英语语法汇总(70700字)

发表于:2021.2.24来自:www.fanwen118.com字数:70700 手机看范文

第一章 名 词

一、名词的分类:

名词就其词汇意义可分为专有名词和普通名词。普通名词又可分为可数名词和不可数名词。 专有名词:Beijing Smith the United Nations

可数名词

普通名词: water, coal, rice

不可数名词

surprise, honour, help

二、可数名词的复数形式

1.一般情况,直接加-s。 port(港口)→ ports;technique(技术)—techniques

2.以s, x, ch, sh结尾发[s]、[∫]、[t∫]、[dЗ]音的词,加—es

bus—buses, box—boxes, bush—bushes

branch—branches,stomach—stomachs(stomach词尾发k,故复数直接加-s)

3.辅音字母+ y,变y为i,加-es university—universities

y前为元音字母,直接加-s boy—boys

4.以O结尾加-es hero—heroes

O前为元音字母,及部分外来词直接加-s

zoo—zoos radio—radio piano—pianos photo—photos

5.以f或fe结尾,变f或fe为v,再加-es leaf—leaves wife—wives ※以下f结尾单词直接加-s belief—beliefs(信念) roof—roofs(屋顶) proof—proofs(证据) safe—safes(保险柜)

chief—chiefs(首领) gulf—gulfs(海湾)

6.不规则名词

man—men, woman—women, foot—feet, tooth—teeth,

goose—geese, mouse—mice, child—children, ox—oxen

注1:有些可数名词的单复数相同,要根据上下文的意义来确定其单数还是复数,例如: sheep 羊 fish 鱼 deer 鹿

means手段,方法 works工厂,作品 series系列

注2:在些可数名词,只有单数形式,但表示复数意义。如果作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。 如:cattle 牛 people 人民 police 警察

注3:集合名词既可看作单数(作为整体),也可看作复数(作为集体的各个成员)。例如:

audience(观众) class(班级) family(家庭) group(小组)

她家在该地区是名门望族。

1 个体名词:man, expert, factory 集合名词:audience(观众),class, family

她的家人正在为分财产激烈地争吵。

改错:1. Every possible means have been tried to cure the boy of his illness.

A B C D A B C D 3. Is it the police who is searching the house for a wanted criminal(罪犯)?

A B C D

三、不可数名词

物质名词、抽象名词均属不可数名词。前面不能加不定冠词a / an,词尾也不能加—s。 请牢记下列典型的不可数名词。

news 消息 information 信息 advice 忠告,建议 progress 进步,进展 knowledge 知识 weather天气 fun 乐趣 equipment 设备

English 英语 furniture 家具 wealth 财富 damage 损坏

traffic 交通,车辆及行人 baggage / luggage 行李 clothing 衣服,衣着

word 消息,信息 work 工作 homework 家庭作业 housework 家务

四、名词的所有格

名词的所有格通常在名词后加—’s构成,用于表示所属关系。用于以下情况:

1)表示有生命的名词

my brother’s car children’s books(儿童读物) students’ rooms

2)表示国家、城市、地域的名词

China’s population Beijing’s weather

3)表示天体、时间、距离、金钱的名词

the moon’s surface ten years’ hard work 十年的辛劳

today’s newspapers 20 dollars’ worth of a stamp 一张价值20美元的邮票

其他无生命的名词通常用“of + 名词”的短语表示所属关系。

the object of the sentence 句子的宾语

the title of the film 影片的名字

五、名词的作用

1)名词在句中可作主语、宾语、表语、宾语补足语。

主语 宾语

We elected him monitor of our class.

宾语 宾补

2)名词还作其他名词的前置定语,用于更准确说明某物的用途,性质,组成材料等。 a tea cup 茶杯 a car number 车牌号 a shoe shop 鞋店 a stone bridge 石桥

※※名词作定语必须用单数。man, woman作定语,用单数还是复数由被修饰的名词的单

复数决定。sport作定语,单复数形式均可。

a man teacher 一个男教师 ten women doctors 十个女医生

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a sport(s)shirt 运动衫 the arms race 武器竞赛(特例)

选:It is said that the Air Force about $80 million a year. Really a problem, isn’t it ?

A.bird hit cost B.birds hit costs C.bird hits cost D.bird hit costs

本题题义:空军每年因飞鸟撞击飞机造成的损失达大约八千万美元。考查的是名词作定语。名词作定语必须用单数,故可考虑的答案为A、C。又因一年内鸟击飞机事件多次发生,故选C。

六、学习名词,特别要注意的问题

1)准确把握词义,重视近义词的辩析

选:One of the advantage of living on the top floor of a high rise is that you can get a good .

(20xx年上海高考题)

A.sight B.scene C.view D.look

辩析:sight 1.看见 2.视力 3.视野 4.风景

scene 1.(事件发生的)现场2.场面 ; 情景3.景色 4.(拍电影)场景,(舞台)布置 view 1.眺望2.视野 3.风景,景色。

look 1.看 2.神色,表情 looks =appearance外貌

本句意为:住在高层建筑顶层的优越之一,是能清楚眺望到一切。故本题答案为C。 近年来高考试卷非常重视对名词的考查,是重点热点之一。

2选:1. Summer in ________ south of France are for ________ most part dry and sunny.

A. /; a B. the, / C. /, / D. the, the

2. Most animals have little connection with animals of different kind unless they kill

them for food.

A.the ;a

B.不填 ;a C.the ;the D.不填 ;the

第二章 主谓一致

句子的谓语动词和句子的主语应在数方面保持一致。主谓一致的基本原则是:主语是单数,谓语动词用单数形式;主语是复数,谓语动词用复数形式。句子的主语有以下几种类型:

1.带后置定语型。其谓语动词的形式依主语的单复数而定,与后置定语无关。

S +

… besides … rather than … … V

两个飞行员连同所有旅客都死于这次空难。

2.部分—整体型。其谓语的单复数,由整体部分决定。

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two-thirds

part of the / one’s + n +V

(整体)

1)About 70% of the surface of the earth is covered by water.

2)(of them)are of no value.

※注:all单独作主语时,All指人谓语用复数。All指物或事情谓语用单数。 .................

1)All are eager to reach an agreement. 所有的人都急于达成协议。

2)All is going well. 一切都进展顺利。

3.定语仅能修饰单数名词型,其谓语动词用单数。

Each / Every

Either / Neither

More than one graduate wants to go to work in Western China.

不止一个毕业生要求去中国西部工作。

那个男孩失踪已有许多天。

4.就近一致型。下列连词连接两个主语时,及there be句型有多个并列主语,谓语应与最靠近的主语保持一致。

1) 不是你就是我要去车站接他们。

2) Not only A but also B 3)There is an air-conditioner and two computers in his office. 在他办公室有一台空调和二台电脑。

5.需记住的其他规则

1)Neither of + n 作主语,谓语用单数。

Each

None of + n(单数)作主语,谓语用单数。

Either of the answers is right. 两个答案中有一个是对的。

None of the cars was / were damaged. 这些车都没有受损。

食物没有变质。

2)a number of + n(复数)作主语,谓语用复数。

the number of + n(复数)作主语,谓语用单数。

A large number of students are from the south. 很多学生是南方人。

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我校学生数已上升到3000人。

3)关系代词作主语,定语从句谓语动词的形式取决于其先行词的单复数。 He is one of the few persons who have a good knowledge of Italian.

他是精通意大利语的少数人之一。

在以上句子中,persons是who的先行词,从句谓语动词用复数。

(比较)He is the only one of the boys who was given a prize.

他是这些孩子中唯一受到奖励的。

当one之前有the only修饰时,one是who的先行词,从句谓语动词用单数。

4)单个动名词,不定式或主语从句作主语,谓语动词用单数。

两个并列的动名词,不定式或主语从句作主语,谓语动词用复数。

decided yet.(一个不定式作主语)

我说什么,想什么与你无关。(两个并列主语从句作主语)

5)each, any, every, no构成的复合代词都当作单数看待。

有人在打电话找你。

注:复合代词作主语,反意疑问句的主语通常用they,也可用he。

/ 6)以“s”结尾的书刊名、国名、机构名和学科名作主语,谓语用单数。

联合国建于19xx年。

《坎特伯雷故事集》是乔叟写的。 Economics is my major. 经济学是我的主修课程。

7)某些形容词或分词和定冠词the连用表示某类人作主语,谓语用复数。 The sick have been cured and the lost have been found.

病人得到医治,失踪的也已找回来了。

8)由and连接两个单数名词作主语,谓语动词用复数形式。

English and Chinese are quite different languages.

若and并列的主语在意义上指同一个人,同一概念或对立统一的事物,谓语动词用单数。 那位经理兼秘书整天忙忙碌碌。(两个名词共用一个冠词,指同一个人) 战争与和平是历史永恒的主题。(对立统一的一对事物)

9)单复数同形的名词如deer, means;集合名词如family作主语,如何决定谓语动词的单复数,请见第四章冠词。

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第三章 代 词

英语语法汇总

一、人称代词的用法

1.人称代词的主格在句中作主语

2.人称代词的宾格作动词和介词的宾语 You can’t trust 注1.主格,宾格均可作表语,在口语中用宾格较多 If I were she, I would act on the doctor’s advice. —— Who is knocking at the door ? —— It’s ※注2.作主语的人称代词孤立地使用在无谓语动词的句中,常用宾格 —— I want an apple. —— Me, too.

