TPO25-2The Decline of Venetian Shipping解析(1500字)

发表于:2021.1.11来自:www.fanwen118.com字数:1500 手机看范文

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参考译文 威尼斯航运的衰落

在13世纪后期,意大利北部城市,如热那亚、佛罗伦萨和威尼斯逐渐出现了经济复苏,这使得它们成为欧洲最重要的经济中心。然而,到了17世纪,其他欧洲势力崛起,同时这些意大利城市失去了它们曾经的经济影响力。

这一衰退很明显地体现在影响威尼斯的航运以及贸易的变化上。首先,威尼斯在亚得里亚海上的中介功能——它曾控制着亚得里亚海上其他团体的航运产业——败给了直接贸易。在15世纪时期,为单层甲板大帆船(一种靠划桨驱动的大船)征募水手不算一个问题:行会(商业协会)负责提供桨手,当有需要的时候,会通过征用系统强制征召一些没有工作的公民。在16世纪早期,桨手的短缺问题还不算严重,由于圆船(一种使用圆形船体以提供更多货舱空间的船只)的出现,限制了单层甲板大帆船的需求,而圆船只需要很少的桨手。然而,尽管一再强调威尼斯那海事之伟大的传统,但是船员的短缺被证明是一个日益严重的问题。甚至当意大利北部城市水手的工资在1550年到1590年间翻倍时,水手的数量依然没有增长。

航运的问题延伸到了威尼斯军械库,威尼斯那庞大且颇具实力的造船厂。木材短缺,必须从很远的地方运来。在古罗马时期,意大利半岛上有茂密的冷杉林,冷杉是建造军舰的好材料,但是不足的现象早在14世纪早期就出现了。军械库的长官最早从阿尔卑斯山脚下购买木材,而后则从北部到的里雅斯特地区(购买木材),最后则需跨过亚得里亚海(才能购得木材)。私人造船厂则不得不从国外购置橡木。当造船的成本增加时,威尼斯依旧固守着它那过时了的标准,而与此同时,荷兰则转向更轻更易操作的新型船只方面的创新。

从国外购买木材进而购买船只这一步很快就完成了,特别是在16世纪后期传出对威尼斯军械库不良的标准和传统的抱怨时。工人消极怠工,成品质量低下。老员工被允许在正常工时结束前半个小时就收工,到了1601年,年轻的员工也如此效仿。商人们抱怨那些建造和拥有船只的威尼斯人所拥有的特权先是扩展到那些从国外购得船只的威尼斯人身上,而后又进一步扩展到建造并拥有船只的外国人身上。历史学家弗雷德里克?莱恩观察到,自从16世纪后期在战场上损失了船只之后,造船业再也没有能力恢复到16世纪初那样了。

对威尼斯人失去贸易主导权的传统解释是,葡萄牙人建立的直接通往东方的海上航线替代了起自黑海的陆上丝绸之路以及通往威尼斯的高利润的印度洋—东地中海陆上商路。在15世纪末期,葡萄牙的瓦斯科?达?伽马实现了环绕南非到达印度的航行;而在1502年,通往阿拉伯国家的商路因政治动荡被切断。

威尼斯委员会最终允许在贸易中使用圆船,之前只允许使用单层甲板大帆船,因此运输的成本下降了1/3。从地中海东部船运过来的香料价格与葡萄牙航线船运的香料价格相当,但是两条运营的商线使得香料的总供应量增加,从而导致香料的价格大幅度下降。逐渐地,威尼斯作为香料、丝绸、染料棉和黄金的储存与配销中心的作用衰退了,到17世纪早期,威尼斯彻底失去了它在诸如法国和德国南部市场上的垄断地位。

威尼斯航运业的衰退是从大约1530年开始的——在大量荷兰和英国船只进入地中海之前——并且在16世纪末期明显被超越了。在莎士比亚时代(1564~1616),相比较英国,意大利航运业生产力已经在下降了,这是因为意大利的航运业过于守旧并且缺乏专业技术所致。此外,意大利船员逐渐逃离并移居到他乡,而船长不再是从贵族阶级中征召而来,在航海方面也暴露出各种不足。




第二篇:Decline of newspapers 29200字

Decline of newspapers

The decline of newspapers has been widely debated as the industry has faced down soaring newsprint prices, slumping ad sales, the loss of much classified advertising and precipitous drops in circulation. In recent years the number of newspapers slated for closure, bankruptcy or severe cutbacks has risen—especially in the United States, where the industry has shed a fifth of its journalists since 2001.[1] Revenue has plunged while competition from internet media has squeezed older print publishers.[1][2] This has strictly affected only the United States or the English-speaking markets though there is a large rise in sales for countries like China, Japan and India.

