示“(使某人)不停地做某事”, keep sth. 保存某物

34. culture club 文化俱乐部

35. try to do sth. 努力(企图)做某事,

try doing sth.试着做某事,try one’ best to do sth. 尽力做某事

【应掌握的句子】

1. Can you come to my party on Saturday afternoon? Sure, I‘d love to.

2. May I ask you some questions? Sure. / Of course. /Certainly.

3. I would love to go to your party.

4. She isn‘t very well these days and has to stay home.

5. We can learn what we did not know.

6. Thank you for inviting me. =Thanks for asking (having, inviting)

7. Maybe another time.

8. Can she go to the movies? No, she can‘t. She‘s playing soccer.

9. Read these dialogues and find out about another kind of football.

10. She and I are both students

Unit 6 I‘m more outgoing than my sister.

【语言目标】

Is that Sam? No, that‘s Tom,

He has shorter hair than Sam. He‘s calmer than Sam.

【应掌握的词组】

1. long hair 长头发 2. How are you? 你身体好吗?

3. How old 多大年纪 4. how tall 多高

5. how long ago多久前(的事) 6.more outgoing 比较外向

7. want/plan to do sth. 意欲,企图 8. here are photos of me 这是我的照片

9. as you can see 正如你所看到的 10. in some ways在某些地方

11. we look the same我们看起来一样, They look different他们看起来不同

12. the same to ??多??是一样的 13. quite the same 完全一样

14. all the same 还是, 同样应??

15. look like 看起来像?.一样,而look same 看起来很像

16. go to lots of parties经常参加聚会=often go to the party

17. a little taller 高一点 18. take sth. from sth. 从某处拿/取出某物

19. put sth. in sth. 将某物放入某物中 20. make a list of 列出清单

21. has cool clothes 有漂亮的衣服 22. is popular in school 在学校受欢迎

23. is good at sports 擅长体育 24. make me laugh 使我发笑

25. that’s not very important for me 那对我来说并不重要 ( be important for sb.)

26. put up举起,抬起,挂起,张贴,建造; put on穿上,戴上,上演(戏剧);

put down=write down=copy down 写下来; put out 伸出,扑灭;

put away 收起来,收好;put off推迟; put one’s heart into?全神贯注于??,全身心投入??

27. opposite views 相反的观点 28. a weekend teacher 周末教师

29. Abacus Study Center 珠算研究中心 30. elementary school students 小学生

31. be good with children 善于与孩子相处 32. have good grades 成绩出色

33. enjoy telling jokes 喜欢讲笑话 34. can’t stop talking 不能停止讲话

35. help others 帮助别人,help each other互相帮助 36. in one’s free time在业余时间

37. one of +复数名词(代词)??其中之一 38. use sth. to do sth.=do sth.. with sth. 使用?做?

39. be/feel sorry for sb. 为某事感到同情或难受;

be / feel sorry for sth. 因某事感到抱歉或后悔;

be sorry +to see/hear 听到或看到某种情况很不安或难过;

say sorry to sb.向某人道歉

40. begin with 从??开始 41. next to 在??旁边,紧靠??

42. be famous for 因? 而著名,因??而广为人知; be famous as 作为??而知名

43. all together 总计,总共 44. make sb. do sth. 让/使某人做某事,

相似的用法有几个感官动词see, let, hear, watch, feel等

【应该掌握的句子】

1.What are you doing for vacation? I’m babysitting my sister.

2.Who are you going with? I’m going with my parents.

3.When is he going camping? He is going on the 12th of February, 2005.

4.I’m going to Tibet for a week.

5.What are you doing there? I’m going hiking in the mountains.

6.Show me your photos when we get back to school.

7.Where are you going for vacation? I’m going to Hawaii for vacation.

8. I‘m going to Hawaii for vacation in December, and I‘m staying for three weeks.

9.What is it like there?

10. Can I ask you some questions about your vacation plans?

11. He thought about going to Greece or Spain, but decided on Canada.

12. He is leaving the first week in June and staying until September.

13. Please don‘t forget to close the door when you leave.

14. She couldn‘t wait to get home to see he parents.

Unit 7 How do you make a banana milk smoothie?

【语言目标】

How do you make a banana milk smoothie?First, peel the bananas and cut it up. then put the milk into the blender....

How many bananas do we need? We need three bananas.

【应掌握的词组】

1. make a banana smoothie 制作香蕉混合饮料 2. peel the bananas 剥香蕉

3. cut up the bananas切碎香蕉 4. pour the milk in the blender 将牛奶倒入搅拌器

5. turn on the blender 打开搅拌器电源

6. put the yogurt in the blender将酸奶放入搅拌器 7. turn off 关上,(turn on 打开)

turn up旋大(灯火等),开大(煤气等)调高(声音等),

turn down 把(灯火、电器等)关小一点

8. how much cinnamon多少肉桂 9. one teaspoon of cinnamon 一茶匙肉桂

10. make fruit salad 制作水果沙拉 11. two pieces of bread 两片面包

12. mix it all up 将它们混合在一起 14. turkey slices 火鸡肉片, a slice of bread一片面包

13. takes turns doing sth, take turns to do sth. =do sth. in turns 轮流做某事

15. slices of duck 烤鸭片 16. roll pancake 卷上薄饼

17. make faces 作鬼脸 make friends with 与??交朋友 make a noise吵闹,

make mistakes犯错误, make the bed整理床铺 make one’s way to往?走去,

make room for给?腾出地方

18. it’s easy to do sth. 做某事容易 it’s hard (difficult) to do sth.做某事难,

It’s necessary to do sth.做某事必要

19. put sth, in order 将某些东西按顺序排列 20. a recipe for ??的烹调方法, ??的菜

【应掌握的句子】

1.How do you make a banana smoothie?

2.Describe a process and follow instructions.

3.Pour the milk into the blender.

4.How many bananas do we need?

5.Then compare lists with another student.

6.I need some help.

Unit 8 How was your school trip?

【语言目标】

? What did you do on your school trip?

? Did you go to the zoo? No, I didn‘t. I went to the aquarium.

? Were there any sharks?

No, there weren‘t any sharks, but there were some really smart seals.

【应掌握的词组】

1. talk about 谈论,talk over谈论 2. give a talk 作报告

3. have a talk to (with) sb.与某人谈话 4. go to the beach去海滩

5. have ice cream吃冰淇淋 6. go to the zoo去动物园

7. go to the aquarium去水族馆 8. hang out with one’s friends和朋友闲逛

9. take photos=take a photo=take pictures=take a picture照相

10. buy a souvenir买纪念品 11. have pizza吃比萨饼

12. a famous actor著名的演员

13. get one’s autograph得到了某人的亲笔签名 14. win a prize赢得奖品(奖项)

15. at the aquarium 在水族馆 16. have a great time玩得高兴,过得愉快

17. on the school trip在学校的旅游 18. Blue Water Aquarium蓝色水族馆

19. the Visitors’ Center游客中心 20.a dolphin show海豚表演

21. after that 后来 22. at the end of?在??结束的时候,在??的尽头

23. the Gift Shop礼品店 24. at the beginning of?在..开始的时候

25. a terrible school trip糟糕的学校旅行 26. that sounds interesting那听起来很有趣

27. make up a story编一个故事 28. go for a drive 开车兜风

30. in the rain在雨中 in the dark在黑暗中\ in the sun在阳光下 in the snow在雪中

31. take notes of=write down=copy down 写下,记下

32. have fun doing sth.很快乐的做某事 33. play computer games打电脑游戏

34. for sale 供销售 35. see you soon盼望很快见到你

36. in one’s opinion据某人看来,某人的观点上看 37. win the first prize获得了一等奖

38.a famous basketball player著名的篮球运动员 39. in the future在将来,今后

40. can’t help doing sth.忍不住做某事 41. the story goes that?据说??

