标准大学本科毕业论文(中英文双语)模版和范文设计(史上最标准)(40800字)

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标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

铜仁学院

本科生毕业论文(设计)

题目:论初中英语课堂教学中的pair work

系 别 外国语言文学系

专 业 英语教育 姓 名 xx

指导教师 xxxx

截稿日期

铜仁学院毕业论文任务书

外国语言文学 系 英语教育 专业 2009 年级 学生姓名 xx

毕业论文题目:论初中英语课堂教学中的pair work

任务下达日期: 2012 年 9 月 1 日

毕业论文写作日期: 2012 年 10 月 1 日至 2013

月 1 日

学生签字: 指导教师签字:

年 5

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

目 录

引言 ................................................................................................................ 错误!未定义书签。 理论指导......................................................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 课题研究的意义 ............................................................................................. 错误!未定义书签。

一.新课程改革的需要 ........................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

二.教师成长的需要 ............................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

三.英语教学现状的需要 ....................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 研究方法......................................................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

(一)调查问卷的研究过程 ................................................................. 错误!未定义书签。

(二)分组设计 ..................................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

(三)课堂观察的实验过程 ................................................................. 错误!未定义书签。 阶段性评价和多元性评价 ............................................................................. 错误!未定义书签。

1.学生自我进行评价 ............................................................................. 错误!未定义书签。

2.学习小组成员互评 ............................................................................. 错误!未定义书签。

3.小组评价 ............................................................................................. 错误!未定义书签。

4.教师评价 ............................................................................................. 错误!未定义书签。

5.新问题的提出 ..................................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 如何帮助差生更好地进行Pair Work .......................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

一.问题再现 ......................................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

二.解决方案与行动计划 ..................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

三.方案实施与效果 ............................................................................. 错误!未定义书签。 Pair work活动中应注意的几个问题 .......................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

1、活动之前要充分准备 ....................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

2、活动期间要认真监督,不要守着讲台不动 ................................... 错误!未定义书签。

3、不要破坏pair work ........................................................................ 错误!未定义书签。

4、创造宽松的pair work气氛,减轻学生的心理压力 ................... 错误!未定义书签。

5、Pair work不能拘于形式 ................................................................ 错误!未定义书签。

6、活动之后要及时反馈 ....................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 总结推广应用阶段 ......................................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 结论 ................................................................................................................ 错误!未定义书签。 参考文献......................................................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 致谢 ................................................................................................................ 错误!未定义书签。

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

摘 要

自20xx年提倡高效课堂以来,教师的教学理念和教学方法、教学方式及教学手段发生了明显的变化。新的师生关系在教学中体现得比较到位,师生之间平等、民主、和谐的关系已基本上建立起来,教学过程中学生的主人地位得到保障,主人作用得到发挥,学生民主、主动、互助、合作、探究式的学习精神和学习方法有了历史性的突破。初中英语课堂教学中的互动——pair work,是改变我省英语教学质量的一个重要方法,同时也能适应我国所提倡的新课程改革的要求,符合教育人性化的发展趋势。本文主要分为论文的引论部分、理论指导、课题研究的意义、研究方法、阶段性评价和多元性评价、如何帮助差生更好地进行Pair Work、Pair work活动中应注意的几个问题、总结推广应用阶段和结论九个部分。 关键词:教学质量 多元评价 课堂互动 差生

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

ABSTRACT

Since 2004 to promote efficient classroom, has changed the teaching philosophy and teaching methods, teaching methods and teaching means. The new teacher-student relationship reflected in teaching between teachers and students in comparison, equal, democratic, harmonious relationship has been basically established, the teaching process middle-school student's master status is guaranteed, the master role playing, students' democratic, active, mutual aid, cooperation, inquiry learning spirit and learning method is the historic breakthrough. -- pair work interaction in Junior English classroom, is a important method of English teaching quality in our province, but also can adapt to our country advocated by the requirements of the new curriculum reform, in line with the development trend of humanization of education. Study on the introduction, theory, this paper is mainly divided into the meaning, research method, periodic evaluation and multiple evaluation, how to help students better Pair Work, Pair work activity summary application stage and some problems should be paid attention to in the conclusion, the nine part.

Keywords: The quality of teaching Multiple evaluation Classroom interaction

A poor student

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

引言

据恢复高考制度以来,我们贵州的教育发展较慢,教育教学水平起步很低,进度也很缓慢。这种教育现象虽然短时间内很难改变,主要我们贵州的经济基础和发展存在着很大的关系,对教育的投资还不足,尤其是师资力量和教学质量上,这种情况尤其在英语教学上,据问卷调查发现,85%的学生不知道如何去学习英语,10%的学生认为英语难学难记难背,5%的学生彻底因为学不懂英语而彻底放弃对英语的学习。虽然我省大多数中小学开设了英语课,但整体教学水平不高,师资力量薄弱,教学设施落后。如何提高的英语教育质量成为我省中小学学校亟待解决的一个难题。

面对英语难背诵、难记忆、难掌握学习方法,且易忘记、易混淆、易错选的现象,要改变这种低效力、低质量的英语教学现状,必须得寻找出一种高效、提高学生积极性的学习方法,那就是——英语教学中的pair work.本文主要论述了引论部分、理论指导、课题研究的意义、研究方法、阶段性评价和多元性评价、Pair work活动中应注意的几个问题、总结推广应用阶段和结论几个问题。

1

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

pair work是20世纪70年代由美国著名教育学家David Koonts首先倡导并实施的。它是“一种小组学习活动,学习是依赖小组成员中彼此息的交换,在小组中每个学习者对自己的学习的负责,达到共同地学习目标,并以小组地总体成绩为奖励依据地教学策略体系。

Pair work是二十一世纪的教育理念之一。同时,合作学习也是我国新一轮课程改革所提倡的一种重要的学习方式。如何有效的开展合作学习正成为目前课程改革的热点问题。针对农村中学大班组、大课堂及学生参差不齐的特点,教师根据教材的内容、操练的需要,以“任务型教学“方法为主,设计科学、合理、有效的合作学习小组活动,让学生在小组或团体中完成共同的任务,进行有明确的责任分工的互助学习。在学习中,学生积极地互相支持、配合、互动、积极承担共同任务中的个人任务,互相进行有效的沟通,建立小组成员间的相互信任,对共同活动成效进行评价。