“What ! Me to say sorry to him ? No!”

注3.两个或两个以上的人称代词并列时,其顺序是: 单数按2,3,1人称排列;复数按1,2,3人称排列。 You, she(Mary)and I must attend today’s meeting.

※I and Tom are to blame.该责备的是我和汤姆(在承认错误或自我批评时,说话人一般把自己

放在他人之前讲。)

二、it的用法

1.代替已提到的事物或上文提及的情况

He bought a magazine and lent it to me.

Her mother has died. It is a terrible shock to her. 她母亲死了。这对她打击很大。

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2.用于It+be+n/adj句型中,说明天气、时间、距离等

It is freezing cold today.

It is five minutes’ ride from here to the station.

3.(未指明但谈话双方都明白的)那件事;那种情况。

-------- Do you like it here?

------- Oh, yes. The air, the weather, the way of life. Everything is nice.

4.代替性别尚不明的婴儿和小孩

She was holding a baby in her arms and it was crying.

5.作形式主语或形式宾语,代替作主语或宾语的不定式,动名词或从句

It was kind of you to send me a present.(it作形式主语)

I make it a rule to walk two miles a day.我通常一天步行二英里。(it作形式宾语)

我的理解是,你和我看法不同。(it作形式宾语)

☆注:少数动词,如take(理解),hate,dislike,不能直接带宾语从句,须在动词和宾语从

句之间,加形式宾语it。

5.It is/was … that …. 构成强调句,强调句中某一部分

(强调主语I)

三、物主代词

1.形容词性物主代词只能作名词的前置定语,不能单独使用

2.名词性物主代词单独使用,在句中作主语,表语和宾语

作主语 YMine = My bike)is red.

作表语 This fault is yours, not hers. 这是你的过错,不是她的错。

作宾语 3.名词性物主代词与of连用构成双重所有格

1)表示部分概念

Yin the street.

2)表示强调

We show great interest in this invention of yours(= your invention)

Be sure not to believe that daughter of hers(her daughter)千万别信她的那个女儿。

四、反身代词

1.作动词或介词的宾语

她一直在自学英语。

2.作表语

我今天身体不太好。

3.作主语或宾语的同位语,译“亲自”;“本人,自己”

市长将亲自调查这件事。

You’d better ask the patient 关于病人的病情,你最好问他自己。

4.反身代词的重要短语

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I will be myself in no time. be oneself 身体或大脑正常

请不要受拘束

Help yourself to apples.

No one was there, so she helped herself to all the money on the table.

He came to himself a few minutes later. come to oneself 苏醒

It is better to think for yourself. I’d be grateful (thankful) if you keep this information to yourself.

不把某事告诉别人

五、相互代词

each other一般指两者;one another一般指三者或三者以上。但现在可以通用,不加区别。在

句中仅作宾语,不能作主语。

We should care for each other and help each other.

They often stay at one another’s houses. 他们经常住在彼此的家里。

六、不定代词

1.some和any

some及复合代词someone, something用于肯定句。

any及复合代词用于否定句、疑问句和条件句。

Some of the milk has gone bad.

I haven’t any money on me.

If anything unusual happens, let me know. 若发生异常情况,请告诉我。

注1.若表示请求,建议,尽管是疑问句,用some,不用any。

Would you like some more coffee ?

Shall I bring some food to the party ?

注2.any及复合代词也可用于肯定句,表示三者或三者以上中任何一个。 ......

I think any of his movies would interest you.

—— Which would you like, tea, coffee or wine ?

—— Any will do. 随便哪一个都行。

2.each和every

each用于强调两个或两个以上的人或事物中每一个。既可作定语,也可作主语和宾语。 ...............

Each of the boys has his strong and weak points.

There is a bookstore on each side of the street.

every(形容词)用于表示三个或三个以上的人或事物中每一个。在句中只能作定语。 ..................... I have read every book he lent me.

请注意以下不定代词的特殊用法或固定搭配

① some修饰单数可数名词,相当于a certain

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②她有点像她的母亲。

③ He is something of an expert at computers. 他是一个出色的电脑专家。

④她只不过是一个跳舞的。

(nothing but = only)

⑤听到这个消息他一点不高兴。

(anything but = not … at all)

3.both, either, neither和all, any, none

者以上中)任何一个。

作用:1)作主语

Both of his students are from Beijing.

None of us have(has)ever been abroad. None of the money was paid to me.

2 Neither seat is occupied. 两个位子都空着。

3)

(tired of reading.

We each have different opinions about it.

I will invite you both = I will invite both of you.

选择:—— Have you any money ? I need some badly.

—— Sorry. at all.

A. Nothing B. No one C. None D. A little

注 1.指带没有上文中提到的人或物, 用none.

2.none 不能做定语。下句是典型病句: Luckily, none passengers were injured in the car accident. 3. no one 仅指人; no one, nothing 等不定代词不能接 “of + n.”结构 Everyone of us likes it.

判断下列句子是否正确。如果有错,请改正。

1. A B C D

2.Some people make more money than we teachers, but few gain as much satisfaction from

A

9 B C

D

3.Between you and I, we have nothing in common.

A B C D

4.YA B C D

5.(边境)Westward across America probably A B C D

A B C D

a solid bank account.

7.There are two buses to Baihai Park. You can take each of them.

A B C D

8. A B C D

9.His refusal came as none surprise. I expected it.

A B C D

10. A B C D

另外,替代上述之事用that, this, it;替代下文要说的事,用this:

Her mother was ill. That / This is why she couldn’t come.

The problem is this:he is suffering from cancer.

4.one和that

1)one替代上文提到的同种类的人或事物,但非同一个人或物。

one = a + 单数名词。

—— What do you think of the watches ?

—— Excellent. I’m going to buy one. = I going to buy a watch like them.

其复数形式为ones。The white coats match the hat than the blue ones. 白色上衣比蓝色上衣更配这顶帽子。

one只能替代可数名词。若其有形容修饰,需加“a”;若其后有限制性后置定语,需加“the”。 ...........

例1: 例2:This picture is the one my mother wants to have very much.

2)that替代上文提到的同种类的事物。

that = the + 单数名词,常用that of …结构。

例1:My seat was next to that of the mayor.(that = the seat)

例2:The air of a suburb is clearer than that of a city. 郊外的空气比都市的干净。

10 6.

that可替代可数名词(例1),也可替代不可数名词(例2)。其复数形式为those。 Our rules are quite different from those of other organizations.

5.疑问代词who, what, which

1)which既可指人,也可指物。表示在一定范围内“哪一个”。

Which of these ideas costs the least ? 在这些办法中,哪一个花费最小?

Which do you prefer, classical music or popular music ?

2)who(谁),what(什么)则用于无选择范围的情况。

Who are you talking about ?

What is your hobby ? 你的业余爱好是什么?

6.部分否定

1)everyone, everything可用于肯定句、否定句和疑问句。

—— Is everyone here ?

—— Yes, except Li Ming.

2)not与both, all, everyone, everything及副词always, entirely / wholly(全部地)连用,表示部分否定,译“并非…都是”

Not everyone is kind. = Everyone is not kind. 并非所有人都善良。

All your answers are not correct.

I don’t wholly agree with you. 我并不完全同意你的看法。

选择:I agree with most of what you said, but I don’t agree with .

A. everything B. anything C. something D. nothing 答案A

7.other, the other, the others, the rest, another

1)other (adj) 其他的,仅作定语,修饰复数名词。no / some / any / many other可修饰单数或复数名词

Can we settle this problem in other ways ? You have no other choice but to wait.

I have many other questions to ask. Please come to my home some other time.

2)another同类中另一个

Would you like another cup of tea ?

Give me another chance, please.

我还需要三美元。

3)others泛指其他人,别人或其他东西,常与some对照使用,表示“有的…有的…” It is like her to think of others. Some people believe in God; others don’t.

4)the other 表示两者的另一个。

He has two sons. One is thin and the other is fat.

5)the others / the rest 替可数或不可数名词。

Some of the boys went swimming, while the others lay on the beach, bathed in sunlight. 一些男孩去游泳,其余的躺在沙滩上沐日光浴。

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用other, the other, the others, the rest, another填空:

1)I don’t know pop music. So I can hardly tell one song from .

2)You might as well paint side of the wall white.

3)Perhaps he came here for reasons.

4)Some of the equipment is made in China; is introduced from Japan.

5)We must try to meet the needs of .

第四章 冠 词

一、冠词的种类

冠词可分成不定冠词a,an和定冠词the。

二、泛指和特指的定义

1.泛指:一般提及人或事物,不作具体说明叫泛指。下列两种情况为泛指 a)未明确交待的人或事物

我在车站附近的一家咖啡馆遇到她的。 b)表明数量“一”

他要一本书和两本杂志。

2.特指:具体指明人或物叫特指,其基本意思是“这,那”。下列三种情况为特指。

1)上文提到过的人或物

昨天我买了一本书,这本书很有价值。

2)说话人或听话人心中都有数的人或事物

—— When will the meeting be held?