42. a busy day off 繁忙的假日, in one’s off hours在某人的休息时间 the off season淡季

43. none of? ??当中没有一个

44. a heavy rain 一阵大雨 a light rain一阵小雨 a fine rain 一阵细雨

44. all day = all day long 整天 all night = all night long整夜

【应掌握的句子】

1. How was your school trip?

2. Talk about events in the past.

3. Were there any sharks? No, there weren‘t any sharks, but there were some really smart seals.

4. What else did you do?

5. Finally, they took the school bus back to school.

6. At the end of the day, the science teacher was very happy because the students

7. The students had a terrible school trip.

8. They took the subway back to school.

9. She lives in California. The weather was beautiful.

10. On my next day off, I don‘t want to go for a drive. That sounds really boring.

11. Did you have fun camping?

12. No one came to the sale because the weather was so bad.

Unit 9 When was he born?

【语言目标】

Who‘s that? That‘s Deng Yaping, She is a great ping-pong player.

When was she born? She was born in 1973.

Who is Shirley Temple? She is a movie star.

When did she become a movie star? When she was three years old.

【应掌握的词组】

1. ping-pong player乒乓球运动员 2. a great Chinese ping-pong player中国杰出的乒乓球运动员

3. start hiccupping 开始打嗝 4. too? to?太??,而不??

5. write music谱写曲子 6. a movie star电影明星

7. learn to ride a bicycle学会骑自行车 8. start learning开始学英语

9. begin playing sports 开始进行体育运动 10. a loving grandfather慈爱的祖父

11. spend all one’s free time with sb.与某人一起度过了所有的业余时间

12. a famous violinist 著名的小提琴手 13. ice skating滑冰

14. a kind and loving grandmother和蔼而慈爱的祖母 15. a skating champion 滑冰冠军

16. the famous Chinese pianist中国著名的钢琴演奏家 17. a small boy(girl)孩提时期

18. at the age of?在??年龄时 19. take part in参加、加入

20. begin to learn the accordion开始学习手风琴 21. major in 主修,专修

22. start for a place=leave for a place动身去? 23. because of 因为、由于

【应掌握的句子】

1.When was he born?

2.Who’s that? That’s Deng Yaping. She is a great Chinese ping-pong player.

3.How long did Charles Osborne hiccup? He hiccupped for 69 years 5 months.

4.You are never too young to start doing things.

5.Tiger Woods started golfing when he was only ten months old.

6.Who is Shirley Temple? She’s a movie star.

When did she became a movie star?

She became a movie when she was three years old.

7.It was a comedy called “How Alone”.

8.Arthur is a loving grandfather. He spends all his free time with his grandchildren.

9.She toured the U.S. when she was fourteen.

10. When he was a small boy, he could hum songs and difficult pieces of music.

11. Who is the greatest man alive?

12. My mother bought a live fish.

13. The living people are more important.

Unit 10 I‘m going to be a basketball player

【语言目标】

? What are you going to be when you grow up? I‘m going to be a computer programmer.

? How are you going to do that? I‘m going to study computer science.

【应掌握的词组】

1. grow up 长大,成长 2. computer science计算机科学

3. be going to do 表示主观打算、准备或有信心做某事 4. computer programmer 电脑程序设计人

5. baseball player 棒球运动员 6. take acting lessons上演技课

7. professional basketball player职业篮球运动员 8. practice basketball练习篮球

9. move somewhere=move to somewhere搬到(不具体的)某一地方

10. sound like 听起来像?? 11. part-time 兼职的,full-time 全职的,全日制的

12. a year or two 一两年=one or two years;

an hour or two=one or two hours一两个小时

a day or two=one or two days一两天

13. my dream job我梦想的工作 14. what I want to do 我想做的事情

15. somewhere interesting有趣的地方 16. a reporter for fashion magazine 时装杂志记者

17. save some money 积蓄一些钱,攒钱 18. at the same time与此同时

19. hold art exhibition举办美术展览 20. all over the world全世界,世界各地

21. somewhere quiet and beautiful 安静而美丽的地方

22. send sth. to sb. 将某物发送给某人 23. I’m not sure yet我还没有定下来

24. the Olympic Games=the Olympics奥运会 25. New Year’s resolutions新年的决心

26. play an instrument 弹一种乐器 27. get a part-time job找到一份兼职工作

28. make the soccer team组建足球队 29. get good grades获得好成绩

30. eat healthier food吃健康的食物 31. get lots of exercise多进行体育锻炼

32. take guitar lessons上吉他课 33. I really love music我酷爱音乐

34. sounds interesting听起来很有意思 35. communicate with sb.与某人交流

36. a foreign language teacher 一份当外语教师的工作

37. keep fit 保持身体健康 38. work harder in school 在学校里更努力学习

39. make one’s resolution 表决心 40. after high school=leave school中学毕业后

41. international magazines 国际杂志社 42. the exchange students留学生

43. have a welcome party 召开一个欢迎会

【应掌握的句子】

1. I am going to be a basketball player.

2. How are you going to do that? I‘m going to study computer science.

3. Being a computer programmer is his dream.

4. Cheng Han is going to be an actor.

5. Where is Cheng Han going to move? He‘s going to move to New York.

6. Where are you going to work? I‘m not sure yet.Maybe Beijing or Shanghai.

Unit 11 Could you please clean your room?

【语言目标】

? Could you take out the trash? Sure.

? Could I borrow the car? Sorry, but I need it, I have to go to a meeting,

? I have to make the bed and do the laundry.

【应掌握的词组】

1. could you please?你能??吗?/请你干??.好吗? 2. do the dishes 洗餐具

3. sweep the floor清扫地板 4. take out the trash倒垃圾

5. make one’s bed铺床 6. fold one’s clothes叠衣服

7. clean the living room 清扫客厅 8. stay out late晚归

9. his father’s reason他父亲的理由 10. get a ride搭车

11. use one’s computer 使用某人的电脑 12. hate sth./to do sth.讨厌某事/做某事

13. do the laundry=do some washing=wash clothes洗衣服

14. make breakfast, make dinner, do some cooking 做饭

15. wash the car刷车16. work on 从事,忙于 17. work at学习、致力于、在??上下工夫

18. borrow some money借一些钱 19. invite sb. to do sth邀请某人做某事

20. go to the store去商店 21.agree sb. to do sth.同意某人做某事

22. agree with sb. =agree with what one says同意某人的意见

23.(需了解) make a deal作成交易 make a face做鬼脸;make a fool of捉弄,使出洋相

make friends with与??交朋友 make a name for himself成名

make a note of注意,记下来 make free with擅自使用

make fun of取笑 make?into把??作成,使变成

make it成功,到达某处 make one’s living维持生活

make one’s way to前往某处 make room腾出地方

make up编造 make use of利用

24. borrow sth. from sb.向某人借某物(借入)

25. lend sb. sth.=lend sth. to sb.借给某人某物(借出) 26.ask for要求得到、要求见到

27. take care of = look after照顾、照看、照料 take good care of=look after…well

28. need some help需要一些帮助 29. come over过来

30. get angry生气 31. have a test考试

32. make a clean sweep of 彻底扫除

【应掌握的句子】

1.Could you please clean your room?

2.Could you please open the door for me?

3.I hate to do chores.

4.Tell your partner your answer to activity 1a. Does your partner agree?

5.Thanks for taking care of my dog.

6.You are having a party. Ask your partner for help. Talk about these things.

7.Take him for a walk.

Give him water and feed him.

Then wash his bowl. Play with him.

Don‘t forget to clean his bed.

8.I’m going to move to a new house! I need some help.

Unit 12 what‘s the best radio station?