理论指导

“Pair work“的教学模式的理论指导是:建构主义学习理论和建构主义学习环境强调以学生为中心,不仅要求学生由外部剌激的被动接受者和知识的灌输对象转变为信息加工的主体和知识意义的主动建构者,而且要求教师要由知识的传授者、灌输者转变为学生主动建构意义的帮助者、促进者。建构主义的学习过程是人的认知思维活动的主动建构过程、是人们通过自身源有的知识经验与外界环境进行交互活动以获得、建构新知识的过程。因此,在教学过程中,要让学生在适当的环境、要求下通过合作学习、主动参与、主动探索、主动发现,即通过“小组自主学习”才能完成。

课题研究的意义

一.新课程改革的需要

为了更好地适应课改的需求,与时俱进,使我们的教学能真正成为师生富有个性化的创造过程,更好地关注教师和学生的共同发展,培养学生的主体意识和创新能力,是学校教育的一项重要任务。教学一线的工作在课堂,把自己的工作作为研究对象才是抓住了教学研究的本。

二.教师成长的需要

改变传统的教学模式,首要的是改变教师的角色,老师由“教”转变为“导”,充分发挥学生的主体性、探究性、合作性;只有提高我们自身的素质,才能适应课改的要求,解决教师的教学策略问题。避免有些教师在观摩了优秀教师的课堂教学后,自己做起来并不有效。通过该课题的研究,促使教师通过理论学习,能解决教学实践中存在的策略意识不足问题。

三.英语教学现状的需要

直面我省英语教育现状:绝大部分学生来自农村,学习基础差、底子薄、习惯差。因此,转变学生的学习方式,摒弃传统的以“教师为中心”的以“教”为主的模式,构建以“学生为认知主体,教师为教学主导”的以“学”为主的“双主”教学模式,使学生的学习完全摆脱传统的束缚,促使师生间的课堂结构关系发生质的变化,教师由“教”转变为“导”,真正把主动权交给学生,由“要你学”转为“我想学”,“我会学”,让不同层次的学生得到发展,成了我校英语教学迫切需要解决的问题。

三个方面的原因促使我们开展了“创建高效课堂,小组合作学习”这一课题研究。 Pair work问题的提出

Pair work,即两人一组进行课堂活动,是初中英语课堂经常采用的一种教学形式。教师在组织pair work 时会发现大部分学生做得比较成功,但也常有少数同学的会话效率不高或活动失败的现象。例如,有的被一方独占话题,双方很少交换“话轮”;有的双方各行其事, 2

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

“有话而无会”;有的使用母语为中介语,小声低语等。当教师请“会话未成功”小组当众会话时,也常常出现两人的对话不能连贯表达,致使会话无法继续进行。

原因假设

是什么原因使得pair work未能充分发挥提高学生口语能力的预期作用呢?笔者对其试做以下假设:

1. 教师示意不清。

2. 学生学习能力的差异。

3. 活动安排得不合理,如时间紧、话题枯燥等。

4. 其它个人因素,如两人关系、性别及性格差异等。

研究方法

(一)调查问卷的研究过程

针对以上假设,调查问卷设计如下:

(1)考查学生对会话活动的兴趣:是否喜欢两人一组活动?

(2)考查教师示意是否清晰:会话活动前,老师是否示意清楚?

(3)考查学生学习能力差异因素:你喜欢与什么样水平的同学一组练习?

(4)考查性格差异因素:你喜欢与什么样性格的同学一组练习?

(5)考查交往差异因素:你喜欢与平时相处怎样的同学一组练习?

(6)考查性别差异因素:你希望与什么性别的同学一组练习?

(7)自我判断:你认为哪些是两人对话活动成功或失败的主要原因?

调查对象:初中学生,共90人。

调查结果: 在90份有效答卷中,70%的学生喜欢做pair work,基本肯定了会话活动的积极意义。

(二)分组设计

1.构建课堂教学“小组合作学习”活动教研网络,率先在初一、初二语文、数学、英语、政治、历史、地理和生物各学科中确立学科带头人。

2.实验班级:初一 1——5班 初二 1——5班

3.划分小组:

根据本班实际情况,本着双向选择的原则,分成6~8人为一小组,根据班级人数分成多个小组。分组时,教师根据学生的性别、性格、成绩、智力等方面的比例结构进行组间平行微调,使各组成员实力相当,小组之间的综合水平基本平衡。要特别注意为班上的特差生找到一个理想的位置。小组自己推荐组长,也可以采取竞选组长的办法,下设副组长、学科组长、纪律监督员、记录员,全组全员参与,讨论生成自己小组的组名,口号等。小组成员分工协作、互相学习、互相帮助,使小组的学习活动建立在和谐的氛围中。

4.小组成员分工:

组内成员是一个整体,小组是一个团队,强调集体行动,不搞个人主义,组内对于各种任务要有明确分工,并且要明确落实到人。

(1)正组长:在以身作则的基础上,对组员的学习、行为、思想等进行监督、督促和指导。包括随时与班主任及各任课教师联系,在同学和老师之间架起一座沟通的桥梁,起到上传下达,下达上报的作用。负责本组的学习情况。同时,负责填写本小组一周内在校表现情况。负责开好周一的小组会议。

(2)副组长:协助组长处理组内一切事务,同组长一起加强组内的向心力和凝聚力。负责本组的学习情况及整个小组课前准备情况。在讨论后,负责发言人的提名来汇报本小组讨 3

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

论的结果,同时,均衡组内成员到黑板板书的机会。

(3)学科组长:分管各科预习、作业的收交、检查、记录,并及时将作业完成情况汇报给各科课代表,课代表核实后,将各小组作业完成情况登记到量化评比栏中。同时,负责统计一周中组内成员在该学科的发言次数并填好统计表。