—— At 2:00 o’clock in the afternoon.

3)带有限制性的后置定语

张艺谋执导的那部电影极为叫座。

三、冠词使用的基本规则

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英语语法汇总

表示泛指,单数可数名词用不定冠词a(an),复数名词不用冠词。

表示特指,可数单数名词和复数可数名词,均用定冠词the。

2.物质名词和抽象名词

物质名词和抽象名词不用冠词。

血浓于水。

智慧胜于力量。

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特指的物质名词和抽象名词,用定冠词the。 The snow in front of the house is beginning to melt. 房前的雪开始融化了。

a(n) 与物质名词连用,可表示种类或一杯之量。

Maotai is an excellent wine. Bring me a coffee, will you?

选择:The warmth of sweater will of course be determined by the sort of wool used.

A.the ;the B.the ;不填 C.不填 ;the D.不填 ;不填

四、需要用定冠词的其他几种情况

1.用于表示世界上独一无二的事物名词之前。

the sun, the moon, the earth, the world, the sky

2.用于表示方位名词,序数词和形容词最高级之前。

sail to the east turn to the right

This is the most expensive of all the clothes.

3.与某些形容词或分词连用,代表一类人或事物。

I was brought up to respect the old. 我从小就接受教育,要敬爱老人。

美是永恒的。

4.用在表示江河、海洋、山脉、群岛、海峡、沙漠,建筑物等名词之前。

the Pacific(Ocean)太平洋 the South-China sea 南中国海

the Sahara 哈拉沙漠 the Persian Gulf 波斯湾 the Beijing Station 北京车站

5.用于姓氏的复数形式之前,表示“夫妇”或“一家人”。 特纳一家正吃午饭。

6. 由普通名词构成的专有名词(如国家,党派等)前。

例:the United States; the Communist Party of China

7. 用在表示发明物的单数名词前。

The telephone was invented by Bell.

8.用在某些固定短语中:

on the spot 当场 on the whole 总的来说

for the most part 多半,在多数情况下 out of the question 不可能

五、不用冠词的其他几种情况

1. 物质名词,抽象名词(见第三章),人名,地名等专有名词前。

Air is important to us.

Beijing is the capital of China.

2.表示季节、月份、周日、节假日(中国传统节例外)名词之前。

I like spring most. I’m going to return to England at Christmas Day.

若具体指明哪一年的季节,应有定冠词。

3.表示学科、球类、棋类和三餐名词之前

He is good at maths. I like playing football.

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注:强调一顿饭或特指某顿饭可用冠词。

Mother cooked me a nice dinner this morning.

The dinner cooked by my mother tastes delicious.

4

南非总统曼德拉于19xx年获得诺贝尔和平奖。

5. 在与by 连用的交通工具名称之前。

例:by taxi, by bike, by boat

但注意:get into a taxi, take a bus, on the train 等表达形式。

6.某些固定短语中,要求不用冠词。

at present 目前 take part in 参加 in peace 平安,平静 by chance 碰巧

注意:有些词组中有无冠词含义不同。 at table

英语语法汇总

在进餐

英语语法汇总

in hospital 住院 in the hospital 在医院工作或参观等 out of question 不成问题

out of the question根本不可能 at the table 坐在桌子旁 be in charge of 负责?

by day在白天

by the day按天计算

7.高考中冠词考查热点

选择:Summers in south of France are for most part dry and sunny.(20xx年春季高考)

A.the ;不填 B.不填 ;the C.不填 ;不填 D.the ;the

答案为D。分析:方位名词要用定冠词the,故可考虑的选项为A、D。for the most part为固定短语,故答案为D。近几年来,高考试卷对冠词的命题方式大多数情况是,一空考冠词的基本用法,一空考固定短语中冠词使用。因此在我们学习固定短语中,一定要留神并准确记忆固定短语中名词前使用的冠词。

be in the charge of 由?负责

第五章 形容词和副词

第一节 形容词和副词的作用

11)

The present markets have taken a new look. 目前市场一派新气象。

2)

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3) 作宾语补足语 谁没有关门?

4) His son returned home, safe and sound.(安然无恙)

2

1)形容词作定语通常放在被修饰的名词之前。若出现多个形容词,排列顺序为: a)冠词——序数词——数量词——描绘性形容词

I spent the last few sunny days at the seaside.

b)描绘性形容词——大小——长短——新旧——国籍——材料

build a fine new stone bridge He is a famous American writer.

2)下列三种情况定语后置

a)短语 He was the only person awake at the moment.

b)修饰不定代词 c)“a”开头的形容词 他是在世最伟大的艺术家。 Time alone will show who was right.(time alone=only time)

只有时间能证明到底谁正确。

3.副词的作用 主要用 作状语,修饰动词,形容词,副词,介词短语和整个句子

can’t (修饰动词) 我无论如何不能接受你的礼物。

I’m terribly sorry to interrupt you. The cars are running at much the same speed.(修饰形容词) (修饰副词)

(修饰介词短语)

(修饰全句)

改错 1)—— How did you find his lecture ?

A B

—— V. It couldn’t be C D

2)!

A B C D

3) A B C D

4)day today. I can’t A B C D

1)C well → good well表示“好”是副词,当形容词用时表示“健康”

2)B different → differently,它修饰动词speak

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3)B strong → strongly,它修饰介词 短语against the decision

4)B a hot → hot a too通常修饰形容词和副词。too也可修饰单数可数名词,表达方

式:too + adj. + a +n。类似词有as, so和how。

He is so good a boy that we all like him.

How good a boy he is!

请注意关于too的一些特殊表达:

1.can not?too? 再? 也不为过

2.only too = very 非常

You can’t too careful when crossing the street. 横越马路后,越小心越好。

I’m only too pleased to be able to go home. 能回到家,我真高兴。

3.too 可以有以下程度状语

1)You speak a bit/ a little/ rather too fast.你讲话有点快。

2)These shoes are far/ much too big for me.这双鞋我穿太大了。

几组副词的比较:

1. very, much

二者均为程度副词,very 修饰形容词或副词;much修饰“a”开头的形容词,过去分词或非谓语动词。例如:

very good/ exciting/ limited.(以习惯上被用作形容词的过去分词)

He was (very) much afraid.

I enjoyed the film (very) much.

2. already, yet, still

already 用在肯定句,表示某事已经发生;yet用于否定句和疑问句中,表示期待某事发生;still表示某事还在进行。例如:

I have already finished my work.

He hasn’t come back yet.

Has she fallen asleep yet?

译:1)Keep still when I take a picture.

2) It is raining hard; still, we must go out.

3.almost, nearly

1)almost 比nearly 更接近某状况。例如:

It’s almost 12 o’clock. (11:55)

It’s nearly 12 o’clock. (11:45)

2)almost 多与nobody, nothing, no, none, never 连用。例如:

I almost never see him.

not nearly为固定用法,含义为“远非”。例如:

It’s not nearly easy.

4.quite, rather, fairly

1)quite 和rather 修饰名词时在a 之前。而fairly 在a 之后。例如:

We had quite a party. It’s a fairly interesting film.

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但如果有形容词和rather 一起修饰名词时,放在a 的前后均可,例如:

They are rather a strong (a rather strong) team.

2)rather 通常修饰贬义词和不喜欢的词,而fairly通常修饰褒义词或喜好的词。

例如:

The question is rather difficult.

The city is fairly clean.

第二节 形容词和副词的比较结构

英语中的形容词和副词可以划分为三个等级:原级,比较级和最高级。

原级 比较级 最高级

young younger youngest

excellent more excellent most excellent

形容词和副词比较级和最高级的构成方法

1)单音节词及以“er”,“le”,“ow”,“辅音字母+y”收尾的双音节词,在词尾加er或est构

成比较级和最高级

quick → quicker → quickest large → larger → largest

thin → thinner →thinnest clever → cleverer → cleverest

simple → simpler → simplest narrow → narrower → narrowest

happy → happier → happiest

2)其他双音节词及多音节词,在词加more或most构成比较级和最高级

famous → more famous → most famous

beautiful → more beautiful → most beautiful

英语语法汇总

注:1)farther, further均可表示距离上“更远”;但表示程度上“进一步”,用further。 I’m too tired to go any farther / further.

We must look into the matter further. 我们必须进一步调查此事。

I have nothing further to say. 我再没什么可说的了。

注:2)elder / eldest指家庭成员的长幼关系,作前置定语。

older / oldest 表示年龄大小关系,可作定语也可作表语。

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My eldest sister is going to get married. 我大姐要结婚了。

My elder sister is ten years older than my younger brother. 我姐姐比我弟弟大十岁。 He is the oldest teacher of us. 我是我们中最年长的老师。

第三节 形容词和副词的比较结构

1.表示A与B一样

肯定形式 1)S + V + as adj / adv(原级)as 2)S + V + as adj + a + n(单数) as

3) I will offer you as much help as I can.

Try to make as few mistakes as possible.

否定形式 This movie was not so good as I had expected.

I haven’t seen as old a car as this for years.

以上结构中,第二as为连词,连接比较的一方。第一个as为副词,可在其前加上多种程度

状语。

English is not nearly as easy as I imaged.