【应掌握的词组】

1. the best radio station最好的无线电台 2. comfortable seats舒适的椅子

3. big screens大屏幕 4. friendly service友好的服务

5. new movies新电影 6. close to home离家近

7. in a fun part of town 在城镇闹区 8. Town Cinema城镇电影院

9. Screen City大屏幕影视城 10. Movie Palace电影艺术宫

11. Jeans Corner牛仔广角 12.Trendy Teens时髦少年服装店

13. Easy Listening轻松听力 14. have good quality clothes服装质量好

15. in town在城里, in the city在城市里 in the country在乡下

16. the beat clothing store最好的服装店 17. do a survey of 对?进行调查

18. all the movie theaters所有的电影院 19. the most interesting music最有趣的音乐

20.be(get, become, feel) interested in 对?感兴趣 21.positive words肯定的词语

22. negative words否定的词语 23. the most creative最有创造力的

24. the most boring最烦人的 25. the math teacher数学老师

26. a great success巨大的成功 27. win the prize for赢得??的奖项

28. without music没有音乐伴奏下 29. the funniest actor最滑稽的演员

30. the worst movie最差的电影 31. action movies动作片

32. beautiful beaches美丽的海滩 33. in the north of China在中国的北部

34. an Ice and Snow Festival冰雪节 35. Central Park 中心公园

36. leader of a band乐队指挥 37. Forbidden City紫禁城

38. elementary school 小学

【应掌握的句子】

1. What‘s the best radio station?

2. How do you choose what movie theater to go to?

3. I think Gold Theater has the most comfortable seats.

4. What do young people think about places in town?

5. The film is interesting.

6. Where are we going for lunch?

7. My sister Isabel is the funniest person I know.

8. Last week‘s talent show was a great success.

9. He danced without music.

一 语法:

(1)形容词和副词比较级相关知识点

一、有关原级的用法

1.只能修饰原级的词,very,quite,so,too

例如,He is too tired to walk on.他太累了以至于不能再继续走了。

My brother runs so fast that I can?t follow him.我弟弟跑得那么快以至于我跟不上他。

2.原级常用的句型结构

(1)―甲+be+(倍数)+as+形容词原级+as+乙‖表示―甲和乙程度相同‖或―甲是乙的几倍‖

例如,Tom is as old as Kate.汤姆和凯特年龄一样大。

Tom is twice as old as Kate.汤姆的年龄是凯特的二倍。

―甲+实意动词+(倍数)+as+副词原级+as+乙‖表示―甲和乙程度相同‖或―甲是乙的几倍‖

例如,Tom runs as fast as Mike.汤姆和迈克跑得一样快。

Tom runs twice as fast as Mike.汤姆跑得速度是迈克的二倍。

(2)―甲+be+not+as/so+形容词原级+as+乙‖甲不如乙…

例如,This room is not as/so big as that one. 这个房间不如那个大。

―甲+助动词+not+动词原形+as/so+副词原级+as+乙‖甲不如乙…

例如,He doesn‘t walk as slowly as you.他走路不像你那样慢。

二、形容词副词比较级的用法

1.可以修饰比较级的词,much,a lot,far,…的多a little,a bit,…一点儿even甚至,still仍然

例如,Lesson One is much easier than Lesson Two.第一课比第二课容易得多。

Tom looks even younger than before.汤姆甚至比以前更年轻。

This train runs much faster than that one.这辆火车比那辆跑地快

She drives still more carefully than her husband.她开车仍然比她丈夫还认真。

2.比较级常用的句型结构

(1)―甲+be+(倍数)+形容词比较级+than+乙‖表示―甲比乙…‖或―甲比乙…几倍‖

例如,Tom is taller than Kate.汤姆比凯特高。

This room is three times bigger than that one.这个房间比那个大三倍。

―甲+实意动词+(倍数)+副词比较级+than+乙‖表示―甲比乙…‖或―甲比乙…几倍‖

例如,I got up earlier than my mother this morning.我今天早晨起床比我妈妈还早。

He runs three times faster than his brother.他跑的速度比他弟弟快三倍。

(2)―甲+be+形容词比较级+than+any other+单数名词(+介词短语)‖表示―甲比同一范围的任何一个人/物都……‖,含义是―甲最……‖。

例如,The Yangtze River is longer than any other river in China.

=The Yangtze River is longer than any of the other rivers in China.长江比中国的任何一条其他的河都长。

=The Yangtze River is longer than the other rivers in China.长江比中国的其他所有的河都长。

=The Yangtze River is the longest river in China.长江是中国最长的河流。

注意:The Yangtze River is longer than any river in Japan.长江比日本的任何一条河都长。

―甲+实意动词+副词比较级+than+anyother+单数名词(+介词短语)‖表示―甲比同一范围的任何一个人/物都……‖,含义是―甲最……‖。

例如,Mike gets to school earlier than any other student in his class.

= Mike gets to school earlier than any of the other students in his class.迈克比他们班上任何一个其他的同学到校都早。

= Mike gets to school earlier than the other students in his class.迈克比他们班上其他的同学到校都早。= Mike gets to school earliest in his class.迈克在他们班到校最早。

注意:Mike gets to school earlier than any student in Tom‘s class.迈克比汤姆班上任何一个学生到校都早。(迈克和汤姆不是同一个班)

(3)―甲+be+the+形容词比较级+of the two+……‖表示―甲是两者中较……的‖。

例如,Look at the two boys. My brother is the taller of the two.看那两个男孩,我弟弟是两个当中较高的那个。

(4)―比较级+and+比较级‖表示―越来越……‖。

例如,He is getting taller and taller.他变得越来越高了。

The flowers are more and more beautiful.花儿越来越漂亮。

He does his homework more and more carefully.他做作业越来越认真了。

(5)―the+比较级,the+比较级‖表示―越……,越……‖。

例如,The more careful you are,the fewer mistakes you‘ll make.你越认真,犯的错误越少。

(6)―特殊疑问词+be+形容词比较级,甲or乙?‖

例如,Which is bigger,the earth or the moon?哪一个大,地球还是月球?

―特殊疑问词+实意动词+副词比较级,甲or乙?‖

例如,Who draws better,Jenny or Danny?谁画得比较好,詹妮还是丹尼?

3.最高级常用句型结构

(1)―主语+be+the+形容词最高级+单数名词+in/of短语‖表示―……是……中最……的‖。

例如,Tom is the tallest in his class./of all the students.汤姆是他们班上/所有学生当中最高的。

This apple is the biggest of the five.这个苹果是五个当中最大的。

―主语+实意动词+(the)+副词最高级+单数名词+in/of短语‖表示―……是……中最……的‖。

例如,I jump (the) farthest in my class.我是我们班跳得最远的。

(2)―主语+be+oneofthe+形容词最高级+复数名词+in/of短语‖表示―……是……中最……之一‖。

例如,Beijing is one of the largest cities in China.北京是中国最大城市之一。

(3)―特殊疑问词+be+the+最高级+甲,乙,or丙?‖用于三者以上的比较。

例如,Which country is the largest,China,Brazil or Canada?哪一个国家最大,中国,巴西还是加拿大?

―特殊疑问词+be+the+副词最高级+甲,乙,or丙?‖用于三者以上的比较

例如,Which season do you like (the) best,spring,summer or autumn?你最喜欢哪一个季节,春天,夏天还是秋天?

三、形容词和副词比较级常用句型

1.当A > B时,用―比较级+ than +比较对象‖来表示。

如:My room is smaller than yours. 我的房间比你的小。

She got there earlier than I did. 她比我到得早。

注意:一般来说,比较对象为人称代词时,用主格或宾格均可。但是,当句子中谓语动词为及物动词时,人称代词用主格或宾格意义不同。

如:I like you better than he (likes you). 我比他更喜欢你。

I like you better than (he likes) him. 我喜欢你胜过喜欢他。

2.当A > B,但B包含A时,则须用other来将A排除出去,即:(1)用―比较级+ than + any other +名词单数‖来表示。 如:China is larger than any other country in Asia. 中国比其他任何亚洲国家都要大。

(2)用―比较级+ than + any of the other +名词复数‖来表示。

如:He is older than any of the other boys in his class. 他比他班上任何同学年纪都大。

(3)用―比较级+ than + all the other +名词复数‖来表示。

如:Your department spent more last year than all the other departments put together.