(4)纪律监督员:负责本小组的课堂纪律维护,对于上课出现的说话、嬉笑、打闹、递纸条等现象及时制止。

(5)记录员:负责记录本组的得分情况。避免误加或误减分数,造成不必要的纠纷和混乱。下课后及时汇报给各课代表。

以上设置,班主任、任课教师可根据本班实际情况选用、整合、增减。 (三)课堂观察的实验过程

1)设计方案 根据调查反馈结果,在教学中有意识地针对第二种假设——学生学习能力差异,安排了水平各异的三组学生同时同地进行观察,其座位设置如下:

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

2)课堂观察方法

请三名教师作为观察者分别坐在被试之后,持先行设计的观察记录表,记录各组对话所用时间及双方会话的过程。记录以五秒钟为单位,用符号表示不同的活动。如:“——”表示用目标语交谈,“---”表示用汉语交谈,“x”表示做无关活动或未交谈。

3)访谈方法

在课堂观察实验后,有意识地针对第二、第三种假设设计如下问题:你喜欢与你刚才一同练习的同桌吗?

你在做pair work的过程中有困难吗?如果有,是什么呢?请两名教师担任采访者,安排在课间休息时进行。这样做的原因是:一是这时被试还对对话活动有清楚的印象;二可避免其他同学过分注意。具体的方法是,在每组中随意抽出一名同学到某位教师那里接受采访,而另一同学到另一位教师那里接受同样的采访。这样,学生可以在同桌不在身边的情况下,谈出自己的真实感受。采访时间约为三分钟。同时,在受访者事先无察情况下录音记录,

4

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

阶段性评价和多元性评价

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

1.学生自我进行评价 在小组合作学习中,我们要求学生针对自身参与学习活动的态度、合作精神和合作能力、基本能力(主要是独立寻求信息的能力、完成任务的活动能力、与人沟通的能力、表达能力等)、独立性和创造精神等方面进行自我评价。

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

2.学习小组成员互评

合理评价是小组合作成功与否的保障。其中组内成员的互评是充分发挥评价的激励功能的重要一环,评价的侧重点由评小组成员的合作态度,再到合作质量,最后到创新,循序渐进。

小组成员互评表:(同上表) 3.小组评价

在学生自评互、互评的基础上,还应进行小组对成员的评价。学习小组要实事求是地进

5

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

行合理、公正的评价,最后由小组长根据小组的意见,记录评价结果,交给任课教师。

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

4.教师评价

学生是学习的主人,教师是学生学习的助手,学生的学习热情是否高涨,学习是否高效,教师的科学评价非常重要,也是引导学生学习的有效手段。教师要定期对学生个体参与小组合作学习的状况进行合理的评价,关注学生合作状况,关注学生与他人合作的态度,达到激励学生,让学生动起来,让课堂活起来。 教师评价表:

6

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

5.新问题的提出

通过调查问卷、课堂观察、课后采访和课后的多元评价结果发现有两个问题不可忽视:其一,两个高水平的学生总是理想搭档,可是如何安排低水平学生的搭档呢?在保证搭配的双方关系都比较好的情况下,是否可以把他们与低水平的同学安排在一起呢?其二,如何合理地设计安排课堂活动,以使低水平的学生更多地得到控制性练习(controlled practice)的机会,同时又不使高水平的学生失去兴趣,从而学到新东西呢?其三,Pair work教学中学生的参与性、小组竞争性、对比性较强,优差生的差别明显。因此,笔者将如何解决低水平学生的搭配与如何解决活动设计问题,作为下一阶段行动研究的重点。

如何帮助差生更好地进行Pair Work

一.问题再现

通过问卷调查、采访分析及课堂观察发现,学习能力高低的匹配与课堂活动安排远远大于其它因素(性格、关系因素等)对于Pair Work的影响。很显然,两个高水平的同学是最理想搭配。那么,如何调动差生的积极性,使其更好地参与活动呢?在新学期初始,笔者把行为研究的重点确定为:如何帮助差生更好地进行Pair Work?

二.解决方案与行动计划

针对上述问题,提出了几种解决方案,制定了相应的执行时间与资料收集

方法。这些解决方案具体如下。

1.重点安排差生座位

依据:由于班级学生学习能力存在差异,学生座位的安排是教师班级管理的一项重要内容。通常,教育者认为优差搭配是最佳方式,宜将优差生适当搭配,以利活动的顺利展开,同时充分发挥优生对差生的辅导作用,提高工作效率。差生究竟在与哪类同学的练习中更能获益呢?

方法:首先确认差生,然后在学期初和学期末分别为其配置优、中、差不同学习能力的三位同学进行Pair Work,并确认差生与他们的个人关系都很好。通过课堂观察效果,以寻找最佳搭配。

2.练习前合理设计任务

依据:通过访谈发现,学生在Pair Work中感到有困难之处是单词不会说、句子不熟练等。在Pair Work前的机械性对话练习可以帮助差生熟练地掌握句型,以增强信心,为向高一级的交际性操练过渡打基础。Littlewood(1983)所提出的两阶段教学的第一阶段,即交际前活动(pre-communicative activity),包括“结构操练”和“亚交际活动”中,教师对对话活动的控制是由强到弱的,而学生的创造性作用是由弱到强的。教师应充分考虑任务对于学生的适用性,其中包括任务的主题是否与所学课文的主题相关联,以及执行任务的学生语言输出可能出现的流利性、准确性和复杂性等问题(庞继贤、吴薇薇, 2000)。

方法:在课下请学生参与设计他们感兴趣的话题,话题要有信息沟,任务要有难易之分。在课上,教师要很好地把握有难度的任务,因势利导,以文字形式提示学生会话中会遇到的重点词汇和重点句型。会话前给予必要的相关内容导入,以增加学生的信心,给他们较充裕的时间表达他们感兴趣和比较复杂的句子结构。

3.练习中实施分层次教学

依据:由于班级中学生的学习水平不同,为了避免优生“吃不饱”、差生“消化不了”的现象,有许多教育研究者提出了分层次教学与分类指导。

方法:在分层的基础上,降低层次,即差生的要求。在练习时,教师不要当旁观者,而要主 7

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

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动参与,对差生投入更多的激情和关怀,适时给予必要的点拨与指导。