英语远没有我当初想象的那么容易。(not nearly远非)

We have produced 70% / twice as much cotton this year as we did last year.

今年我们生产的棉花是去年的70% / 两倍多。

2.表示A超过B

表达形式 This text is more difficult to understand than that one.

Work means more to me than anything. 对我来说,工作比任何东西都重要。

It is raining more heavily than ever. 雨下得比以往任何时间都大。

比较级前可加上多种程度状语

(多得多)much / far / a lot / a great deal

(更)even / still

I spend ※在否定句和疑问句中,比较级程度状语用any

Are you feeling any better ? I am so tired that I can’t go any farther.

※注:两者比较,形容词比较级前面不用冠词“the”,但句中带有“of + 比较范围”这一结

构,则要在比较前加“the”

3.表示越?越?

表达形式 1) 2) 18

The sooner, the better. 越早越好。

The less she worried, the better she worked. 她越不担忧,工作效果越好。

The harder you study, the greater progress you will make.

4.表示“最”

三者或三者以上的人或事物之间进行比较,用形容词或副词最高级

表达形式:S + V + adj / adv(最高级)+ 比较范围

He is the best student in our class.(在某一范围或区域内比较用in)

He did the experiment (the) most carefully of / among all of us.(在与主语同类的人或物中比较用

of 或among)

(副词最高级前the ,可省略)

This is the most beautiful city that I have ever visited.

注:most作“非常”解时,其前不用the, 但可用a。

This city is most beautiful. He is a most skilled driver.

表示“最”的概念还有以下方式

1) adj./ adv.(比较级)+than any other +单数名词/the others

2等)+

3 She speaks English more fluently than any other student in our class.

No other country in Europe went through more wars than England.

= England went through the most war in Europe.

在欧洲没有一个国家比英国经历的战争多。

It can’t be worse. = It is the worst thing I have ever known.

China has never been so powerful as it is today.中国从来没有象今天这样强大。

5.需了解的几种特殊表达方式

1) You are no more stupid than he. = You are as clever as he.

The dish tastes no worse than I expected. = The dish tastes as good as I expected.

这道菜的味道和我当初估计的一样好。

2)as much + 名词 as 表示双方在程度上一样

He has as much interest in politics as in art. 他对政治与艺术同样感兴趣。

选择:It is generally believed that teaching is it is a science.

A.an art much as B.much an art as

C.as an art much as D.as much an art as

(答案D,本题为句型(2)的具体运用)

3) ”

He is not so much a novelist as a critic. 与其说他是小说家,不如说他是评论家。

She was more sad than angry when her son lied again.

当他儿子再次说谎时,与其他说愤怒不如说他悲伤。

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第六章 动词时态

在英语中,通过不同的时态,表示或区别在不同时间发生的动作或出现的情况,要准确地使用不同的时态,关键要弄清各种时态的定义和用法。在近年英语高考命题中对时态的考查是一个重点,所考查的主要是一般过去时,现在完成时,现在进行时,过去进行时。

一、一般现在时

基本用法:

1.表示包括现在时刻在内整个阶段经常性和习惯性动作

The bank opens at 8:00 a.m. on weekdays.

However busy I am, I write to my mother regularly.

2.表示人或物基本特征,特性及目前的状态

Now I am busy; I can’t spare time for a holiday.

That street is in bad condition, and smells terrible.

3.表示客观真理,科学事实,格言及没有时限的客观存在

Knowledge is strength.

Light travels faster than sound.

Japan lies to the east of China.

选择:1.I ping-pong quite well, but I haven’t had time to play since the new year.

A.will play B.have played C.played D.play

2.—— Can I help you, sir ?

—— Yes, I bought this radio here yesterday, but it .

A.didn’t work B.won’t work C.can’t work D.doesn’t work

1. 答案为D。乒乓球打得出色是一个的基本能力和特征,因此要用一般现在时。

2. 答案为D。收音机不响,反应的是收音机目前的工作状况,故用一般现在时。

改错: 1.Make sure that you will pick me up after work.

2.I’ll see to it that I will return the reference book on time.

答案:1)will pick → pick 2)will return → return

在和

二、一般过去时

基本用法:

1.表示在一个特定的过去时间,发生的事件或人或物的客观情况。该时态常跟一个表示过去

时间的状语连用。如:yesterday, the night before(前天晚上),once(曾经),

the other day = a few days ago, just now = a moment ago(刚才)

I got to know him two years ago.

He was seriously ill last week.

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2.也可表示过去经常性或重复发生的动作或情况。

As a child, I would go to sea along with my father.

China is different from what it used to be.

情态动词would do可表示过去习惯性动作;used to be / do可表示过去习惯性动作或状态。 选择:1.—— Your telephone number again ? I quite catch it.

—— It’s 9568422.

A.didn’t B.couldn’t C.don’t D.can’t

2.—— We could have walked to the station, it was so near.

—— Yes. A taxi at all necessary.

A.wasn’t B.hadn’t been C.wouldn’t D.won’t

3.—— Come on it, Peter. I want to show you something.

—— Oh, how nice of you ! I you to bring me a gift.

A.never think ;are going B.never thought ;were going

C.didn’t think ;were going D.hadn’t thought ;were going

简析:1. 答案A。“没听清楚”发生在对方当时报电话号码那个过去时刻,故用一般过去时。

2. 答案A。根据对话的情景可知,甲乙双方都在谈论过去发生的事情。甲方用虚拟语气,责备自己当时未能步行去车站,乙方强调当时乘出租车没有必要,故用一般过去时。

3. 答案B。思维动词think, know, expect等,时态使用的原则是:表示现在的看法、知晓用一般现在时;表示过去的看法、知晓,而这种思维活动现在已不复存在,用一般过去时。根据对话可知,乙方没想到‘“甲方会给他带来礼物”,发生在未见到礼物之前。一旦见到礼物,这种想法即刻消失,故think应用一般过去时。答案B比C语气强,更符合对话的情景,因此B为最佳选项。

在以下句型中,必须用一般过去时表示将来发生的动作:

1.It is(high / about)time(that)you went bed. 你该去睡觉了。

2.我倒希望他们明天来。

三、现在完成时

1.表达形式:主动语态have / has done ;被动语态have / has been done

2.基本用法:

1)表示动作或过程发生在说话之前某个过去时刻,到说话时已完成,并与现在的情况有联系。 I have turned on the electric heater(电热器)in the room.

(I turned on the electric heater, and the room is getting warm now.)

He has taken away my reference book.

(He took away my reference book, and now I can’t use it.)

选择:The price A.went down B.will go down C.has gone down D.was going down

答案为C。作者对今后物价是否能继续走低,心怀疑虑,而他此时的心态是由物价下跌这一

动作引发的,故用现在进行时。

2)表示动作或状态从过去某一时刻开始,一直延续到现在。可能刚结束,也可能继续下去。 21

· 起点 Now

He has been in Beijing for two years.

We have had plenty of rain here since we parted last month.

自上个月我们分手以来,这里下了很多雨。

表示动作或状态从过去某一时刻持续到现在的时间状语还有in the past(last)few years, ever

since, so far, up to the present(直到现在),until now, in recent years等。

选择:—— How are you today ?

—— Oh, I as ill as I do now for a long time.

A.didn’t feel B.wasn’t feeling C.don’t feel D.haven’t felt

答案为D。译:我很长时间没有象今天这样周身不适。本句的实质是:今天我身体状况最差,

而这以前情况基本正常,即not feel ill。这种正常身体状况从过去延续到今天截止。故应用现在完成时。

关于现在完成时,请注意以下三点:

1)现在完成时与一般过去时的区别:现在完成时表示的动作或状态或与在有联系,它强调的

是对现在的影响。一般过去时表示的动作或状态已成为历史,不复存在,与现在无关系。 He has worked in Paris for two years. (现在人仍在巴黎。)

He worked in Paris for two years. (现在人已不在巴黎。)

2)可用句型It is +(一段时间)+ since(主语)+(动词的过去时),解决瞬间动词不能与一

段时间连用的矛盾。如:

It is ten years since he left Shanghai.

It is about two years since I got married to Jane.

3)下列句型的分句中动词用现在完成时。如:

It is the first(序数词)time(that)I have visited China. 我是我第一次访问中国。

This is the most beautiful(形容词最高级)city that I have ever seen. 这是我见过的最美丽的城

市。

四、过去完成时

1.表达形式 主动语态had done ;被动语态had been done

2.基本用法

1)在过去某一时间或某一动作之前已完成的动作。

had done

Now

例:He said that he had arrived three days before.

2)动作或状态在过去某一时间之前已经开始,一直延续到这一过去时间。

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例:By the time he came we had worked for two hours.

had done

Now

例1:—— Mary came back yesterday.

—— Where she ?

A.had; been B.did; go C.has; been D.had; gone

答案为A。乙方要问的是“在昨天之前,她去过哪里”,属过去的过去。故应用过去完成时。 例2:Until then, his family from him for two months.