The debate has become more urgent lately, as a deepening recession has cut profits,[3] and as once-explosive growth in newspaper web revenues has leveled off, forestalling what the industry hoped would become an important source of revenue.[4] One issue is whether the newspaper industry is being hit by a cyclical trough and will recover, or whether new technology has rendered newspapers obsolete in their traditional format. To survive, newspapers are considering combining and other options,[5] although the outcome of such partnerships has been criticized.[6] Despite these problems, newspaper companies with significant brand value, which have published their work online, have a significant rise in viewership. Causes for decline

The newspaper industry has always been cyclical, and the industry has weathered previous troughs. But while television's arrival in the 1950s presaged the decline of newspapers' importance as most people's source of daily news, the explosion of the internet in the 1990s and the first decade of the 21st century increased the panoply of media choices

available to the average reader while further cutting into newspapers' hegemony as the source of news. Both television and the Internet bring news to the consumer faster and in a more visual style than newspapers, which are constrained by their physical form and the need to be physically manufactured and distributed. The competing mediums also offer advertisers the opportunity to use moving images and sound. And the internet search function allows advertisers to tailor their pitch to readers who have revealed what information they are seeking—an enormous advantage.

The Internet has also gone a step further than television in eroding the advertising income of newspapers, as – unlike broadcast media – it proves a convenient vehicle for classified advertising, particularly in categories such as jobs, vehicles, and real estate. Free services like

Craigslist have decimated the classified advertising departments of many newspapers, some of which depended on classifieds for 70% of their ad revenue.[7] Research has shown that Craigslist cost the newspaper industry $5.4 billion from 2000-2007, and that changes on the classified side of newspaper business led to an increase in subscription prices, a decrease in display advertising rates, and may have impacted some newspapers' online strategy.[8] At the same time, newspapers have been pinched by consolidation of large department stores, which once accounted for substantial advertising sums. Press baron Rupert Murdoch once described the profits flowing from his stable of newspapers as "rivers of gold." But, said Murdoch several years later, "sometimes rivers dry up."[9] "Simply put," wrote Buffalo News owner Warren Buffett, "if cable and satellite broadcasting, as well as the internet, had come along first, newspapers as we know them probably would never have existed."[10]

As their revenues have been squeezed, newspapers have also been

increasingly assailed by other media taking away not only their readers, but their principal sources of profit. Many of these 'new media' are not saddled with expensive union contracts, printing presses, delivery fleets and overhead built over decades. Many of these competitors are simply 'aggregators' of news, often derived from print sources, but without print

[11]media's capital-intensive overhead. Some estimates put the percentage

of online news derived from newspapers at 80%.[12]

"Newspapers are doing the reporting in this country," observed John S. Carroll, former editor of The Los Angeles Times for five years. "Google and Yahoo aren't those people putting reporters on the street in any number. Blogs cannot afford it."[13] Many newspapers also suffer from the broad trend toward "fragmentation" of all media – in which small numbers of large media outlets attempting to serve substantial portions of the population are replaced by an abundance of smaller and more specialized organizations, often aiming only to serve specific interest groups. So-called narrowcasting has splintered audiences into smaller and smaller slivers. But newspapers have not been alone in this: the rise of cable television and satellite television at the expense of network television in countries such as the United States and United Kingdom is another example of this fragmentation.

United States[edit]

Since the beginning of 2009, the United States has seen a number of major metropolitan dailies shuttered or drastically pruned after no buyers emerged, including The Rocky Mountain News, closed in February, and The Seattle Post-Intelligencer, reduced to a bare-bones internet operation.[14] The San Francisco Chronicle narrowly averted closure when employees made steep concessions.[15] In Detroit, both newspapers, The Detroit Free Press and The Detroit News, slashed home delivery to three days a week, while prodding readers to visit the newspapers' internet sites on other days.[16] In Tucson, Arizona, the state's oldest newspaper, the Tucson Citizen, said it would cease publishing on March 21, 2009, when parent Gannett Company failed to find a buyer.[17]

A number of other large, financially troubled newspapers are seeking buyers.[18] One of the few large dailies finding a buyer is The San Diego Union-Tribune, which agreed to be sold to a private equity firm for what The Wall Street Journal called "a rock-bottom price" of less than $50 million – essentially a real estate purchase.[19] (The newspaper was estimated to have been worth roughly $1 billion as recently as 2004.)[20] The Sun Times Media Group, publisher of the eponymous bankrupt newspaper, fielded a meager $5 million cash bid, plus assumption of debt, for assets last claimed worth $310 million.