4.练习后多给差生表现机会

依据:有这样一种现象,即在Pair Work 完成后,教师一般只请举手的同学进行表演。由于差生很少举手,所以基本上没有表演的机会。

方法:在验收Pair Work效果的时候,多给差生一些表现机会。如果差生能主动举手,就请他们回答,如果他们不举手,则选择一些简单的任务请他们完成。引导全班同学用掌声等手段激励差生积极进行参与。

5.开展“互帮互学”活动

依据:合作学习是一种越来越流行的教学法。它是指学生在一个能力各异的小组里一起学习。这个思想来源于大教育家杜威的集体活动和集体项目(group project)的观点,以及

他在“民主和教育”中提出的理论:学生应当在一起学习,以学习公民和社会责任。

方法:请优生自愿选一名关系好的差生,提供友谊帮助,从而在班里树立起互帮互学的风气。同时,对差生的进步予以承认与奖励,强调共同学习取得

成绩的重要性。

三.方案实施与效果

1.首先定位差生

差生有两种:一种是心理学中提到的学习有障碍的人;另一种是由于原来学习基础薄弱,或学习方法不当、兴趣不足或由于转换到了新环境等原因而导致的学习较差。在这个行动研究中的Anne与 Alice就是属于后者,他们是后转入这个进度较快的班级的,由于原来所在班级的进度慢,他们的词汇量相对较少,所以会话练习时,他们的表现明显比新班级中的同学落后。

2.重点安排差生座位

在Pair Work开展前,指定差生Anne 分别与好、中、差不同学生搭配。

通过访谈得知:差生从主观上更愿意与好的同学在一起练习,因为可以从他们那里得到帮助;如果与另外的差生一起练习,有的单词也不会说,做起来很费力,感觉没意思。但如果这个差生是自己的好友,他还是愿意与其共同学习、克服困难的。心理研究者陈琦、刘儒德(1998)在分析小组学习时指出,“如果某个学生认为其他同学并不能帮助自己,而且从主观上不愿意与之合作学习,那么很可能导致Pair Work的失败”。因此,教师应广泛了解学生,并根据差生意愿优先安排他们的座位,根据实际的课堂表现,予以适时调整。

3.练习前合理设计任务

通过本次研究发现,课前合理的任务设计是pair work成功的保证。在活动中,当学生感到有难度时,教师可适当提醒个别词汇,使其克服交流障碍。当话题比较复杂时,在练习前教师可适当给差生降低难度。例如,在讨论体育锻炼对健康的重要性这个话题时,可不要求他们一步到位地发表自己的看法,而是给他们看一组故事图(不锻炼身体的人的健康状况会每况愈下),让他们简单描述一下图片(A man hates jogging, he becomes fat, and he has a heart problem, one day he went to see a doctor.)。经采访发现,差生喜欢做带有视觉冲击图片的话题,复杂的话题似乎也变得容易了,在这种情况下,Pair Work会做得更好些。课堂观察发现,先验收优生的会话活动,可一举两得:优生可巩固知识,同时可以满足他们自我表现的心理;差生则增加了对知识再加工、再巩固的时间和机会。但要注意应适当变换练习形式,避免单一枯燥的活动不断重复。大部分的学生喜欢带有竞争性的、有情景性的句型操练。教师要对时间与练习方式把关,灵活操作,为差生能顺利地进行Pair Work做好铺垫。

4.分层次教学

在Pair Work之前,应明确练习目标,如希望水平高的学生能论述复杂的问题,要求较 8

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

差的学生会简单描述即可。在本研究中,这种方法配合控制性练习共进行了七周。活动时对学生提出不同要求,以达到优化教学的目的。进行录音采访时,笔者发现,优生希望多练一些有深度的话题,如Lucy喜欢做 Role-play,那样可自由发挥。而差生认为老师对自己的要求不算高,是可望可及的,他们盼望有一天能像优生一样流利地进行会话表演。由此可见,教学中应遵循“上不封顶”的原则,要求优生能尽善尽美发挥创造力,而差生应努力向更高层递进。

5.多给差生表现机会

通过对随堂的观察日记的研究发现,从时间发展的角度来看,差生Anne 的会话学期末比学期初有了明显的进步,原来害怕举手到后来能主动举手参与;原来个别单词不会说就停下来到后来能运用会话技巧顺利完成任务。特别是当大家鼓掌或教师对其表扬时,她很兴奋激动。在一堂课上她的表现很出色,甚至记住了较难的单词,如spaghetti。她说大家的鼓励使她有了信心,而且对能为小组加分而感到骄傲。可见,在赞誉与激励下,差生能强化自己的行为和意识,形成力量感,向更高一层迈进。

6.互帮互学活动的开展

从开学的第一周起,笔者就在班里开展互帮互学的活动。从思想上鼓励优生主动帮助差生,引导学生自愿组成一起练习对话的活动小组,以共同完成一个对话目标。到学期结束时该活动的成效显著。在与学生的谈心中了解到,如果两人(差生-优生)非常愿意在一起练习,尽管会话会受到阻碍,但是共同完成目标的内驱力会促使两人精诚合作,差生在优生的带动下,会不断进步。课堂里的每个学生不是孤立存在的个体,他们通过相互交流形成各种群体。

Pair work活动中应注意的几个问题

Pair work是一种有用而且有效的英语课堂教学组织形式,因此有效地组织好pair work显得尤为重要。我认为,组织好pair work应注意以下几个问题:

1、活动之前要充分准备

(1)活动目的要明确。目的要与教学内容紧密相关。活动或任务有明确的限定,让学生知道应该说什么、不应该说什么。对于初一年级的学生,任务限定应当更加严格,而且语言结构要简单,活动时间要短。 活动安排要清楚。应让学生知道该做什么、不该做什么。为此,要安排好谁是A,谁是B,并保证人人都有pair work。对于较复杂的活动或任务,教师最好在黑板上写出步骤,一步一步加以说明。 活动要预先示范。在进行全班pair work之前,应请一、两组学生面向全班进行示范,这样做的目的是让大家知道如何具体地进行活动。