你们部门去年的花销比其他所有部门的加起来还多。

(4)用―比较级+ than + (any of) the others‖来表示。

如:I received less money than the others did. 我比别人收到的钱少。

5)用―比较级+ than + the other +名词复数‖来表示。

如:He is cleverer than the other students in his class. 他比班上其他学生聪明。

6)用―比较级+ than + anyone else‖来表示。

如:You know him better than anyone else. 你对他比任何别人都更了解。

3.当A > B,但B不包含A时,句型为:

(1)用―比较级+ than + any of the +名词复数‖来表示。

如:He is richer than any of the people here. 他比这儿的任何人都有钱。

(2)用―比较级+ than + any +名词单数‖来表示。

如:I?m taller than any student of your class. 我比你们班的任何学生都高。

4.当A = B时,用―as +原级+ as +比较对象‖来表示。

如:She is as tall as me. 她与我一样高。

He gets up as early as his parents. 他起床与他父母起得一样早。

-规则变化如下:

1) 单音节形容词的比较级和最高级形式是在词尾加 -er 和 -est 构成。

great (原级) (比较级) (最高级)

2) 以 -e 结尾的单音节形容词的比较级和最高级是在词尾加 -r 和 -st 构成。

wide (原级) (比较级) (最高级)

3)少数以-y, -er, -ow, -ble结尾的双音节形容词的比较级和最高级是在词尾加 -er 和 -est 构成。

clever(原级) (比较级) (最高级)

4) 以 -y 结尾,但 -y 前是辅音字母的形容词的比较级和最高级是把 -y 去掉,加上 -ier 和-est 构成.

happy (原形) (比较级) (最高级)

5) 以一个辅音字母结尾其前面的元音字母发短元音的形容词的比较级和最高级是双写该辅音字母然后再加 -er和-est。

big (原级) (比较级) (最高级)

6) 双音节和多音节形容词的比较级和最高级需用more 和 most 加在形容词前面来构成。

beautiful (原级)? (比较级) (比较级)

difficult (原级) (最高级) (最高级)

常用的不规则变化的形容词的比较级和最高级:

原级------比较级------最高级

good------better------best many------more------most

much------more------most bad------worse------worst

far------farther, further------farthest, furthest

三、 用适当形式填空:

1. Bob is _________ ( young ) than Fred but __________ (tall) than Fred.

2. Yingtian is not as ___________ (tall) asYongxian.

3. Almost all the students' faces are the same but Li Deming looks _______ (fat) than before .

4. Which is _________ (heavy), a hen or a chicken?

5.-- How _________ (tall) is Sally?

-- She' s 1.55 metres ________ (tall). What about Xiaoling?

-- She' s only 1.40 metres ______ (tall). She is much _______(short) than Sally. She is also the _______ (short)girlin theclass.

6. He is ______ (bad) at learning maths. He is much _______ (bad) at Chinese and he is the _________ (bad) at English.

7. Annie says Sally is the ________ (kind) person in the world.

8.He is one of the_________(friendly) people in the class, I think.

9. A dictionary is much _________ (expensive) than a story-book.

10. An orange ia a little ______ (big) than an apple, but much ________ (small) than a watermelon.

11.Miss Chen is __________ _________than Mr. Wang. (popular)

12. Mr. Lin ________ ________ _________ Mr. Brown. (sad)

13. The basketball _______ ________ ________ the baseball. (big)

14. Question A _______ ________ _________ ________ Question B. (important)

15. A rose ________ ________ __________ ________ a weed(野草). (beautiful)

16. Toronto is _____ ______ city in Canada. (large)

17. Playing computer games is______ _____ _____ of all the activities.(interesting).

18. The Nile(尼羅河) is ______ ________river in the world. (long)

19. Good health is _______ _______ ________thing life. (important)

20. Taking a taxi is ______ _______ way to get to the airport. (easy)

21. Test 1 is _____ _______ _________of all the tests. (difficult)22. He is ________than any other boy in the class.(clever)

23. She is_______ than all the other students. (young)

24. The window is ________ ________ of the two. (narrow)

25. Where is the ________bus-stop? (near)

26. He is one of ________ ________ _______Politicians. (famous)

27. Tom drives much ________ ________than John. (careful)

28. The white flower is ________(beautiful). The yellow flower is ______ _______ (beautiful)than the white flower. The red flower is the _____ ______ of the three.

(2)英语代词情态动词总结及练习题

情态动词专题:

(一)情态动词的定义 情态动词表示说话人对某一动作或状态的态度。

(二)情态动词的特点 1)有一定词义; 2)不受主语人称和数的变化影响;

3)与主要动词的原形(或称不带to的不定式)一起构成谓语(除ought to作固定词组看待)。

(三)情态动词的分类和意义意义情态动词

(四)情态动词的基本用法

1. can (could)1)表示能力,could主要指过去时间。Two eyes can see more than one. 两只眼比一只眼看得清。Could the girl read she went to school? 这女孩上学前能识字吗?

2)表示可能(理论上或是逻辑判断上)。

The temperature can fall to –60℃, that is 60℃ below freezing. 气温可降至—60℃,也就是零下60℃。 He can‘t (couldn‘t) have enough money for a new car. 他不可能有足够的钱买新车。

You mustn't smoke while you're walking around in the wood. You could start a fire. 在林子里走时勿吸烟,那样可能会引起火灾。

3)表示允许。Can I have a look at your new pen? 我可以看一看你的新钢笔吗?He asked whether he could take the book out of the reading-room.他问他可不可以把书带出阅览室。

4)表惊异、怀疑、不相信等态度。主要用于否定句、疑问句或感叹句中。

Where can (could) they have gone to? 他们会去哪儿了呢?

He can‘t (couldn‘t) be over sixty. 他不可能超过六十岁。

How can you be so careless? 你怎么这么粗心?

5)比较委婉客气地提出问题或陈述看法。

Can (Could) you lend me a hand? 帮我一把好吗?

I‘m afraid we couldn‘t give you an answer today. 恐怕我们今天不能给你答复。

2. may (might)

1)表允许,might可以指过去时间,也可指现在时间,语气更委婉。

You may take whatever you like. 你喜欢什么就拿什么。

He told me that I might smoke in the room. 他告诉我可以在房间里抽烟。

May (Might) I ask for photo your baby? 我可以要一张你宝宝的照片吗?在回答以may引起的问句时,多避免用这个词,而用其它方式,如Yes, please. / Certainly. / Please don‘t ./ You‘d better not. / No, you mustn‘t.等,以免显得太严峻或不客气。

2)表可能(事实上)。可以指过去时间,也可以指现在时间,但语气更加不肯定。

He may be at home. 他可能在家。

She may not know about it. 她可能不知道这件事。

He was afraid they might not agree with him. 他担心他们可能不同意他的意见。

They might be having a meeting, but I‘m not sure. 他们有可能在开会,不过我不肯定。

3. Must

1)表示义务。意为―必须‖(主观意志)。

We must do everything step by step. 我们一切都必须循序渐进地做。

You mustn‘t talk to her like that. 你不可能那样对她说话。

--Must we hand in our exercise—books now? 我们现在就要交练习本吗?

--No, you needn‘t. / No, you don‘t have to. 不必。(这种情况下,一般不用mustn‘t)

2)表示揣测。意为―想必、准是、一定‖等,只用于肯定句。

He must be ill. He looks so pale. 他准是病了。他的脸色苍白。

She‘s wearing a diamond necklace. She must have a lot of money. 她戴着钻石项链,一定很有钱。

4. Shall

1)表征询意见,用于第一、第三人称疑问句。Shall I get some tea? 我给你点茶好吗?

Shall the boy wait outside? 让那男孩在外面等吗?What shall we do this evening? 我们今晚做什么?

2)表说话人的意愿,有―命令、允诺、警告、决心‖等意思,用于第二、第三人称陈述句。

You shall do as I say. 按我说的做。(命令)

You shall have my answer tomorrow. 你明天可以得到我的答复。

(允诺)He shall be sorry for it one day, I tell you. 有一天他会后悔的,我告诉你。

(警告)Nothing shall stop us from carrying out the plan. 什么也不能阻止我们执行这项计划。(决心)

5. Will

1)表意愿,用于各种人称陈述句。I will do anything for you. 我愿为你做任何事。

None is so blind as those who won‘t see. 不愿看的人眼最瞎。

If you will read the这本书,我会把它借给你。

2)表请求,用于疑问句。

Will you close the window? It‘s a bit cold. 请你把窗户关上好吗?有点冷。

Won‘t you drink some more coffee? 再来一点咖啡好吗?