Large newspaper chains filing bankruptcy since December 2008 include the Tribune Company, the Journal Register Company, the Minneapolis Star Tribune, Philadelphia Newspapers LLC, Sun-Times Media Group and Freedom Communications.[21]

Some newspaper chains that have purchased other papers have seen stock values plummet.[22] The McClatchy Company, the nation's third–largest newspaper company, was the only bidder on the Knight-Ridder chain of newspapers in 2005. Since its $6.5 billion Knight-Ridder purchase, McClatchy's stock has lost more than 98% of its value.[23] McClatchy subsequently announced large layoffs and executive pay cuts, as its shares fell into penny stock territory.[24] (Although McClatchy faced delisting from the New York Stock Exchange for having a share price below $1, in September 2009, it was able to overcome this threat.[25] Others have not been so lucky. In 2008 and 2009, three other U.S. newspaper chains have seen their shares delisted by the NYSE.[26])

Other newspaper company valuations have been similarly punished: the stocks of Gannett Company, Lee Enterprises and Media General traded at less than two dollars per share by March 2009, with The Washington Post Company's stock faring better than most, thanks to diversification into educational training programs – and away from publishing.[27] Similarly, UK-based Pearson PLC, owner of The Financial Times, increased earnings

in 2008 despite a drop in newspaper profits, thanks to diversification away from publishing.[28]

The New York Times Company, hard-pressed for cash as its shares slid below five dollars per share, suspended its dividend, sold and leased back part of its headquarters, and sold preferred shares to Mexican businessman Carlos Slim in return for a cash infusion. But the credit rating agencies still cut the rating on Times Company's debt to junk status, and the cash crunch at The Times prompted it to threaten to shutter its Boston Globe unless workers made deep concessions.[29] Even News Corp., the diversified media holding company overseen by Rupert Murdoch, was hit, forced to write down much of the value of newspaper publisher Dow Jones & Co. that it purchased for $5 billion in 2007.[30][31] Apparently shelved are plans announced by Murdoch at the time of the acquisition to expand The Wall Street Journal's newsroom.

One development occurred in mid 2013, when billionaire Jeff Bezos, founder of Amazon.com, paid US$250 million for The Washington Post and several smaller newspapers. (The Post company had sold Newsweek a few years earlier.) The purchase, which ended the more than 80-year ownership of the paper by the Graham family, was called "generous"[citation needed] by publisher Katharine Weymouth, who was asked to remain at the helm. When it was noted that the paper might have to run stories which are critical of Amazon.com or Bezos in the future, Bezos agreed not to interfere with the newspaper's independence. Others[who?] have said that Bezos drastically overpaid for the paper, and that late publisher Katharine Graham might[weasel words] not have made the sale.[citation needed]

The deterioration in the United States newspaper market led one senator to introduce a bill in March 2009 allowing newspaper companies to restructure as non-profit corporations with an array of tax breaks.[32] The Newspaper Revitalization Act would allow newspapers to operate as

nonprofits similar to public broadcasting companies, barring them from making political endorsements.[33][34]

United Kingdom[edit]

This section is outdated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (June 2013)

Declineofnewspapers

In the United Kingdom, newspaper publishers have been similarly hit. In late 2008 The Independent announced job cuts. In January the chain Associated Newspapers sold a controlling stake in the London Evening Standard as it announced a 24% decline in 2008 ad revenues. In March 2009 parent company Daily Mail and General Trust said job cuts would be deeper than expected, spanning its newspapers, which include the Leicester Mercury, the Bristol Evening Post and the Derby Telegraph.[35] One industry report predicted that 1 in 10 UK print publications would cut its frequency of publication in half, go online only or shut in 2009.[36]

Across the world

The challenges facing the industry are not limited to the United States, or even English-speaking markets. Newspapers in Switzerland and the Netherlands, for instance, have lost half of their classified advertising to the internet.[37] At its annual convention[38] slated for May, 2009, in Barcelona, Spain, the World Association of Newspapers has titled the convention's subject "Newspapers Focus on Print & Advertising Revenues in Difficult Times."[39]