(2)活动时间安排。有时一堂课开展pair work,通常pair work进行的语言训练以对话形式出现,对话可以是2~6行,不宜过长,训练内容应该是学生最近所学的知识。

2、活动期间要认真监督,不要守着讲台不动

要在教室四处走动,认真看、听、观察是否人人参与,哪些组进展的顺利,哪些组有问题,需要帮助。 注意控制时间,活动时间太长,影响教学进度,过短则达不到预期的目的。Pair work活动一般在五分钟左右。同时,当好监督者角色。别集中关注某一组,否则他们会因为你的特别关注而受拘束。教师的眼睛也不要经常与学生直视,以免造成学生的紧张情绪。

3、不要破坏pair work

有的老师在学生操练完以后,不是叫操练好的pairs上台表演,而是破坏学生的对子,任意叫两位上台重新组合表演,这样两个毫无思想准备的学生站在讲台上就会不知所措,难以开口,从而影响了他们的积极性和表现欲望。所以在新教材的起始阶段,还是请准备好了 9

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

的对子上台表演,等到了初二、三年级,学生有了一定的口语基础就可以采用“find a partner”、“challenge”等富有挑战性的形式,随时组合来完成训练。

4、创造宽松的pair work气氛,减轻学生的心理压力

Pair work可以满足学生的自我实现和企求成功的心理需求,所以在学生上台表演后,即使有错,也应给予肯定,多用“Good.”,“Not bad.”,“Thank you.”等给予鼓励,千万不能怕时间不够,匆匆换对子,从而破坏了“兴趣——成功”的良性循环,加重学生下次上台表演的心理负担。

5、Pair work不能拘于形式

有的老师使用pair work只是走过场,从“Practice in pairs.”到“Stop here.”为止,一直站在讲台上,台下学生操练的结果一无所知,差生更不会开口,这样一来,课堂会逐渐失去英语交际的“小气候”。

6、活动之后要及时反馈

(1) 互通信息。活动后,根据活动的内容教师可以进行组际交流,展示活动成果。教师可以请一两组学生进行展示,如表演对话、宣读作文、谈论观点汇报各组情况等,必要时还可接受同学提问。 或者进行竞争,根据活动内容,组与组之间进行竞赛,如快抢答、观点辩论,形成组内成员合作、组间竞争的局面,培养学生的团队合作精神。

(2) 纠正错误。活动期间教师一般不纠错,但活动之后,教师必须对学生在活动中出现的错误进行讲解,也可将典型错误写在黑板上让学生纠正,提高学生使用英语的准确度。但要注意,纠正尽量不要涉及到具体学生,不要伤学生的自尊心。

(3) 总结归纳。活动之后教师可以对活动进行简短的总结归纳,如谈谈活动目的的达成度和学生活动的效果,回顾语音训练的要点,表扬活动出色的学生和小组,提出活动的不足之处等,让学生树立信心,做好下次pair work的活动。

总结推广应用阶段

探究实验阶段完成后要及时了解教师、学生的意见,及时发现不足,及时纠正偏差。教师做好阶段性总结,适当改进方法,并提出下一步的方案。认真记录实施过程和经验,积累第一手材料。并将成功经验向全校其他班级推广,最后形成具有我们学校特色的课堂教学模式。

Pair work学习作为本次课程改革积极倡导的有效学习方式之一,它有力地挑战了教师“一言堂”的专制,同时也首次在课堂上给了学生自主、合作的机会,其实质是提高学习效率,培养学生良好的合作品质和学习习惯。经过一段时间“Pair work”教学模式的尝试,我班学生更主动地运用自己的思维去学习和习得英语,在主动参与中对英语产生很大的兴趣,在积极交往中学会了合作,在成功的体验中享受学习,课堂气氛活跃,教学质量大大提高。当然小组活动还存在一些问题,例如:如何提高学困生对活动的兴趣和参与率?如何防止小组活动演变成为“好学生讲,差学生听”的小组模式?如何处理班额大,人数多,教师指导困难的问题? 这些问题尚有待于我们在实践中不断深入探讨。

结论

在英语教学中Pair work学习的实践过程中,教师的指导作用是不可狂忽略的,不可追求表面的现象,使小组合作学习华而不实,应使用具体的办法进行具体的落实,使小组合作学习真正发挥它的功能,这样才能使之成为学生搞好学习的有效方法之一。

初中英语教学中开展合作性学习可让每个学生通地体验、实践、讨论、合作、探究等方式在主动参与学习活动中激发兴趣,在积极交往中学会合作,在成功体验中享受学习。当然作为教师,我们也要不断反省自己的教学行为并及时进行相应调整。

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合作学习模式充分体现了教师为主导,学生为主体的教学原则,有利于建立新型的师生关系。同时,合作学习突出语言的应用,重视语言的实践性和语言能力的获得。重视Pair work交际,重视学生互动,使学生之间相互合作,相互学习,相互协调和相互竞争的品质得到了培养,有利于培养学生良好的心理素质,调动和发挥学生的积极性,提高学生英语交际能力,解决个别差异,缩小两极分化,有效提高中学英语教学质量。

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参考文献

1.敖跃.“交际活动中的pairwork及其在教学中的实践”[J].中小学外语教学,20xx年第10期.

2.沈敏.“浅谈小组合作学习在初、高中英语教学中的不同表现”

[EB/OL].http://1ib02004591./blog/static/52517759200991734137130/,20xx年5月31日.

3.盛慧.“8A Unit3 Comic strip & welcome”课例[A].20xx年江苏省初中英语课改实验经验交流会暨教学观摩研讨会[C].镇江,20xx年10月19日.