3)表示某种倾向或习惯性动作。

Fish will die out of water. 鱼离开水就不能活。 The door won‘t open. 这门打不开。

The boy will sit there hour after hour looking at the traffic go by. 那男孩常常坐在那里好几个钟点,看着车辆行人通过。

6. Should

1)表义务。意为―应该‖(某件事宜于做),用于各种人称。

You should be polite to your teachers. 你对老师应该有礼貌。You shouldn‘t waste any time. 你不应该浪费时间。

2)表推测,意为―想必一定、照说应该、估计‖等。

The film should be very good as it is starring first-class actors. 这部新电影是一流演员主演的,估计拍得很好。

They should be home by now. 照说他们现在应当已经到家了。

7.Would

1)表意I said I would do anything for you. 我说过我愿意为你做任何事。

2)表委婉地提出请求、建议或看法。Would you like another glass of beer? 再来杯啤酒好吗?

Would you mind cleaning the window? 请把窗户擦一下好吗?

They wouldn‘t have anything against it. 他们不会有什么反对意见。

3)表过去反复发生的动作或过去的一种倾向。Every time she was in trouble, she would go to him for help. 她每遇到麻烦都会向她求助。他告诉我盒子打不开了。

8. ought to

1)表义务,意为―应该‖(因责任、义务等该做),口气比should稍重。You are his father. You ought to take care of him. 你是他父亲,应当管他。You oughtn‘t to smoke so much. 你不应该抽这么多烟。

2)表推测,暗含很大的可能,语气较弱。

Han Mei ought to know his telephone number. 韩梅该知道他的电话号码。

There‘s a fine sunset; it ought to be a fine day tomorrow. 今天有晚霞,明天应该是个好天。

9. used to 表示过去的习惯动作或状态,现在不复发生或存在。疑问式和否定式有两种。

He used to live in the countryside, but now he lives in the city.他过去住在乡下,现在住在城里。

There used to be a building at the street corner, bn. 街道拐角处过去有座楼房,现在拆了。

I usedn‘t (didn‘t use) to smoke. 我过去不抽烟。

Used you (Did you use) to go to school on foot? 你过去常步行去学校吗?

(一)need和dare的用法

need和dare既可用作情态动词,也可用作实义动词。用作情态动词时,主要用于否定句和疑问句。用作实义动词时,可用于各种句式。

1.用作情态动词--Need I come? --Yes, you must. --我需要来吗? --需要。

You needn‘t telephone him now. 你现在不必打电话给他。

I don‘t think you need worry. 我想你不必发愁。

She dare not go out alone at night. 她晚上不敢一个人出去。

How dare you say I‘m unfair? 你竟敢说我不公平?

Not one of them dared mention this. 他们谁也不敢提这件事。

2.用作实义动词You don‘t need to do it yourself. 你不必亲自做这件事。

We need to tell them the news. 我们需要把这消息告诉他们。

The table needs painting (to be painted.). 桌子需要油漆一下。

We should dare to give our own opinion. 我们要敢于提出自己的观点。

He did not dare (to) look up. 他不敢抬头看。

I dare day he‘ll come again. 我想他会再来的。(I dare say…为固定习语)

(二)情态动词后跟完完成这项工作的。

He isn‘t here. He must have missed the train. 他还未到,一定是没赶上火车。

Where can (could) he gone? 他能到那里去了呢?

You may (might) have read about it. 你可能在报上已经读到这件事了。

You could (might) have been more careful. 你本来可以更细心的。

He needn‘t have worried it. 他本不必为此事担心。

There was a lot of fun at yesterday's party. You ought to have come, but why didn't you? 昨天的聚会非常有意思。你本应该来,为何不来呢?

2. 情态动词后跟进行式,表示―想必正在……‖,―可能正在……‖,―应当正在‖等意。It‘s twelve o‘clock. They must having lunch. 现在是十二点。他们一定正在吃饭。

1. No, you____. A. can't B. mustn't C. needn't D. don't have to

2. Must we clean the house now? No, you _______. A. needn't B. may not C. mustn't D. can't B. dares not telling C. dare not tell D. dares not to tell B. mustn't C. needn't D. may not 5. Johnny, you play with the knife, you ___hurt yourself.

A. won't...can't B. mustn't...may C. shouldn't, must D. can't...shouldn't

6. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone_____ get out. A. had to B. would C. could D. was able to B. shall not C. won't D. shouldn't A. will B. can C. need D. shall A. need B. shall C. ought to D. must

10. I mailed the letter two weeks ago. She_____it.A. must receive B. can't receive C. might receive D. must have received

11.The professor gave orders that the experiment_____ before 5:30p.m.

A. be finished B. will finish C. must be finished D. would be finished

12. There was plenty of time. You_____.

A. mustn't hurry B. mustn't have hurried C. needn't hurry D. needn't have hurried

14. ______I go back before lunch? No, I don't think you________.A. Need...must B. Do...need to C. Must...have to D. May .... ought to A. needn't....must B. may not...must C. needn't....needn't D. can't....must

16. Would you open the window please ? Yes, I______. A. will B. would C. do D. can A. Should B. Can C. will D. shall

18. ____Must I finish this novel this morning ? ____No, you_____. A. mustn't B. might not C. don't have to D. can't

21. I wish to go home now,_________ I? A. may B. can't C. must D. do

22. He must have finished his homework, he? A. mustn't B. didn't C. needn't D. hasn't A. must B. can C. may D. might A. must have worked B. ought to have worked C. would have worked D. has worked

初中英语基本语法结构

运用的基本结构可以分为五个类型。

1、 主语+系动词+表语(S+V+P)

列如:She is a student (身份) He has become an engineer

It tastes sweet They are in the classroom

动词是系动词,其后的表语表示主语的身份,特征或者状态。英语中可用作系动词的数量很少,最常用的是be的各种变化形式,系动词,如become,turn,look,seem,appear,sound,taste,smell,remain,prove,keep,fall,等

2、 主语+动词(S+V)

列如:water flows He is reading

She has arrived They will come Mary cried

例如:They have reached NEW YORK They have arrived at NEWYORK

3、主语+动词+宾语(S+V+O)

例如:Tom speaks English He bought a jacket

They have finished the job Rose is reading a book

及物动词,其后必须跟一个宾语

3、 主语+动词+宾语+宾语(S+V+O+O)

例如:Mr Brown teaches them English Mother told me a story

Give us a ring when you arrive at the college

The students are giving the classroom a thorough clean up

直接宾语是动作承受者或结果,间接宾语则表示动作是为谁做的

4、 主语+动词+宾语+补语(S+V+O+C)

例如:We elected him chairman We should keep the classroom clean

I want her to come She had a new dress made、

She heared him singing 宾语和补语在逻辑上是主与表或者主与谓的关系。也就是说补语表示宾语的特

征,身份,状态,或是宾语的行为动作。如果这一结构的句子变为被动句,那么原来的宾语变成了主语,后面的补语便是主语的补语

:We found him(reading in the library)(括号内表示宾语的补语)

所有者成分都是必不可少的,缺少任何一个成分都会破坏句子结构的完整性。句子结构中的基本成分包括主语、动词、表语、宾语、和补语、英语句子中还有起修饰作用的定语和状语,以及起解释说明作用的同位语。下面括号部分即为定语、状语和同位语。

例如:She is a good student

They will come soon

Mr Brown,Tom?s father ,is an engineer

因此,英语的句子成分主语有主语,动词,表语,宾语,补语,定语,状语和同位语。问题:名词作表语和名词作单宾之间的区别?名词作宾语补足语和名词作直接宾语的差别?