A.didn’t hear B.hasn’t heard C.hadn’t heard D.heard nothing

译:到那个时候,他家人已有两个月没有收到他的来信。

答案为C。“未收到来信”这种情况持续到那个时候,而不是现在。根据过去完成时的第二种

用法,应用过去完成时。

例3:用正确时态填空

I (mean)to go on Monday, but I have stayed at their request.

答案为had meant。动词hope, wish, intend, mean, want, expect等,其过去完成时可表示“过去

未曾实现的希望,打算或意图”。

五、现在进行时

1.表达形式:主动形式:am / is / are doing 被动形式am / is / are being done

2.基本用法

表示此刻或现阶段正在进行的动作。

The students are preparing for the entrance exam at present.

表示目前的变化、发展和进展过程,需要用现在进行时。

Selecting a mobile phone for perponal use is no easy task because technology is changing so

rapidly.

请注意以下两点:

1.现在进行时与一般现在时的区别:一般现在时表示的动作,其特征为经常性;现在进行时

表示的动作,其特征具有暂时性。经常性与暂时性是区分这两种时态的主要尺度。

例:—— Is this raincoat yours ?

—— No, mine there behind the door.

A.is hanging B.has hung C.hangs D.hung

答案为A。这段对话大多发生在下班,会议或社交活动结束后,人们各自找自己的雨具这样

的场合。“雨衣挂在门后”是临时性的,故用现在进行时。

2.进行时与always, continually, constantly, forever等副词连用,作为一种修辞手段,用于表

达赞扬、不满、抱怨等情绪。

He is always thinking of others. 他总是为别人着想。(赞扬)

At school he was constantly playing trick on others. 在校读书时,他老是捉弄人。(厌恶) 23

六、过去进行时

1.表达形式 主动态:was / were doing ;被动形式:was / were being done

2.基本用法

用于表示在过去某一时刻或过去某一阶段正在进行的动作。

I was making a long-distance call to my near relative before you arrived.

In those years we were having a hard time.

例:1.—— Hey, look where you are going !

—— Oh, I’m terribly sorry. A.I’m not noticing B.I wasn’t noticing C.I haven’t noticed D.I don’t notice

2.Tom into the house when no one .

A.slipped; was looking B.had slipped; looked

C.slipped; had looked D.was slipped; looked

1. 答案为B。“走路时心不在焉,不注意前进方向”,发生在甲方责备他之前那段已过去的时间里。故应用过去进行时。

2.译文:汤姆乘着没有人注意,溜进房屋。答案为A。when, while, as引导的时间状语从句,若主句动作与从句动作同时进行,且一长一短。那么持续时间长的动作用进行时,持续短的动作用一般时。本题中“溜slip”发生在没有人注视这一过程中,“溜slip”为短动作,故用一般过去时,而watch“注视”持续时间长,应用过去进行时。

七、一般将来时

1.基本用法 表示将来或即将发生的动作

2.表达形式 主动形式:shall / will do ;shall / will be doing

被动形式:shall / will be done

shall用于第一人称,will用于所有人称

I won’t be free tonight.

I will be waiting for you outside after school.

一般将来时其他表达形式如下:

1)am / is / are going to do

用于表示a)预先打算做某事。b)有迹象表明即将发生的动作。

We are going to visit the Great Wall at weekends.

Listen to the loud crash of thunder. It’s going to rain. 听那震耳的雷声,天就要下雨了。

2)am / is / are to do

用于表示按计划、安排要进行的动作

The meeting is to be held tomorrow.

注1: 该结构也可当情态动词用,表示“命令”、“可能”

You are to be back by 9 o’clock at the latest. 你必须最迟在9点之前回家。

This kind of book is nowhere to be bought. = This kind of book can’t be bought anywhere. 注2:用在if 条件句中,表示“想”。If we are to be there in time, we’ll have to hurry up. 24

3)be about to do

用于表达某动作马上要发生

Be quick ! Flight No. 302 to Tokyo is about to take off.

改错:Allention please ! The concert is about to start in five minutes.

删去in five minutes。 be about to do不能与具体时间状语连用。

4)转移动词go, come, start, leave, arrive, return, sail等以及win, lose, die可用进行时表示将来

时。

The ship is sailing for Shanghai tomorrow.

It seems to me that our team is losing.

八、过去将来时

1.基本用法

表示在过去某一时刻尚未发生的动作或存在的状态。

2.表达形式

主动语态:should / would do 被动语态:should / would be done

I never imagined that he would become a doctor.

I promised my boss that I would finish this work by the end of this month.

一般将来时的其他表达形式,也适用于过去将来时

I felt that something terrible was about to happen.

请注意:

①when, once, until, as soon as等引导的时间状语从句

②if, unless, so long as等引导的条件状语从句

③even if, though, whenever, whether?or(不管?还是?)等引导的让步状语从句 若从句动作未发生,应用一般时表示将来时。

I will let you know if he comes back.

He said that he wouldn’t lose heart even if he 九、被动语态

1.定义:若主语是谓语动作的承受者,即主谓语为被动关系,则谓语动词应用被动形式。 The question is being discussed at the meeting.

Full time should be made use of to speed up socialist construction. 必须充分利用时间加速社会

主义建设。

①下列情况不能用被动语态:

a.不及物动词及不及物性的短语动词,如happen, appear, disappear, break out, take

place等

b.状态动词或系动词。

例:There is no doubt that Taiwan is belonged to China.(错) His head is felt hot.(错)

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This plan was proved practical.(错)

②下列情况用主动形式表示被动意义:

a.表示事物的名词作主语,谓语表示该事物的特征。

例: b.动词前有情态动词won’t, wouldn’t,表示该动作难以实现。

例:The door won’t open. 这扇门就是关不起来。

The engine 今天上午这马达怎么也发动不起来。

第七章 情态动词

情态动词具有一定的词义,没有人称和数的变化,不能单独充当谓语。它和谓语动词连用,表示“请求,愿望,建议,推测”等意义。

第一节 交际

1.表示“请求”,请别人做事。用will, would, can , could。

句型:(1)Will / Would you(please)do ? ? (2)Can / Could you do ? ?

在这两个句型中would, could比will, can更正式、客气。

Will / Would you please explain the text once again ?

Can / Could you tell me what time Flight 312 arrives?

2.询问是否“许可”。用can / could,may / might

句型:(1)May / Might I do ? ? (2)Can / Could I do??

在这两个句型中could, might比can, may更正式、客气。

— Could I use your car ?

— Yes, of course, you can ?(回答必须用can)

— Might I have a look at your new computer ?

— Yes, you may(回答必须用may)或Please go ahead.

3.自己想做,要求对方做决定, 即征询对方意见。用shall,用于第一人称和第三人称。 句型:Shall I(we, he, she it, they)? ?译“要不要??”

— The room is so dirty. Shall we clean it?

— Of course. (03全国春季)

Shall these goods be sent over to you at once ? 要不要把这些货物马上送给你?

4.表示规劝,建议

1)正面的规劝,表示“最好”,“应该”,或“必须”做某事。

①表示“最好”,用had better,may / might as well或It is better / best to do sth.

You might just as well tell the manufacturer that male customers may not like the design of the

furniture. (04上海春季)

If you are planning to spend your money having fun this week, better forget it—you’ve got some 26

big bills coming. (04广东卷)(better forget it相当于You had better forget it.)

②表示“有义务或有必要”,用should或ought to。 即“应该”。

If you see anything unusual, you should call the police.

③用must 译:“必须”。

The guide required that all passengers must wear seat belts.

导游要求所有旅客必须系安全带。

2)反面的规劝,表示“不必”,“不应当”,或“不许”做某事。

①表示“不必”,用needn’t 或 don’t have to 。

--- I don't mind telling you what I know.

--- You needn’t. I'm not asking you for it. (04江苏卷)

You needn’t return / don’t have to return the book now. You can keep it till next week.

②表示“不应该”,用shouldn’t 或 oughtn’t to。

We shouldn’t throw cold water on them. 我们不应当给他们泼冷水。

③表示“不许”,用mustn’t。

You mustn’t smoke in class. 上课时不准吸烟。

needn’t / don’t have to → shouldn’t → mustn’t 语气逐步加强

5.须区别或注意的情态动词

1)can, could与be able to的区别

a)表示能力时can和be able to可以互换使用

I can / am able to speak English. She could / was able to read novels at ten.

b)表示在过去某一特定场合下,一次性表现出来的能力,只能用was / were able to。 The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone get out.

A.had to B.would C.could D.was able to(答案D)(97全国)

2)shall用在主语是第二、第三人称的陈述句中,表示说话人给对方的许诺或命令。

Work hard and you shall be paid. 好好干,你会得到报酬的。(许诺)

You shall leave here at once. = You must leave here at once. (命令)

shall也用于法律、法令或规章等正式文件中,表示义务或规定。译“应,必须”。

The fine shall be paid in cash. 罚款应以现金交纳。

3)need和dare的用法。

改错:

1) A B C D

2)We do need masses of young people who dare accept all kinds of challenges.

A B C D

a)need(需要),dare(敢于)可作行为动词用,句型need to do, dare to do。也可作情态动词,但不能用在肯定句。在肯定句中只能作行为动词使用,故第一题B错,need → needs to;第二题C错,accept → to accept

b)need,作情态动词用时,无人称变化。need用于否定句和疑问句中;dare用于否定句、疑问句和条件句中。

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You needn’t work so hard. → You don’t need to work so hard.