4.扈华唯.“SEFC 教学中的问题与对策” .中小学教材教学,20xx年第1期

5.王坦2002《合理学习的理念与实施》北京:中国人事出版社

6.郭砚冰,英语课堂合作学习的实施与评价,中小学外语教学

7.左焕琪:《外语教育展望》上海华东师范大学出版社 2002.12

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致谢

本文的完成是在我们的导师曾老师的细心指导下进行的。在每次设计遇到问题时老师不辞辛苦的讲解才使得我的设计顺利的进行。从设计的选题到资料的搜集直至最后设计的修改的整个过程中,花费了老师很多的宝贵时间和精力,在此向导师表示衷心地感谢!导师严谨的治学态度,开拓进取的精神和高度的责任心都将使学生受益终生!

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contents

The introduction ........................................................................................ 错误!未定义书签。 Theory guidance ........................................................................................ 错误!未定义书签。 The meaning of research .......................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

一.The need of a new curriculum reform .................................... 错误!未定义书签。

二.the need of Teachers' growth ................................................ 错误!未定义书签。

三.The need of present situation of English teaching ........ 错误!未定义书签。 Raise Pair work .......................................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 Assume reasons ............................................................................................ 错误!未定义书签。 The research methods ................................................................................ 错误!未定义书签。 一.the questionnaire of the research process ...................... 错误!未定义书签。

二.design that divided into group ............................................ 错误!未定义书签。

三.the experiment process of classroom observation .......... 错误!未定义书签。

1.design program ...................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 2.classroom observation method .......................................... 错误!未定义书签。

3.interview method .................................................................. 错误!未定义书签。 The pluralism of the periodic evaluation and assessment .......... 错误!未定义书签。

1. Self assessment of The students ............................................ 错误!未定义书签。

2.the member mutual with each other .......................................... 错误!未定义书签。

3. The team evaluation .................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

4. The teacher evaluation .............................................................. 错误!未定义书签。

5.put forward New problems ............................................................ 错误!未定义书签。 Several problems that should be paid attention to in the Pair work错误!未定义书签。

1、should make full preparation before activities .............. 错误!未定义书签。

2、supervising training during the activity ........................ 错误!未定义书签。

3、 don't destroy the pair work .................................................. 错误!未定义书签。

4、creating so a loose atmosphere that reduce The burden.Pair work错误!未定义书签。

5、Pair work Can't stand on ceremony ........................................ 错误!未定义书签。

6、should feedback After the activity in time .............................. 错误!未定义书签。 Conclusion application stage ................................................................ 错误!未定义书签。 Conclusion .................................................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。 references .................................................................................................... 错误!未定义书签。

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铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

ABSTRACT

Advocate efficient classroom since 2004, It is obvious that the teaching ideas and methods of teacher has changed。New relationship between teachers and students reflected well in teaching, the relationship with equal, democratic, harmonious between teachers and students has established,in the process of teaching, the status of students got Protection, inquiry learning spirit and learning method have a historic breakthrough.

Pair work in the english teaching class of junior middle school,it is not only an important method of English teaching quality in our province, but also adapt to the requirement of the new curriculum reform that our country has advocated,in line with the development trend of humanization of education. This paper mainly divided into an introduction part of the thesis, theoretical guidance and research significance, research methods, phased evaluation and pluralistic evaluation, how to help them better Pair Work, Pair Work activities, and several problems that should be paid attention to in the application stage nine and conclusion part.

Keywords: The quality of teaching Multiple evaluation Classroom interaction Pair work Pair Work

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铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

The introduction

Since the university entrance exam system has recoverd ,the development of education in guizhou province is slow,we have a law start with the level of education , the progress is very slow, it is difficult to change the phenomenon of education in a short period of time, the main reason of the phenomenon is that have relations with economic foundation and development of guizhou, investment in education is not enough, especially the number of teachers and teaching quality, this case ,especially in English teaching,according to the questionnaire survey,it shows that 85% of the students who don't know how to learn English, 10% of students think that it is difficult to learn and remember English words, 5% of the students give up learning English because they do not understand English almost .Although most school have English courses in our province, the level of teaching is not high, the power of persons qualified to teach is weak, teaching facilities are fall behind.it has become a hard problem to solve that How to improve the quality of English education in the school of primary and secondary schools in our province.

pair work that is on the initiative of the famous American education scientist David Koonts in the 1970 in advance.it is a group learning activities,which is depend on the information of exchange between the group members, in order to achieve common goals each student in the group responsible for their learning,which is reward

based on grade point average whose teaching strategy system. Pair work is one of the education idea in the 21st .meanwhile

It is also an important way that a new reform of our country advocated. It become a hot topical that reform of course How to carry out efficient. aim at big classes, big course and the Characteristics of the

Studies the unboiled water irregularly

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

, the teacher s should based on the content of the teaching material, the need of practice.put he t"task-based" teaching method into a main method,designed a group finish the common task in the group or union ,conducting of labor and Interactive Learning Activities. During supported each other actively , cooperate with each other,interacted,undertake the individual task in common actively ,it is important for us to carry on the effective communication of each other,establish the believe between members of group , Evaluate the common achievement

Theory guidance

The teaching mode of theory instruction of "Pair work" : which 1

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

built a learning Theory and environment ensure that the main position of students .not only require

students because of the The recipients passively and the knowledge inculcate object into the main body of information processing and knowledge active construction of meaning,but also require teachers to be imparter of knowledge,to instill into the students actively construct meaning helper, facilitator.Constructivism learning process is actively constructing process of people's cognitive thinking activity, is the people through their source some knowledge to interact with the environment activities to obtain, process of construction of new knowledge.Therefore, in the teaching process,let the students in the appropriate environment,complete the the cooperative learning, participation actively, , initiative exploration, take the initiative to find, by "team learning" to complete.

The meaning of research

一.The need of a new curriculum reform

In order to adapt the requirement of curriculum reform better, Keep pace with The Times,, make our teaching become a rich personal creation process,it use to focus on the

common development of teachers and students more , cultivate the subject consciousness and innovation ability of students , which is an important task of the school education. The line of work is In classroom teaching .only the work as a research object do they master the Nature of the teaching study .