分析下列各句属于哪种基本结构,并划出各个句子成分。

1、I saw Jane in the reading room

2、Production grows rapidly

3、They treated me as their own son

4、His classmates made him their monitor

5、Victor passed Robert the ball

6、You did not need to arrive so early

7、The children ran merrily after him

8、It is getting dark

9、Martin,my good friend,has given me a lot of help

10、Circumstances do not permit me to leave

11、The population of city rose by 20 percent

12、She had a new dress made

13、Her face turned red at his words

14、The old professor lectures twice a week

15、Tom become a good student at last

16、I want that blue skirt ,the one on the left

17、They will have a meeting in room 205

18、Her parents bought her a new radio

19、She told us a lot of interesting stories

20、The food smells nice

现在进行时

1. 现在进行时的定义

现在进行时主要用于表示目前正在进行的动作,有时也可表示现阶段在进行的动作。如:

The teacher is giving us an English lesson. 老师正在给我们上英语课。

The farmers are getting in their crops. 农民们正在收割庄稼。

We are making preparations for the conference. 我们一直在为会议作准备。

2. 现在进行时的结构

现在进行时由―am / is / are + 现在分词‖构成。如:

I‘m studying at Yu Cai Senior Middle school. 我在育才中学读书。

He is writing on the desk. 他再课桌上写字。

They are talking about their visiting the Great Wall. 他们在谈论游长城的事情。

【说明】动词现在分词的构成方法:

(1) 一般在动词后加-ing。如:say—saying, play—playing, think—thinking, study—studying, teach —teaching, blow—blowing, build—building.

(2) 动词若以-e结尾, 则去e再加-ing。如:love—loving, make—making, guide—guiding, date—dating.

(3) 在以单短元音的重读闭音节结尾,且末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词后,双写最后一个辅音字母,再加-ing。如:begin—beginning, regret—regretting, plan—planning, ban — banning.

(4) 在以ie结尾的动词后,改ie为y,再加-ing。如:lie—lying, die—dying, tie—tying.

(5) 在以-c[k] 结尾的动词后加-king。如:picnic—picnicking, panic—panicking.

3. 现在进行时的应用

(1) 表示目前正在发生或进行的动作。如:

They are planting trees on the mountain. 他们在山上植树。

Mother is preparing supper in the kitchen. 母亲在厨房做晚饭。

(2) 有些非持续性动词的进行时可以表示动作即将进行或发生,或表示动作的重复。如:

He is joining the army. 他要参军了。

They are buying the house. 他们要买那座房子。

(3) 当现在进行时中有always, forever, constantly, continually修饰时,表示说话人的赞赏或厌烦的感情。如: Why is the baby always crying? 为什么那个老是在哭。

They are always helping us. 他们总是帮助我们。

注意:表示状态、感觉、心理活动的静态动词,一般不使用语进行时态。

一、选择题练习

1. Who _____ over there now? A. singing B. are sing C. is singing D. sing

2. It‘s eight o‘clock. The students _____ an English class. A. have B. having C. is having D. are having

3. Listen! The baby _____ in the next room. A. crying B. cried C. is crying D. cries

4. Look! The twins _____ new sweaters. A. are wearing B. wearing C. are wear D. is wearing

5. Don‘t talk here. Grandparents _____. A. is sleeping B. are sleeping C. sleeping D. sleep

6. Tom is a worker. He _____ in a factory. His sisters _____ in a hospital.

A. work/ work B. works/ work C. work/ works

7. Who _____ English best in your class? A. speak B. speaks C. speaking

8. Mrs Read _____ the windows every day. A. is cleaning B. clean C. cleans

9. We _____ music and often _____ to music. A. like/ listen B. likes/ listens C. like/ are listening

10. She _____ up at six in the morning. A. get B. gets C. Getting

11. On Sundays he sometimes _____ his clothes and sometimes _____ some shopping.

A. wash/ do B. is washing/ is doing C. washes/ does

12. The twins usually _____ milk and bread for breakfast, but Jim _____ some coffee for it.

A. have/ have B. have/ has C. has/ have

二、填空:

1. My father always __come____(come) back from work very late.

2. The teacher is busy. He __sleeps___ (sleep) six hours a day.

3. Listen! Joan __is singing__(sing) in the classroom. She often __sings__ (sing) there.

4. _Does__ your brother ___know___(know) Japanese?

5. Where __do___ you ____have___ (have) lunch every day?

6. The girl ___likes____(like) wearing a skirt. Look! She ___is wearing___(wear) a red skirt today.

宾语从句

一.宾语从句的定义

置于动词、介词等词性后面起宾语作用的从句叫宾语从句。宾语从句的语序必须是陈述语序。谓语动词、介词、动词不定式,v.-ing形式后面都能带宾语从句。有些形容词(afraid,sure,glad等)之后也可以带宾语从句。

二.宾语从句中引导词的用法

在复合句中作主句的宾语,引导词有:

连词:that (that 常可省略),whether, if 。代词:who, whose, what ,which 。副词:when ,where, how, why 等。(一)that引导的宾语从句(在非正式场合that可以省略)

可跟that从句做宾语的动词有:say, think, insist, wish, hope, demand, imagine, wonder, know, suppose, see, believe, agree, admit, deny, expect, explain, order, command, feel, dream, suggest, hear, mean, notice, prefer, request, require, propose, declare, report等。 例句:The boy believes that he will travel through space to other planets.

注意事项:当主句谓语动词是 think, believe, suppose, expect 等词,而宾语从句的意思是否定时,常把否定转移至主句表示。 例句:I don‘t think it is right for him to treat you like that.

在以下情况中that不能省略

1当句中的动词后接多于两个由that引导的宾语从句时,第一个that可省,但后面的that不可省。

例句:He said (that) you were too young to understand the matter and that he was asked not to tell you.

2当主句的谓语动词与that宾语从句之间有插入语时,that一般不可省。

例句:Just then I noticed, for the first time, that our master was wearing his fine green coat and his black silk cap.

3当that从句是双宾语中的直接宾语时,that不可省。

例句:I can‘t tell him that his mother died.

注意事项:许多带复合宾语的句子,that引导的宾语从句经常移到句子后部,而用it作形式宾语。

例句:I find it necessary that we should do the homework on time.

(二)由whether,if 引导的宾语从句

由whether(if)引导的宾语从句,实际上是一般疑问句演变而来的。意思是―是否‖。宾语从句要用陈述句语序。一般说来,在宾语从句中whether与if可以互换使用,但在特殊情况下if与whether是不能互换的。

例句:I wonder whether(if) they will come to our party.

只能用whether,不能用if引导的宾语从句

1在带to的不定式前

例句:We decided whether to walk there.

1在介词的后面 例句:I‘m thinking of whether we should go to see the film.

2在动词后面的宾语从句 例句:We discussed whether we had a sports meeting next week

3直接与or not连用时 例句:I can‘t say whether or not thet can come on time.

只能用if不能用whether引导的宾语从句

1 if引导条件状语从句,意为―如果‖ 例句:The students will go on a picnic if it is sunny.

2 if引导否定概念的宾语从句时 例句:He asked if I didn‘t come to school yesterday.

3 引导状语从句even if(即使)和as if(好象)时 例句:He talks as if he has known all about it.

(三)连接代词和连接副词引导的宾语从句

这样的宾语从句实际上是由特殊疑问句变化而来的,宾语从句要用陈述句语序。用于这种结构的动词常常是:see, say, tell, ask, answer, know, decide, show, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, discover, understand, inform, advise等。

英语中的连接代词有:who,whom,whose,which,what,在句中担任主语、宾语、定语或者表语。

例句:Can you tell me whom you are waiting for?

英语中的连接副词有:when,where,why,how,在句中担任状语的成分。

例句:None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.

三.宾语从句的语序 宾语从句的语序是陈述句语序即:连接代词/副词+主语+谓语+其他成分。例句如下:1 I don‘t know what they are looking for. 2 Could you tell me when the train will leave?

3 Can you imagine what kind of man he is?

四.宾语从句的时态

1主句是一般现在时,从句根据实际情况使用任何时态。例句:The headmaster hopes everything goes well.

2主句是过去时态,从句须用过去时态的某种形式。

例句:She was sorry that she hadn‘t finished her work on time.

3 当宾语从句表示的是一个客观真理或者事实时,即使主句是过去时,从句也用一般现在时态。

例句:The teacher told his class that light travels faster than sound.