— Need I go at once.

— Yes, you must. / No, you needn’t.

Mary dare not touch the snake. → Mary doesn’t dare(to)touch the snake.

Dare you walk through the forest at night ?

If the enemy dare enter our country, we will fight against them to the end.

如果敌人胆敢进入我国,我们就和他们战斗到底。

4)should的用法。

should除表示“应该”外,还可用于表示情感、意志等句中的that从句。译“竟然、居然”。例如:

You can’t imagine that a well-behaved gentleman _____ be so rude to a lady.

A. might B. need C. should D. would (答案C)(01上海)

第二节 推测

1.根据某一事实、现象推测可能发生的情况。用must, may, might。下表比较了三者表示推测肯

英语语法汇总

例:You must be tired. Go home and have a good rest. (对目前的推测)

The light is on in the lab. Mr Li must still be doing experiments. (对目前的推测)

Sorry I'm late. I might have turned off the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again.

(对过去的推测)(2000北京春季)

注:1)must表示推测仅用于对当前和已发生的情况,不能用于推测将来可能发生的事情。must表示推测仅用于肯定句。在否定句和疑问句中,必须用can / could取代must。

Mr Li can’t still be doing experiments at present.

My English-Chinese dictionary has disappeared.Who ___________ have taken it?

A.should B.must C.could D.would 答案C (03上海春季)

2)may / might可以用于推测将来可能发生的情况,既可用于肯定句,也可用于否定句,但不能用于疑问句。在疑问句中,同样使用can / could。

例:1. —Is John coming by train?

— He should, but he________not. He likes driving his car.

A. must B. can

C. need D. may 答案D (02全国) 28 2. — Your son may return to Nanjing tomorrow by way of Hong Kong.

— Wonderful! But how can he come, by air or sea?

2.根据经验或惯例对某一情况进行推测,用should或ought to,常译成“按理应该?”或“可能

会??”。

It’s nearly seven o’clock. Jack should be here at any moment.

时间已将近7点了,按理Jack该回来了。

第三节 反思

1.表示“当时本应该做,而实际上没有做”,用:

①should have done或ought to have done

②could have done或might have done

句型①责备的语气强于句型②

例:1. Mr. White should have arrived at 8:30 for the meeting, but he didn’t’ show up.

(04广西卷)

2.He might have given you more help, even though he was busy.

2 ①needn’t have done 当时做了某事,但事实上没有必要

You needn’t have told him the news; he knew it already.

didn’t have to do 通常指当时某事没有必要做且没有做。

She told me that she had a daughter and didn’t have to have another baby.

第四节 虚拟语气

虚拟语气是指所说的话只是一个与事实相反的主观愿望或假想。虚拟语气可用于条件状语从句、名词从句以及其他结构中。

一、if引导的非真实条件中的虚拟语气。

英语语法汇总

例:1. If there were no gravity, we would not be able to walk on the earth.

假如没有引力,我们就不可能在地球上行走。

2. We would have succeeded if we had made enough preparations.

当初要是作了充分的准备,我们就有可能成功。

3. This kind of boiler is very safe. If it were to go wrong, the controlling system would cut off the fuel oil supply automatically.

这种锅炉很安全。万一锅炉发生故障,控制系统会自动切断燃油的供给。

2、if虚拟条件句的省略。

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若虚拟条件从句中有were, had, should, 可把if省略,而把were, had, should提到主语前面,成为倒装结构。

例:1.If I were you, I would accept the challenge. → Were I you, I would accept the challenge.

2. If you had informed me earlier, I wouldn’t have signed the contract.

→Had you informed me earlier, I wouldn’t have signed the contract.

当初你要早点告诉我,我是不会签那个合同的。

3、错综时间条件句。

在这种虚拟条件句中,从句动作和主举动作发生的时间不一致,因此,从句和主句的谓语动词要根据各自所指的不同时间选择适当的动词形式。

例:1. If I were you, I would have taken that job. (从句指现在,主句指过去)

你错过了这么好的机会。我要是你,我当时就接受那份工作。

2. Had her husband not been killed in the war, she would not be helping others with housework

now. (从句指过去,主句指现在)

如果她的丈夫那时没有死与战争的话,她现在不会帮人做家务了。

4、含蓄虚拟条件句。

有时假设的情况并不以条件从句表示出来,而是以其他形式表现出来。

1)介词短语but for 或 without。译:“要不是,要是没有”。

例:1. But for electricity (= If it were not for electricity), there would be no modern industry. 要是没有电,就不会有现代化工业。

2. Without your help (If it had not been for your help), we could not have succeeded.

当初没有您的帮助,我们不可能成功。

2)or 或otherwise。句型:did(过去时),or / otherwise would have done.

例:I ran all the way to school, otherwise I would have been late.

我一路跑到学校,否则,我就会迟到了。

3)but句型:(1)would do but do (一般现在时)

(2)would have done but did (一般过去时)

My daughter would gain weight but she doesn’t eat enough.

---- Why didn’t you help him out?

---- I would have but I didn’t have money.

5、wish后的宾语从句和if only引导的感叹句中的虚拟语气。

wish后的宾语从句和if only引导的感叹句表达的是与客观事实相反的愿望,需用虚拟语气。

wish that从句 = if only + 从句 译:“要是??就好了” 或 “但愿??”。

1)愿望与事实相反。从句谓语动词用:were或did (过去时形式)

I wish I knew the answer to the question. = If only I knew the answer to the question.

我要能知道那个问题的答案就好了。

2)愿望与过去事实相反。从句谓语动词用:had done (过去完成时形式)

---- We had a great time last night.

---- I wish that I had not been ill yesterday. = If only I had not been ill yesterday.

昨天我要是不生病那该多好啊!

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3)愿望将来不大可能发生。从句谓语动词用:would / could / might do

I wish that it would be fine tomorrow. = If only it would be fine tomorrow. 但愿明天是个好天气。

6、“(should) + 动词原形 ”的形式在名词从句中的运用。 在这些从句中should可以省略,具体运用在以下三种情况下。

1)用在谓语动词为suggest(建议),insist(坚持),adivse(建议),order(命令), desire(希望),demand(require, request)(要求、请求) 的宾语从句中。

2)suggestion, advice(忠告), order, demand, desire(愿望)等名词后的同位语从句或表语从

句中。

3)在固定句型中:

It is important / necessary (essential) (必要的)/ desirable (希望) that (should) do

例:1. I suggest that our manager (should) go there by sea. 我建议我们的经理由海路去那里。

2. Our desire is that we (should) get a rise in salary as soon as possible. 我的愿望是能尽快涨工资。

3. It is essential that you (should) win the voter’s hearts. 赢得选民的心是绝对必要的。

第八章 非谓语动词

不定式(infinitive)、分词(participle)、动名词(gerund)是非谓语动词,在句子中不能作谓语。.........以下表格列出了他们各自在句中的作用。(√表示可以在句中担任的语法成分,×则表示不可以。)

英语语法汇总

非谓语动词在句中的特点、性质、用法、区别及使用注意事项分述如下:

第一节、非谓语动词作主语

可作主语的非谓语形式为:不定式和动名词。其表达形式为:

不定式:主动态 to do; 被动态 to be done; 动名词:主动态 doing; 被动态 being done。 例1: 例2:要我用现金买那辆车是不可能的。 例3: 例4:—— What made you so late for work today ?

——

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因为交通拥挤,今早开车上班非常慢。

一般说来,动名词和不定式作主语,可以互换,其意义没有多大差别,但须注意以下两点:

1.表示具体的,尤其是未发生的动作,倾向用不定式(如例2)。

表示无时限的泛指动作(如例3)或描述当时的情况(如例4),倾向用动名词。

2.在下列句型用动名词作主语

(??没有用)

There is no doing. (??不可能)

It is no good arguing with him. 和他争论没有用。

There is no knowing what may happen. = It is impossible to know what may happen.

练习: 1.(改错)As is known, learn a foreign language well requires great efforts.

2.(改错)Though flying balloons are easy, balloonists must watch the weather carefully.

3.(选择)_______ to sunlight for too much will do harm to one’s skin.

A. Exposed to B. Exposing C. Having exposed D. Being exposed

答案:1.learn → learning 原形动词不能作主语。

2.are → is 单个动名词作主语,谓语用单数。

3.答案D。句义:遭太阳暴晒对皮肤有害。本题考查动名词作主语。分析句子结构可

知,待选项在句中作主语,又因为人与expose为被动关系,所以选D。

第二节、非谓语动词作表语

可作表语的非谓语动词为:不定式,动名词。

1.Your task this morning is to deliver the mail to Professor Smith. 你今天上午的任务是把这个邮件送给史密斯教授。(不定式解释主语内容)

2.My hobby is collecting stamps. (动名词解释主语内容)

1. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, ____it more difficult.(99全国)A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make

2.分析句子是否正确: What we do is prepare our students to face fierce competitions when they enter society.