二.the need of Teachers' growth

Changing the traditional teaching mode, change the role of teachers in advance ,make the most use of giving full play to the to the subjective ,explorative and cooperative of the students:Only to improve our own quality, can we adapt to the requirement of curriculum reform, To avoid it not effective to some teachers what after watching the excellent teaching class. by means of this topic research,make teacher pass the Theory

study, it can solve the strategy conscious shortage problem that existing in the teaching practice

三.The need of present situation of English teaching Facing with the situation of English education at present in our province,:most of the students from the countryside,having poor basic in learn, poor foundation,bad habit.

Therefore,changing the way of students,giving up the traditional that "teacher as the center" and putting "teach" mode into a main 2

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

status.build in "student as the cognitive subject, teacher is the leading to "learning" of "double-principle" teaching mode.make the students get ride of the bound of traditional,cause the the relationship between teachers and students in the class structure have a nature of change.it

Become "teaching" to "guide"of teachers ,Actively power to all of students,from "want you learn" to "I want to learn", and "I'll learn", let different levels of students get development,it is an urgent need to solve in our English teaching.

Those reasons cause us carry out the topic research of the "create efficient class,pair work

Raise Pair work Pair work that is two people as a group with class activities,which is a form of teaching that often adopt is the junior middle school English class.when Teachers organize the pair work can find most of the students succeed in ding the work,but A handful of students will have the phenomenon that have low efficiency

Conversation and Activity failed.For example,many of them exclusive topics,and seldom exchange their ideas , another students only can use mother tongue for interlanguage,the rest are whisper. When teachers let the failed "session"group present

Their Conversation in public,it appear that the dialogue can't be expressed fluently the session cannot continued Assume reasons

What cause the pair work Can't make the use of and improve the ability of spoken that expected ?Again these, making the following assumptions:

1. The teacher give a dim sign.

2. Differences ability between the Students

3.The activity arranged unreasonable, such as time tightly and topic is boring

4. Other personal factors such as relations between the two people, gender and personality differences, etc.

The research methods

一.the questionnaire of the research process

According to the above assumptions, questionnaire design is as follows

(1)make a study of the interesting of in session activities:whether or not like work together in a group ?

(2)make a study of if The teacher give a dim sign:before the conversation whether give . Students the clear tip to practice ? 3

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

(3)make a study of the different reason about learning ability between Students :what kind of student do you like to work with ?

(4)make a study of the Differences between character of the student :what kind of character do you like a set of exercises?

(5)make a study of the different reason of contact:which one do you like to practice that the student you get well with or get worse with ?

(6)make a study of gender differences:which gender do you want to work with ?

(7)Judge yourself:what do you think the main reason is the conversation Success or failure?

object of study; the students of junior middle school students, 90 students in total .

Results of study: among the 90 answer sheet 70% of the students like to do pair work,which is sure the Positive significance on the whole.

二.design that divided into group

1 The experiment in class: the class one __five of grade one and the class one __five

of grade two

2 divide into groups

According to the actual situation of class,basing on the principle of choice, each group

divided into 6 ~ 8 students, dividing the students into several groups according to the number of a class .when doing this we should pay attention to the gender, personal character,achievement etc. Making

A little change in

The Proportional structure between groups, making each member in Quite a power in group,balance the comprehensive level between groups .

Pay more attention to the poor students and find an ideal position to them .recommend a student for the leading posts in the group by themselves ,adopt

an measure of running for the leader . Give some position include assistant,Team leader of subject , discipline supervisors,recorder,all of the members take part in the active.talk over the name of group and their slogan. Division of labor and cooperation,learn from each other,help each other,make the group have a harmonious atmosphere to active.

3 The division of team members:

Members in the group in its entirety,group is a team,lay stress on the collective act rater than individualism,it should have a clear division of labor about a variety of tasks of them and carry out o each student .

三.the experiment process of classroom observation

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铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

1.design program According to the results of the survey, aim at the second assume consciously in the teaching_____- the different reason about learning ability between Students,make arrangements for the observation at the same time in different levels in three groups of students, the seat

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

Do you have any difficult in the process of pair work ?if so,what are they ?let Two teachers as interviewer,do it between the class ; it 5

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

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标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

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标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

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标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

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标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

not deviating from the direction of learning, to complete the study task

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

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铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

5.put forward New problems by means of questionnaires,classroom observation, interview after class and the multiple evaluation results found that there are two problems cannot be ignored: firstly, two students are in a high level always The ideal partner,but how to arrange the poor students partner? In a good condition that guarantee the partner they havegood relations ,wehter arrange them with the poor students or not? Secondly, how to design the activitie arrangement in classroom,let the poor students get the chance of controlled practice,don't make a high level of students lose interest, to get something new? Thirdly, the participation of students, competitive, strong comparative,The obvious of difference between good and poor students in Pair work.Therefore, it stress how to solve collocation of the poor students and how to solve the design problem,as the next stage of action research.

owing to the existence of different ability between students, it is an important in the way Class management that the arrangement of seat Usually,educators believe that it is the best way that arrange the poor students and good students in pairs or groups,as a result the active can develop

Successfully.

Methods:confirm the poor students in advance,then divided the students into three groups do the Pair Work at the beginning and end of the semester,and make sure that they have good relationship,after the class observation,find the best match.

2. The reasonable design task before practice

Basis:finding the students in Pair Work have difficult in speaking english words and sentence after interview,it can help student that se master the sentence pattern practice before Pair Work so that increase the confidence of

students.Lay the foundation High level of communicative action.Littlewood(1983)Put forward the first stage of the two-stage 11

标准大学本科毕业论文中英文双语模版和范文设计史上最标准

铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

teaching that is (pre-communicative activity),including the structure of "practice" and "the communicative activities", the teachers' control the Activities is by the strong to the weak,and the students' creative action is from weak to strong.Teachers should take the applicability of the task for students into consideration,including whether the task subject is associated with the theme of the text we learned Or not ,and perform the task of students' language output possible fluency, accuracy and complexity problems (PangJiXian, Wu Weiwei, 2000).