五.宾语从句的特点

1宾语从句可以作及物动词、介词及形容词的宾语。 2 宾语从句的语序一律用陈述句语序。

3连接词that引导宾语从句在句中无词义,不充当句子成份,多数情况下可以省略。

4whether 和 if 都可引导宾语从句,但 whether后可紧跟or not;whether从句可作介词的宾语。

5 如果从句太长,可以用形式宾语it.

宾语从句专项训练

1.I don't know _________ he will come tomorrow._________ he comes,I'll tell you.

A.if;Whether B.whether;Whether C.if;That D.if;If

2.I don't know _________ the day after tomorrow.

A.when does he come B.how will he come C.if he comes D.whether he'll come

3.Could you tell me _________ the nearest hospital is?

A.what B.how C.whether D.where

4.Could you tell me _________ the radio without any help?

A.how did he mend B.what did he mend C.how he mended D.what he mended

5.I want to know _________ .

A.whom is she looking after B.whom she is looking C.whom is she looking D.whom she is looking after

6.Do you know where _________ now? A.he lives B.does he live C.he lived D.did he live

7.Do you know what time ____?

A.the train leave B.does the train leave C.will the train leave D.the train leaves

8.I don't know _________ .Can you tell me,please?

A.how the two players are old B.how old are the two players

C.the two players are how old D.how old the two players are

9.The small children don't know _________ .

A.what is their stockings in B.what is in their stockings

C.where is their stockings in D.what in their stockings

10.I can't understand _________ .

A.what does Christmas mean B.what Christmas does mean

C.what mean Christmas does D.what Christmas means

II.按要求转换句型。

1.Does Mr.Brown enjoy living in China?Could you tell us?(改写句子)

→Could you tell us _________ Mr.Brown _________ living in China?

2.―Does the girl need any help?‖he asked me.(变为复合句)

→He asked me _________ the girl _________ some help.

3.Jim is not a student.Tom is not a student,either.(合并为一个句子)

_________ Jim _________ Tom is a student.

4.When does the train leave?I want to know.(改为含宾语从句的复合句)

I want to know _________ the train _________ .

5.They went home after they had finished their homework.(用not...until改写)

They _________ go home _________ they had finished their homework.

6.Did Peter come here yesterday?Li Lei wants to know.(改为含宾语从句的复合句)

Li Lei wants to know _________ Peter _________ here yesterday.

宾语从句专项训练参考答案:

I.1—5DDDCD 6—10ADDBD

II.1.if/whether;enjoys 2.if/whether;needed 3.Neither;nor 4.when;leaves 5.didn't;until 6.whether;came

初二年级下学期语法总结

一.一般将来时

表示一般将来时在八年级中我们已经学习了以下几种表现形式:

1.用现在进行时表将来时(表示按计划安排要发生的事件。)

What are you doing this weekend?

I’m playing soccer with Jim.

Are you visiting the aquarium tomorrow? Yes, we are.

2.用be going to do表将来时(表示明确的打算或用来表示必然,很可能发生的事或自然现象。)

It is going to rain this afternoon.

We’re going to have a new subject this year.

3.用will do表示将来时(表示单纯的将来概念或表示“意愿”。) I will see you tomorrow.

Will you please open the door?

二.交际用语——寻求/提出建议

Ask for advice 寻求建议

(1)What shall I do?

(2)Can you help me?/Can you give me a hand?

(3)What should he do?

(4)Could you give me some advice?(a piece of advice, some pieces of advice)

Give suggestions 提出建议

(1)You should say you are sorry.

(2)You could write him a letter.

(3)They shouldn’t argue.

(4)Maybe you should call him up.

(5)I think Evin should tell her friend to get different clothes.

(6)Why don’t you tell him the truth?

(7)Why not borrow one?

(8)Let’s go shopping.

(9)Shall we play soccer?

(10)How about /What about seeing a movie?

(11)You’d better not go out now.

(12)It’s best to wear warm clothes.

三、语法点拨—过去进行时的用法

1.过去进行时的构成:动词be的过去式was /were+动词的现在分词构成。

(1)过去进行时的否定式是在动词be后加not构成。例如:

He wasn’t watching TV when his mother came back.

妈妈回来的时候他没在看电视。

We weren’t playing basketball when he arrived.

他到的时候我们没有打篮球。

(2)过去进行时的疑问句是将动词be(were, was)移至句首。例如: Were you playing the computer games at 10 last night?

昨天晚上10点你在玩电脑游戏吗?

Was your brother doing his homework at this time yesterday? 你哥哥昨天这个时候在做作业吗?

注意:

①I was 不能缩写成I’s ; They were, We were不能缩写成They’ere, We’ere

②有些表示感情知觉和状态的动词一般不用于进行时态,如:see, hear, love, like,know, remember, understand,have等。

2.过去进行时的用法:表示在过去某一时间内正在进行的动作。例如: I was watching TV at that time.

那时我正在看电视。

He was cooking at 12 o’clock yesterday.

昨天12点时他正在做饭。

When I came in, she was writing a letter.

我进来时她正在写信。

The students were talking about the movie when the teacher came in. 老师进来时学生们正在谈论那部影片。

3.过去进行时还可以用来表示在过去某阶段正在进行的动作或存在的状态。例如:

They were waiting for you yesterday.

昨天他们在等你。

He was studying in a middle school at that time.

那时他在中学念书。

4.过去进行时行时与一般过去时的区别:

过去进行时表示在过去某时间里正在进行的动作或存在的状态,一般过去时则表示一个发生在过去的动作或状态,一般说来该动作已完成。例如: They were writing a letter to their pen-pals last night. (表示他们在昨晚某时刻正在做的动作,但不强调信是否写完) They wrote a letter yesterday.(表示一个完整的动作)

辨析:when与while

(1)when adv. (关系副词)当?? 时;(疑问副词)什么时候,何时 When will he come? 他什么时候来?

It was raining when they started. 他们动身时正下着雨。

We’ll start when the team leader comes. 队长一来,我们就出发。

(2)while conj. 当??的时候,和??同时

While he was eating, I asked him to lend me $ 2.

当他正在吃饭时,我请他借给我2美元。

when=at that time 当??的时候,其动作可以是延续性动作,也可以是瞬间的动作。

e.g. When I came in, he was reading.

When I was a child, I liked soccer very much.

while=during the time that? 在??期间,与其连用的动作通常是延续性的动作,不与瞬间的动词连用(其引导的从句通常用过去进行时)。 While her children were doing their homework, she was doing some housework.

当她的孩子们在做作业时,她在做家务活。

While the students were reading the new words, the teacher walked around in the classroom.

四、语法点拨——直接引语与间接引语(Direct speech and Indirect Speech)

1.直接引语与间接引语

当我们引用别人的话时,我们可以用别人的原话,也可以用自己的话把

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

意思转述出来。如果是引用原话,被引用的部分被称为直接引语(Direct

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

Speech)。如果转述别人的话,就被称为间接引语(Indirect Speech) e.g. Lana said,“I’m not going to her house on Friday night.”(直接引语)

Lana said (that) she was not going to her house on Friday night. (间接引语)

直接宾语通常都用引号“”括起来,间接引语多数情况下都构成一个宾语从句。

如果引用的句子原来是个陈述句,我们在间接引语中就要注意以下几点:

(1)在引语的开头用连词that:

(2)根据句意改变人称:

(3)注意引语中的谓语与主句的谓语在时态上的一致:

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

※这个句子中因为有明显的过去时间状语,可以不改。 (4)根据句意将指示代词、地点、时间状语等作必要的改动:

一般情况下,通常有以下的变化:

指示代词these now today

this week (month, etc) yesterday

表时间的

last week (month,

etc)

three days(a year etc) ago tomorrow next week(month,

before those then

在直接引语中 this

that

在间接引语中

that day

that week (month, etc) the day before

the week (month before

the next

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

4.当直接引语为祈使句时,我们通常用一个简单句来转述,这个请求或命令通常由一个复合宾语来表示;其动词通常用tell, ask, order等。

(五)if引导的条件状语从句:

If you go to the party,you’ll have a great time.