1、答案B。is后有两个表语,两者必须在结构上对称。第一个表语为不定式to make life easier,则第二个表语也应该为不定式,所以选B。

2、正确。当主语部分有实义动词do 时,作表语的不定式可以省略to; 若没有实义动词do,

表语中to不能省略。

第三节、非谓语动词作宾语

可作宾语的非谓语动词为:不定式和动名词。

1.不定式作宾语

例1.He demanded to know the truth.

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例2.The car failed to stop at the red light. 那辆轿车看到红灯没有停。

英语中有相当数量的动词,只能以不定式作宾语。如:

agree(同意),decide, refuse, pretend(假装),manage(设法),promise, seem, happen, hope, wish,

offer to do(表示愿望)

afford to do(买得起,承担得起),bother to do(特意),choose to do(愿意或决定) attempt / seek to do(试图) learn to do(学习或学会)

短语

would like(love)to do,would prefer to do(更愿意),be about to do(即将), 介词 but / except to do

例1)I have no choice but to give up the plan.

2)There was nothing we could do except wait.

注:but / except前有实义动词do, 其后to必须省去

请注意以下几点:

1)疑问代词如what,which;疑问副词如when, whether(why除外)引导的不定式可作know,

decide等的宾语,在意义上相当与一个未曾发生的宾语从句。

例1.We haven’t decided what steps to take next.

→ We haven’t decided what steps we should take next.

2.I really don’t know whether to write to her or give her a phone call.

→ I really don’t know whether I should write to her or give her a phone call.

这种结构也可以作主语和表语

例1.下一步该怎么办有待于讨论。

例2. 2)为了避免重复,不定式可省去与前边重复的动词原形,而保留“to”。

例:—— Would you like to go for a picnic with me ?

—— I’d love to, but I can’t spare any time at present.(to后省略了go for a picnic with you)

英语语法汇总

不定式的进行时和完成时常用在下列句型中:

1)S(人,物) 33

2)S(人,物) 请注意:考查不定式的时态和语态,主要集中在以上句型中,是高考的重点和热点。

I happened to be standing next to him when he fell down.

The bank is reported in the local newspaper to have been robbed in broad daylight yesterday. 据当

地报纸指导,这家银行昨天在光天化日之下遭到抢劫。

He is known to have been arrested by the police. 人们都知道他曾被警察逮捕过。

4)was / were to have done ;would like to have done

wished(hoped / wanted / intended / meant)to have done

表示当时想做,而实际不能做到

I was to have picked you up at the airport, but I forgot about it.

I intended to have helped you out but I had no money then. 我当时真想帮助你摆脱困境,可是我

那时身无分文。

2.动名词作动词或介词的宾语

I can’t imagine marrying a girl of that sort. 我很难想象与那种女子结婚后的情形。

I narrowly missed being killed in the car accident. 在那次车祸中我死里逃生。

He admitted having stolen my bicycle. 他承认偷了我的自行车。

There is no point in arguing any further.再争议下去毫无意义。

1)下列动词必须带动名词结构作宾语:

understand(理解),admit(承认),keep(on)(继续),practise(练习),finish(完成),imagine

(想象),miss(错过,避免),avoid(避免),escape(逃避),suggest(建议),dislike(讨厌),enjoy(喜欢),delay(推迟),excuse(原谅),mind(介意),appreciate(感激),oppose(反对)。

另外,有的词既可带动名词做宾语,亦可带不定式做宾语补足语,请区别清楚。如: allow doing(比较:allow sb. to do) advise doing(比较:advise sb. to do)

2)下列短语必须带动名词结构作宾语:

be worth(值得),pay attention to(注意),object to(反对),can’t help(情不自禁),devote oneself

to(致力于),put off(推迟),be / get used to(习惯于),feel like(想要),look forward to(盼望),get down to(开始做,认真做某事),how / what about(??怎么样),There is no point (in) doing sth (做某事毫无意义)

3)下列动词可以用不定式作宾语,也可以用动名词作宾语,但有明显的语义差别。 remember doing 回忆起过去做过的事

remember to do 记住要做的事

forget doing 忘记了曾做过的事

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forget to do 忘记该做的事

英语语法汇总

regret doing 对已发生的事表示后悔

regret to do 对现在要发生的事表示抱歉

mean doing 意味着,意思是

mean to do 打算,想要

try doing 试一试某种方法

try to do 设法去做一件事

比较1.I don’t mean to give up the plan. 我不打算放弃这个计划。

A break down on our way would mean our walking for hours. 汽车半路抛锚意味着我们要步行

几个小时。

比较2.I have always deeply regretted selling(having sold)the farm.我一直为卖掉这个农场而

后悔不已。

We regret to tell you that you owe the bank &100. 我们很遗憾地告诉你,你欠银行100英镑。

第四节、非谓语动词作状语

作状语的非谓语动词为:分词和不定式

1.现在分词和过去分词的区别

1)现在分词表示主动,译为“令人??”;过去分词表示被动,译为“感到?”,这是两者最

重要的区别

The weather of this summer is disappointing.

My parents will be disappointed with me if I fail the exam.

描述事物或事情的性质一般用现在分词。

描述人的情感一般用过去分词。

I don’t think it surprising for such a bad man to have been punished.(it指“象这样的坏人受到惩

罚”这件事)

There was a surprised expression in her eyes.她的眼里流露出惊讶的神情。(人的表情是情感的

具体表现,故应用过去分词来修饰expression)

2)现在分词通常表示动作正在进行;过去分词通常表示动作已完成。

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3.分词表示时间、原因、条件、让步、伴随或补充说明等

a)分词做时间、原因、条件、让步状语的表达形式如下: having done

英语语法汇总

英语语法汇总

(主动关系) (被动关系)

Not understanding its meaning, he asked the teacher to explain the word.

(表原因:understanding与句子主语he之间是主动关系,同谓语动词asked同时发生) Having made a decision, they immediately set out to work.

(表时间:make a decision与句子主语之间是主动关系且发生于谓语动词set out之前) Having been experimented many times, this new product will be put into mass production. 由于这一新产品已实验过多次,不久将投入批量生产。

(表原因:experimented与主语product为被动关系,且先于谓语动词put之前发生) 词作上述状语时,它的位置可置于主句之前,也可置于主语之后。

例:They, having made a decision, set out to work.

选择:The research is so designed that once_____nothing can be done to change it. (02全国)

A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun

本题考查状语从句的省略,难度较大。若时间、原因、条件和让步状语从句的主语与主句主语相同,且从句部分有be时,可省略从句主语及be。省略后的形式如下:

(1) when(while, until, once, as, if, though等)+ doing 从句谓语动词与主语为主动关系

(2) when(while, until, once, as, if, though等)+ done从句谓语动词与主语为被动关系 表示“某一事件的开始”,begin既可用主动态,也可以用被动态。状语从句表达形式:

(1)Once it beings。这种形式,不具备省略条件。

(2)Once it is begun。具备省略条件(有be)。省略后的形式为:Once begun。

所以本题选D。

b)分词作伴随状语时, 其形式为:(1)doing(2)done。究竟用现在分词还是过去分词,取决于该动作与句子主语是主动还是被动关系

“We can’t going out in this weather,” said Bob, looking out of the window.(04重庆)

The boy sat in the dark room, frightened and trembling.

男孩一个人做在黑洞洞的房间里,吓得浑身发抖。

注意:作伴随状语的分词,与谓语动作同时。这是判断一个动词是否作伴随状语的主要尺度。 请注意下列固定短语在作状语时的表达形式:

Generally speaking 一般地说 Strictly speaking 从严格意义上说

Judging from / by ? 根据?判断 Given / Allowing for 考虑到

Given their inexperience, they have done a good job. 在缺少经验的情况下,他们的工作算是做得不错。

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4.不定式用作表目的,结果,方式和形容词原因状语

1)目的

To win over the undecided voters, they are working twice as hard.

为了把尚未拿定主意的选民争取过来,他们正在加倍努力工作。

He got up early not to miss the first bus.(not to也可用so as not to或in order not to这一强调形式)

2)结果

不定式作结果状语,常见结构有:

too adj / adv to do ; too adj + a + n to do

so adj / adv as to do ; such + n as to do

The boy is too young to dress himself.

He was too shrewd(精明的)a businessman to accept our offer.

他是个非常精明的商人,不会接受我们的开价。

Will you be so kind as to turn down the radio ? 请把收音机开小一点。

He can’t have done such a terrible thing as to keep you waiting so long.

他不可能做出这样糟糕的事,让你等这么长的时间。

注意:表示一种事先没有预料的结果,用不定式。不定式前可用only来加强意想不到的语气。

如:(04福建卷)The news reporters hurried to the airport ,only to be told the film stars had left. 然而,要表示在事情发展过程中必然会产生的结果,就要用分词来表达。分词前可加thus, 加强必然的语气。The new machine will work twice as fast, thus greatly reducing costs. 新机器的运转速度提高一倍,因而大大降低了成本。

3)方式状语

结构: S(人,物)be + adj to do

特点(1)句子的主语在逻辑关系上为不定式动作的宾语

(2)形容词为:easy, hard, difficult, comfortable, dangerous等。

1.Some books are interesting to read, but boring to learn.