Methods: let students take part in the topic design that they are interested

after class ,there should be easy and difficult, the teacher must grasp difficult task well,

In the form of words to suggest that the difficult words and sentences that students facing ,leading the connected content before conversation,only to increase the confidence of students,giving them enough time to express the complex sentences.structure that they are interested

3. Implementing hierarchical teaching in practice

Several problems that should be paid attention to in the Pair work

Pair work is a organization form that useful and effective in English teaching class,so

It is important for us to organize Pair work effectively . I think,we should pay attention to the following questions in order to organize the pair work

1、should make full preparation before activities

(1) the purpose of activities must be clear.

It have a close connection between the purpose and The teaching content . It also have clear requirement in Activities and tasks

So that students know what to say ,what not to say.for The first grade students,the limited Task should be more strict ,and the structure of language should be simple, and have a short time in activity,the Arrangements of activity should be clear. Let the students know what to do, what not to do.for this reason,we should arrange that who act a,who act b ,and guarantee that everyone has a chance to do pair work。For more complex activities and tasks,teachers have better write the step on the blackboard step by step which

Stating it ,it should show before activity.the two should be invited for demonstration, the aim is to let everyone know how to work out activities .

(2) the arrangement of Time

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铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

Usually, it is the form of dialogue that when we do pair work, it can be 2 ~ 6 rows and not too long ,the training content that should be the latest learn

2、supervising training during the activity

Walking around in the classroom, observe everyone take part in the activity,which groups progress smoothly, which groups have questions,need to help.Pay attention to control time,if the is too long, it will have effect on teaching progress , it can not be reach the expected aim if time is too short.the best right time is about five minutes.At the same time, play a role in supervisor.Don't focus on a particular group, or they would be free for your special attention. The eyes of Teachers don't often Look straight students for fear that cause the students' tension.

3、 don't destroy the pair work

When the students finish their work, the teacher let the students act in front of the class,damaging the pairs of students,pick out two students who not at the same group act ,which lead to the students unprepared would be at a loss in the class and difficult to speak ,so have a effect on the students who want to act and their positive attitude.so

at the beginning of the new textbook,preparing for a pair of stage,In the second grade and three grade,students have a certain foundation of spoken will take the form "find a partner" 、“challenge”to finish the training At any time

4、creating so a loose atmosphere that reduce The burden.Pair work

Can meet the requirements that students' self realization and desire for success of psychological,so after acting ,even if there are some wrong,it also should give affirmation,using “Good.”,“Not bad.”,“Thank you.”as possible as you can to encourage them ,don't afraid that time is Not enough,changing their partners in a hurry,which break the virtuous cycle of "interest -- success",increase the burden of psychological when they act next time

5、Pair work Can't stand on ceremony

Some teachers only is a form when they do pair work , from "Practice in pairs." to "Stop here." has been standing on the platform,they know nothing about the Practice of the students, it is difficult for them to speak ,so that the class losing the "microclimate" of English communication.

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铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

6、should feedback After the activity in time

(1)Share information each other .After activities, the teacher can set of international communication according to the content of the activity,showing the results of activities.Teacher also can ask one or two groups of students to show ,such as act dialogue,read a composition, talking about ideas on each situation, it necessary for us to answer the questions that students ask. according to the content, Having a competition between groups , such as answer questions in advance ,point of debate .having a situation that cooperation and competition between groups .cultivating a spirit of students in team

(2)correcting mistakes ,,Teachers shouldn't correct the mistakes that students made

during activity,but after activities, teachers must correct the mistakes and explain

It that the students in the activity, writing the typical mistakes on the blackboard

to let the students correct it, improving the the accuracy that students used.Don't

Refer to The specific students,don't hurt the self-esteem of students.

(3) summarizing

Teachers should make a short brief after Activity, talking about the purpose of activity and the effect of the student , review the main points of speech training,praising the outstanding students and group who act well ,coming up witht the shortage,let the students build up confidence,to do pair workthe in next activities

Conclusion application stage

Understanding the opinions of the teachers and students and find the shortage correcting deviation in time,Teachers should make a summary about stage,improve

Methods advisablea and make a plane about next step.recording the process and experience.

Pair work is one of effective ways as advocating positive of learning, giving chance of the students that independent, cooperative, its essence is to improve the learning efficiency,cultivating the good habits of quality cooperation ,having a try Over a period of time"Pair work" teaching mode,students are more active to use their own thinking to English learning and acquisition, in active participation, have a great interest in English,

learn to cooperat in the positive interaction,in the experience of success to enjoy learning,classroom atmosphere and teaching quality have improved greatly.

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铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

Conclusion

Pair work in process of English teaching, we shouldn't ignore that the guide of teacher, it is not the surface phenomenon, you should use specific measures for the implementation of the concrete, make pair work play its function so that make students do a good job in one of the effective methods of learning.

Carrying out the pair work can let student experience, practice, discussion, cooperation, explore methods in active participation in learning activities in Junior middle school English teaching ,learning to be cooperative in the positive interaction, enjoy learning in the successful experience. As a teacher, we also need to reflect our teaching behavior constantly and have an adjustment in time.

The pattern of pair work make the most of reflecting the leading of teachers and

the main body of student in teaching principle, in favour of building the Relationship between teachers and students

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铜仁学院本科生毕业论文设计

references

1.敖跃.“交际活动中的pairwork及其在教学中的实践”[J].中小学外语教学,20xx年第10期.

2.沈敏.“浅谈小组合作学习在初、高中英语教学中的不同表现”

[EB/OL].http://1ib02004591./blog/static/52517759200991734137130/,20xx年5月31日.

3.盛慧.“8A Unit3 Comic strip & welcome”课例[A].20xx年江苏省初中英语课改实验经验交流会暨教学观摩研讨会[C].镇江,20xx年10月19日.

4.扈华唯.“SEFC 教学中的问题与对策” .中小学教材教学,20xx年第1期

5.王坦2002《合理学习的理念与实施》北京:中国人事出版社

6.郭砚冰,英语课堂合作学习的实施与评价,中小学外语教学

7.左焕琪:《外语教育展望》上海华东师范大学出版社 2004.12

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