这是一个含有的复合句。主句用将来时或含有情态动词的句子,从句的将来时用现在时表示。如:

If you study hard, you can pass the examination.

如果你努力学习,你就能通过考试的。

If you wait a minute, I shall go and find him.

请等一会儿,我就去把他找来。

if引导的条件状语从句是本单元的重点语法项目,也是中考的考点,请同学们多加注意。

六、语法点拨——现在完成进行时

※构成:have/has+been+现在分词

※用法:用来表示某一动作在过去开始,一直延续到现在,有可能刚刚结束,也有可能还要继续下去。

※与其连用的时间状语:

现在完成进行时常与for 2 hours, since 1986, all this morning, these few days 等表示一段时间的状语连用。如:

How long have you been skating?

What book have you been reading these days?

I’ve been sitting here for 3 hours. (I’ve=I have)

I have been collecting stamps since I was 10.

How long has he been collecting kites?

We haven’t been seeing movies for a long time.

She has been waiting for you all this morning.

七、现在完成时

现在完成时表示在说话时刚刚结束的某一动作或状态,强调对现在的影响,由“助动词have/has +动词的过去分词”构成。翻译成汉语时通常会用到“已经”等字样。

We have learned five English songs this term.

这学期我们已经学了五首英文歌曲。

I have seen this movie.

我已经看过这部电影。

注意have /has been to; have /has/ gone to ;have / has been in 的区别。

I have been to Beijing three times.

我去过北京三次。(曾经去过某地现在已回来)

-Where is Linda? I haven’t seen her for two days.

-She has gone to London for holiday. She will be back next week. -琳达哪儿去了?我两天没看见她了。

-她到伦敦度假去了。下周回来。(某人到某地去了,现在不在这里) We have been in this city for 10 years.

我们在这个城市里生活了10年了。(表示状态)

辨析:have been in, have gone to 与have been to

been是系动词be的过去分词形式。be有多种形式:一般现在时态形式是am, is, are,过去式是was, were, 现在分词形式是being。

have been in? 在??多长时间了

I have been in the cinema for three hours.

我在电影院里待了3个小时。

三者都是现在完成时态,“have been to+地点”表示去过某处,现在已经回来,不在那里了;而“have gone to+地点”则表示到某处去了,现在还没有回来,可能在去的途中,也可能在那里或返回的途中;“have been in+地点”表示某人在某处待了多长时间。试比较:

He has been to Beijing. 他去过北京。(现在不在北京)

He has gone to Beijing. 他去北京了。(现在在北京或在途中) He has been in Beijing for two years. 他在北京两年了。

八、Would you mind?? 你介意做??吗?

这是英语中委婉请求的表达方式,语气委婉、客气、礼貌,易于对方接受。 其结构是would you mind+动名词+其他?

注意针对该句型的回答,英汉有别。如果表示“不介意”,常说“No, not at all/please do/go ahead/ certainly not”;表示“介意”,则用“I’m sorry, but I do/I’d rather you didn’t/you’d better not”等。如:

—Would you mind my asking you a few questions? 请教您几个问题好吗? —No, please do. 不介意,请讲。

又如:

—Would you mind if I took this seat? 我可以坐这个座位吗? —Sorry, but it’s been taken. 对不起,这个位置有人坐。 在3a中小结了几种请求帮助的句子结构,请注意。

肯定结构:

Would you mind+doing??

Could you please+do??

Would you please+do?

Please+do?

否定结构:

Would you mind not doing??

Could you please not do??

Would you please not do??

Please don’t do?

九、如何给别人提出建议和意见

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

1、Why don’t you do sth.?为什么不做某事呢?

表示商量或给对方的建议,否定式疑问显得更委婉,更容易为对方所接受。通常也可以用Why not do sth.?来表达。如:

I can’t answer it, either. Why don't you ask Mr. Liu?

=I can't answer it, either. Why not ask Mr. Liu?

我也不会回答。为什么不问一下刘老师呢?

Why don' we go shopping together?

=Why not go shopping together?

为什么不一起去购物呢?(意同:Let's go shopping together.)

2、How about a scarf? 一条围巾怎么样?

How about?? =What about?? ??怎么样?

提出一种可能性,询问对方意见。

I am a student. What about you? 我是个学生。你呢?

注意:无论是How about?? 还是What about?? 因有介词about,后跟名词或代词。若跟动词,则用动名词形式。

It is Sunday tomorrow. What about going swimming?

明天是星期天,去游泳怎么样?

十、语法点拨——反意疑问句

The pictures are beautiful, aren’t they? Yes, they are. It’s a nice day, isn’t it? Yes, it is.

You like sports, don’t you? Yes, I do.

It looks like rain, doesn’t it? No, it doesn’t.

以上疑问句表示说话者对某事已有看法,为了可靠或出于礼貌发问,以求得确切答案,称为反意疑问句。反意疑问句由两个部分组成:陈述句+附加疑问句。

注意:

1.前一部分肯定,后一部分否定;前一部分否定,后一部分肯定。如: Henry is a good boy, isn’t he?

She cant’ drive, can she?

2.除there be句型之外,疑问句的主语必须与陈述部分的主语在人称、数、性方面保持一致。如:

She went there last Sunday, didn’t she?

Mr. White was careless, wasn’t he?

The kite flies very high, doesn’t it?

They study hard, don’t they?

We won’t go there, will we?

3.如果陈述句有一个助动词(包括情态动词),其疑问句用同一助动词(情态动词)。如:

You can swim, can’t you?

He hasn’t met my sister, has he?

4.当陈述句是“I’m +表语”时,由于“am not”无省略形式,附加疑问句用“aren’t I”代替。如:

I’m late, aren’t I?

I’m a student, aren’t I?

5.当陈述部分是祈使句时,后面的附加疑问句用will you? /won’t you?/can you? /can’t you?祈使句的否定结构后只能用will you? 如:

Open the window, won’t you?

Sit down, can you?

Don’t forget, will you?

6.如果陈述句是there be结构,在附加疑问句中用 be not there结构? 如: There is something wrong, isn’t there?

There won’t be any trouble, will there?

7.当前面的陈述句中有含否定意义的如no, never, hardly等词时,应视为否定句,其后的附加疑问句应用肯定。如:

He has few friends, does he?

You have never been here, have you?

She can hardly write her name, can she?

8.当陈述部分是let’s?时,其后附加疑问句用shall we?

当陈述句部分是let us?时,其后附加疑问句用will you?

Let’s go home together, shall we?

Let us go home, will you?

初二上下册英语语法知识点总结

9.反意疑问句要用yes, no来回答。只要事实是肯定的,用yes;事实是否定的,用no.不管提问时是肯定还是否定。

如:你现在正站着,对下面疑问句的回答完全是一样的。

注意几种时态的区别:

到目前为止,我们已经学习了以下几种时态:

(1)一般现在时:表示经常、反复发生的动作或存在的状态。

We study hard at school every day.

He goes to school by bike.

(2)一般过去时:表示在过去某个时候发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示在过去某段时间里经常发生的习惯性动作。

Did you go there last week?

I went to see my uncle yesterday.

(3)一般将来时:表示在将来会发生的动作或存在的状态。

I’ll come to see you next Sunday.

She is babysitting her sister this weekend.

We are going to Wuhan next Monday.

(4)现在进行时:表示在说话时或现阶段正在发生的动作或存在的状态。 Is she listening to music?

He is having a meeting.

(5)过去进行时:表示在过去某个时间正在发生的动作或存在的状态。 What was she doing when you came in?

They were watching TV when I went into the room.

(6)现在完成时:表示在说话时刚刚结束的某一动作或状态。 I have learned English for 5 years.

Have you ever been to Singapore?

(7)现在完成进行时:表示某一在过去开始,一直延续到现在,有可能刚刚结束,也有可能要继续下去的动作。

We have been skating for two hours.

She has been learning Chinese since she came to China.

注意各种时态的构成形式和不同功能。



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