In September 2008, the World Association of Newspapers called for

regulators to block a proposed Google–Yahoo advertising partnership, calling it a threat to newspaper industry revenues worldwide.[40] The WAN painted a stark picture of the threat posed to newspapers by the search engine giants. "Perhaps never in the history of newspaper publishing has a single, commercial entity threatened to exert this much control over the destiny of the press," said the Paris-based global newspaper organization of the proposed pact.[41]

But there are bright spots in the world market for newspapers. At its 2008 convention, held in Gothenburg, Sweden, the World Association of Newspapers released figures showing newspaper circulations and

advertising had actually climbed in the previous year. Newspaper sales were up nearly 2.6% the previous year, and up 9.4% over the past five years. Free daily newspapers, noted the WAN, accounted for nearly 7% of all global newspaper circulation – and a whopping 23% of European newspaper circulation.[42] Of the world's 100 best–selling daily newspapers, 74 are published in Asia – with China, Japan and India accounting for 62 of those.

Sales of newspapers rose in Latin America, Asia and the Middle East, but fell in other regions of the world, including Western Europe, where the proliferation of free dailies helped bolster overall circulation figures. While internet revenues are rising for the industry, the bulk of its web

revenues come from a few areas, with most revenue generated in the United States, western Europe and Asia–Pacific region.[42]

Technological change[]

The increasing use of the internet search function, primarily through large engines such as Google, has also changed the habits of readers.[43] Instead of perusing general interest publications, such as newspapers, readers are more likely to seek particular writers, blogs or sources of information through targeted searches, rendering the agglomeration of newspapers increasingly irrelevant. "Power is shifting to the individual journalist from the news outlet with more people seeking out names through search, e-mail, blogs and social media," the industry publication Editor & Publisher noted in summarizing a recent study from the Project for Excellence in Journalism foundation.[1]

"When we go online," writes columnist Nicholas Kristof of The New York Times, "each of us is our own editor, our own gatekeeper."[44]

Where once the ability to disseminate information was restricted to those with printing presses or broadcast mechanisms, the internet has enabled thousands of individual commentators to communicate directly with others through blogs or instant message services.[45] Even open journalism projects like Wikipedia have contributed to the reordering of the media landscape, as readers are no longer restricted to established print organs for information.[46]

But the search engine experience has left some newspaper proprietors cold. "The aggregators and plagiarists will soon have to pay a price for the co-opting of our content," Rupert Murdoch told the World Media Summit in Beijing, China. "If we do not take advantage of the current movement toward paid content, it will be the content creators – the people in this hall – who will pay the ultimate price and the content kleptomaniacs who triumph."[47]

Critics of the newspaper as a medium also argue that while today's newspapers may appear visually different from their predecessors a century ago, in many respects they have changed little and have failed to keep pace with changes in society. The technology revolution has meant that readers accustomed to waiting for a daily newspaper can now receive up-to-the-minute updates from web portals, bloggers and new services such as Twitter.[48] The expanding reach of broadband internet access means such updates have become commonplace for many users, especially the more affluent, an audience cultivated by advertisers.[49]

The gloomy outlook is not universal. In some countries, such as India, the newspaper remains more popular than internet and broadcast media. Even where the problems are felt most keenly, in North America and Europe, there have been recent success stories, such as the dramatic rise of free daily newspapers, like those of Sweden's Metro International,[50] as well as papers targeted towards the Hispanic market, local weekly shoppers,[51] and so-called hyperlocal news.[52]

But these new revenue streams, such as that from newspapers' proprietary web sites, are often a fraction of the sums generated by the previous advertisement- and circulation-driven revenue streams, and so newspapers have been forced to curtail their overhead while simultaneously trying to entice new users.[53] With revenues plummeting, many newspapers have slashed news bureaus and journalists, while still attempting to publish compelling content – much of it more interactive,[54] more

lifestyle-driven and more celebrity-conscious.

In response to falling ad revenues and plunging circulation, many

newspapers have cut staff as well as editorial content, and in a vicious cycle, those cuts often spur more and deeper circulation

declines—triggering more loss of ad revenues. "No industry can cut its way to future success," says industry analyst John Morton. "At some point the business must improve."[10]

Overall, in the United States, average operating profit margins for newspapers remain at 11%.[55] But that figure is falling rapidly, and in many cases is inadequate to service the debt that some newspaper companies took on during better times.[1] And while circulation has dropped 2% annually for years, that decline has accelerated.[56]

The circulation decline, coupled with a 23% drop in 2008 newspaper ad revenues, have proven a double whammy for some newspaper chains.[32] Combined with the current recession, the cloudy outlook for future profits has meant that many newspapers put on the block have been unable to find buyers, who remain concerned with increasing competition, dwindling profits and a business model that seems increasingly antiquated.[57] "As succeeding generations grow up with the Web and lose the habit of reading print," noted The Columbia Journalism Review in 2007, "it seems improbable that newspapers can survive with a cost structure at least 50% higher than their nimbler and cheaper Internet competitors."[58] The problem facing newspapers is generational: while in 2005 an estimated 70% of older Americans read a newspaper daily, fewer than 20% of younger Americans did.[59]

"It is the fundamental problem facing the industry," writes newspaper analyst Morton. "It's probably not going away. And no one has figured a way out."[59]

Financial strategies[]

While newspaper companies continue to produce much of the award-winning journalism, consumers of that journalism are less willing to pay for it in a world where information on the web is plentiful and free. Plans for web-based subscription services have largely faltered, with the exception of financial outlets like The Wall Street Journal, which have been able to generate substantial revenues from subscribers whose subscriptions are often underwritten by corporate employers. (Subscriptions to the Journal's paid website were up 7% in 2008.) Some general-interest

newspapers, even high-profile papers like The New York Times, have been forced to drop paid internet subscription services. Times Select, the Times's pay service, lasted for exactly two years before the company abandoned it.[60]

Within the industry, there is little consensus on the best strategy for survival. Some pin their hopes on new technologies such as e-paper or radical revisions of the newspaper such as the Daily Me;[61] others, like a recent cover story in Time magazine, have advocated a system that includes both subscriptions as well as micro-payments for individual stories.[62][63]

Some newspaper analysts believe the wisest move is embracing the Internet, and exploiting the considerable brand value and consumer trust that newspapers have built over decades. But revenues from online editions have come nowhere near matching previous print income from circulation and advertising sales, since they get only about one-tenth to one-twentieth the revenue for a web reader that they do for a print reader;[64] many struggle to maintain their previous levels of reporting amidst eroding profits.[65]

With profits falling, many newspapers have cut back on their most expensive reporting projects – overseas bureaus and investigative journalism.[66] Some investigative projects often take months, with their payoff uncertain. In the past, larger newspapers often devoted a portion of their editorial budget to such efforts, but with ad dollars drying up, many papers are looking closer at the productivity of individual reporters, and judging speculative investments in investigative reports as non-essential.[67]

Some advocates have suggested that instead of investigative reports funded by newspapers, that non-profit foundations pick up the slack. The new non-profit ProPublica, a $10–million–a–year foundation devoted solely to investigative reporting and overseen by former Wall Street Journal editor Paul Steiger, for instance, hopes that its 18 reporters will be able to release their investigative reports free, courtesy of partnerships with such outlets as The New York Times, The Atlantic and 60 Minutes. The Huffington Post also announced that it would set aside funds for investigative reporting.[68] Other industry observers are now clamoring for government subsidies to the newspaper industry.[69]

Observers point out that the reliability and accountability of newspapers is being replaced by a sea of anonymous bloggers, many with uncertain credentials and points of view. Where once the reader of a daily newspaper might consume reporting, for instance, by an established Cairo bureau chief for a major newspaper, today that same reader might be directed by a search engine to an anonymous blogger with cloudy allegiances, training or ability.[70]

Crisis

Ironically, these dilemmas facing the newspaper industry come as its product has never been more sought-after. "The peculiar fact about the current crisis," writes The New Yorker's economics writer James Surowiecki, "is that even as big papers have become less profitable they've arguably become more popular."[72]

As the demand for news has exploded, so have consumers of the output of newspapers. Both nytimes.com and washingtonpost.com, for instance, rank among the top 20 global news sites.[59] But those consumers are now reading newspapers online for free, and although newspapers have been able to convert some of that viewership into ad dollars, it is a trickle compared to previous sources. At most newspapers, web advertising accounts for only 10–15% of revenues.[32]

Some observers have compared the dilemma to that faced by the music industry. "What's going on in the news business is a lot like what's happening with music," said editor Paul Steiger, a 43–year journalism veteran, who further added that free distribution of content through the internet has caused "a total collapse of the business model."[67]

The revenue streams that newspapers counted on to subsidize their product have changed irrevocably: in 2008, according to a study by the Pew Research Center, more people in the United States got their news for free on the internet than paid for it by buying a newspaper or magazine. "With

newspapers entering bankruptcy even as their audience grows, the threat is not just to the companies that own them, but also the news itself," observed writer David Carr of The New York Times in a January 2009 column.[73] Outlook for the future

Depending on location and circumstances, each specific newspaper will face varied threats and changes. In some cases, new owners have increased their print, not trying to rely a lot more on digital services. However, in most cases, there is an attempt to find new revenue sources online that are less based on print sales. How much further ad sales will decline cannot be predicted with accuracy. The future will partly be shaped by the need for vision, leadership, and community support of local news and journalism. The future will be shaped by what citizens and consumers choose. The decline of well paid journalism and reliable news sources could level off if enough citizens choose to support it. Newspapers have a very important role to play, by holding governments to account, trying to stop corruption, and being an important contribution to democratic free speech. The future is not inevitable or predetermined.

Ultimately, the newspaper of the future may bear little resemblance to the newsprint edition familiar to older readers.[74] It may become a hybrid, part-print and part-internet, or perhaps eventually, as has happened with several newspapers, including the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, the Christian Science Monitor and the Ann Arbor News, internet only.[75][76] In the meantime, the transition from the printed page to whatever comes next will likely be fraught with challenges, both for the newspaper industry and for its consumers.

"My expectation," wrote executive editor Bill Keller of The New York Times in January 2009, "is that for the foreseeable future our business will continue to be a mix of print and online journalism, with the growth online offsetting the (gradual, we hope) decline of print."[77] The paper in newspaper may go away, insist industry stalwarts, but the news will remain. "Paper is dying," said Nick Bilton, a technologist for The Times, "but it's just a device. Replacing it with pixels is a better experience."[78] On September 8, 2010, Arthur Sulzberger Jr., Chairman and Publisher of The New York Times, told an International Newsroom Summit in London that "We will stop printing the New York Times sometime in the future, date TBD."[79]

Mitchell Stephens calls for a turn toward "wisdom journalism" that will take a more evaluative, investigative, informed, and possibly even opinionated stance.[80]

But even as pixels replace print, and as newspapers undergo wrenching surgery, necessitating deep cutbacks, reallocation of remaining

reporters, and the slashing of decades-old overhead, some observers remain optimistic.[81] What emerges may be 'newspapers' unrecognizable to older readers, but which may be more timely, more topical and more flexible. Less competition from other local printers will also be a major determining factor.

"Journalistic outlets will discover," wrote Michael Hirschorn in The Atlantic, "that the Web allows (okay, forces) them to concentrate on developing expertise in a narrower set of issues and interests, while helping journalists from other places and publications find new audiences."[65] The 'newspaper' of the future, say Hirschorn and others, may resemble The Huffington Post more than anything flung at today's stoops and driveways.[82][83]

Much of that experimentation may happen in the world's fastest-growing newspaper markets. "The number of newspapers and their circulation has declined the world over except in India and China," according to former CEO Olivier Fleurot of The Financial Times. "The world is becoming more digital but technology has helped newspapers as much as the Internet."[84] Making those technological changes work for them, instead of against them, will decide whether newspapers remain vital – or roadkill on the information superhighway.[85]

There will be a percentage of readers that refuse to use the internet and electronic screens, preferring hard copies. What this percentage will be, in various places and times, remains to be seen. Some readers have too much screen time already, and enjoy going back to paper and ink at times. Some ad attempts online are blocked, unlike a paper ad. The value of print advertising is that a significant percentage of the population will see the same ad, unlike specialized internet ads.

Journalism schools in the U.S.[edit]

The US journalism schools are also pressured to adapt to the changing landscape. At the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and Mass Communication, part of Arizona State University, a course on "The Business of Journalism" was retitled "The Business and Future of Journalism" [86] Introductory level courses at the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University include "Multimedia Storytelling" and "Introduction to 21st-Century Media."[86] As print journalism wanes, journalism schools are focusing on the internet as a distribution medium, and are recalibrating courses to hone skills needed for jobs in the 21st

century. Schools now include classes on computer programming as well as entrepreneurship. Rich Beckman, a professor at the University of Miami, said "There were deans all over the country saying, 'We're never going to teach computer programming in J-school.' Well, now they are."[86] Centers for teaching new media innovation are being created at Columbia University and the City University of New York.[86]

Although newspapers are struggling, and journalism jobs being eliminated, applications at the nation's journalism schools are increasing. The Columbia Journalism School reports a 44% jump from 2008, and the Annenberg School for Communication reports a 20% increase. Other schools report similar increases.

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