有些书读起来很有趣,但学起来很讨厌。

2.The telephone number is easy to remember. 他的电话号码很难记。

3.That man is difficult to deal with. 那个人很难对付。

注意:以上句子,尽管句子的主语和不定式动作为被动关系,但只能用主动形式;若不定式

动词为不及物,应加上适当介词,如例4。

4)形容词原因状语。这类形容词通常是表示情感或评价行为表现的形容词。

I am shocked to hear the news of his sudden death.

You were silly not to have locked your car. (04湖南)

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第五节、非谓语动词作宾语补足语

作宾语补足语的非谓语动词是不定式和分词。 .....

英语中有相当一批动词必须以不定式作宾语补充语。

My parents don’t allow me 这些动词和短语为:

wish, want, ask, require / request(要求);order, warn(警告)

allow / permit, forbid(禁止), expect, remind(提醒),encourage, inspire(激励) call on(号召,要求),depend on, long for sb. to do(渴望)

请特别记住下列动词的宾补形式,表达的意义及判断的依据。

do 宾语与宾补动作为主动关系。

1.make(使)+ O + C

done 宾语与宾补动作为被动关系。

to do 主语与不定式动作为主动关系。

S + be made done 主语与分词动作为被动关系。

注:句型“O”代表宾语,为名词或代词;“C”代表宾补。

例:Those who won’t work should be made to work. 那些不愿工作的人应强制他们去工作。 He couldn’t make himself heard. 他无法让别人听到他说的话。

2.Keep(leave) doing 宾语与宾补动作为主动关系。

(使??处于某种状态) done 宾语与宾补动作为被动关系。

doing 主语与分词动作为主动关系。

S + be + kept(left

done 主语与分词动作为被动关系。

例:Now students are kept burying themselves in books all day.

现在的学生被迫整天埋头读书。

His work was left undone. 他丢下工作不去干。

3. doing 宾语与宾补动作为主动关系。

find(发现) done 宾语与宾补动作为被动关系。

doing 主语与分词动作为主动关系。

S + be +found

done 主语与分词动作为被动关系。

例:(03全国)A cook will be immediately fired if he is found smoking in the kitchen.

4. doing 宾语与宾补动作为主动关系

with + O + C done 宾语与宾补动作为被动关系

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to do(动作未发生)

例:1.He lay on the grassland with his jacket covering his stomach.

他躺在草地上,把上衣盖在肚子上。

2.With a lot of difficult problems to settle, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. (02上海春季)由于很多棘手的问题要解决,那为新当选的总统处境艰难。

5.catch sb. doing ; be caught doing

该句型表示(偶然或突然)撞见、发现。

例:He looked around and caught a man putting his hand into the pocket of a passenger. (04北

京春季)他向四周看,突然发现一个人把手伸进一个旅客的口袋

6. do 宾语与宾补动作为主动关系。让某人做某事。

have(使) doing 宾语与宾补动作为主动关系。让某一动作一直在进行。 done 宾语与宾补动作为被动关系。

(表示:1)让某事由别人做。2)表达主语的遭遇。)

例: 1.Whom would you like to have handle the complication problem?

2. Paul had his hand burned seriously while cooking dinner.

保罗在做饭时,手被严重烫伤。

7. to do宾语与宾补动作为主动关系。Get sb to do = have sb. do。 get(使)+ O + C

done宾语与宾补动作为被动关系。get sth done = have sth. done。 例:You’ll never get her to agree.

When are going to get your hair cut ?

8.感官动词hear, listen to, see, look at, notice, watch, observe, feel等。

do 宾语与宾补动作是主动关系。该动作全过程已结束,或经常性发生。 hear + O + C doing 宾语与宾补动作是主动关系。该动作正在进行。

done 宾语与宾补动作是被动关系。

to do主语与不定式动作为主动关系。该动作全过程已结束或经常发生 S + be +heard doing主语与分词动作为主动关系。该动作正在进行。

done 主语与分词动作为被动关系。

例:He has never heard her sing so well before.

I didn’t notice you carrying a pack when you came in.

Never before had he felt himself so powerfully attracted to the scientific idea.

改错:

1) A B C D

2) 39

A B C D

3) A B C D

4) A B C D

5) A B C D

答案:1)B错 are hoped → are wished hope sb. to do典型病句

2)B错 to take →(should)take

demand句型:1)demand to do 2)demand that (should)do

3)C错 becoming → become 现在分词doing不能做make的宾补。

4)C错 to be sung → sung

5)B错 remained → remaining。 remain “剩下”是不及物动词,只有主动形式。 注意:以上动词的宾补形式的考查是高考的重点和难点。

第六节、非谓语动词作定语

1.不定式作定语

在三种情况下需用不定式作定语:

1)动作未发生,被修饰的名词在逻辑关系上是不定式动作的宾语。不定式用主动形式还是被

动形式,由句子的主语与不定式的逻辑关系决定。

It seems to me that I have nothing to take home to my children.

在我看来今天我们没有东西可以带给孩子了

She will tell us why she feels so strongly that each of us has a role in making the earth a

better place to live.(03上海春季)她会告诉我们为什么她强烈地认为在使地球成为更好住处这一点上,我们每个人都有可以发挥的作用。

若作定语的不定式动词为不及物动词,需加适合介词。如:

Now I feel very lonely because I can’t find anyone to talk .

2)被修饰的词为抽象名词,如need, way, reason, right等,不定式解释其内容。

There is no need to quarrel with him.

Please give your reason to refuse him.

3)被修饰的词,其前有序数词first, second, last, only作定语。

He is always the first(one)to get to school every day.

She was the only one to survive in the air crash. 她是这次空难中唯一的幸存者。

2.分词作定语

以下情况常用分词作定语:

1)被修饰名词与作定语的动词为主动关系,该动作正在进行,或与谓语动作同时进行,或是 40

经常性行为时,用现在分词。

When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door reading“sorry to miss you; will call later.”(99全国)

现在分词作定语在意义上相当于一个时态为进行时或一般时的定语从句。

reading“sorry to miss you; will call later.”= which read “sorry to miss you; will call later.”

2)若被修饰的名词与作定语的动词为被动关系,动词采用以下三种形式:

a)动作已发生或为经常性行为,用done。b)若动作正在进行用being done。

c)动作未发生,用to be done。

例1:Many things impossible in the past are common today.

A.considering B.to consider C.considered D.being considered 2:People are talking about the play in two days at the theatre.

A.to perform B.being performed C.performed D.to be performed 例1答案为C。例2答案为D。

第九章 状 语 从 句

状语从句在复合句中作主句的状语,它可根据功能分为时间、条件、让步、地点、原因、目的、结果、方式和比较九种从句。要掌握这方面知识,关键要弄清各个连词的含义和功能。

一、时间状语从句

引导时间状语从句的连词有when, while, as, before, after, until, till, once(一旦),as soon as, the moment, hardly ? when, no sooner ? than, the first time, the last time, every / each time等。现结合具体情景,对重点连词和难掌握的连词加以说明。

1.when, while, as

1)—— I’m going to the post office.

—— you’re there, can you get me some stamps.

A.As B.While C.Because D.If

2)With parcels(包)of all shapes and sizes, Mr. Davies could hardly see where he was going he and his wife left the last shop.

A.as B.while C.before D.until

3)the election approached(临近),the violence got worse.

A.When B.As C.While D.With

4)I was just about to leave home it started to rain.

A.as B.while C.when D.as soon as

while“当?时候” while表示的时间是一段而不是一点,故从句的谓语动词用延续性动词,用瞬间动词。 Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁

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as ⅰ)正当?时候,ⅱ)一边? 一边,ⅲ)随着 as引导从句动作与主句动作同时发生,强调同时性。从句、动词通常为行为动词,不用be动词。 他一边洗澡,一边唱歌。

Y他将随年龄的增长而聪明起来。

when“当? 时间”,引导的从句动作可以与主句动作时间,也可以先于主动的动作。 When they got home, I was cooking dinner.(同时) When you get into trouble, turn to your father.(一先一后)若遇困难,就去找你父亲。

★此外,when还可以表示and just at the moment,用在以下句型中:

ⅰ)was / were doing when did ;ⅱ) was / were(just)about to do when did:

ⅲ) had done when did

We were sleeping when suddenly the earthquake happened.

我们正在睡觉,突然地震发生了。

I was about to go out when the telephone rang. 我正要出去,这时电话响了。

1)答案为B。本题表达的意思为“当你去邮局时,能否给我买几张邮票?”不能选A,as引导时间状语从句,V从句一般不用be动词。

2)答案A。不能选B。while引导时间状语从句,V从不能为瞬间动词。

3)答案B。本题句义为“随着选举的临近暴力事件越演越烈”。表示“随着”,只能用as。本句还可表达为: 4)答案为C。when表达“就在这个时候”

※※须指出的是,while还可以表达“转折对比”,译“?而?”

Their country has plenty of oil, while ours has none.

他们国家盛产石油,我们国家却一点也没有。

2.before, since, until

1)will be years we meet again.

A.It ; since B.There ; after C.It ; that D.It ; before

2)Someone called me up in the middle of the night, but they hung up I could answer the phone.

A.when B.since C.until D.before

3)—— What was the party like ?

—— Wonderful. It is years I enjoyed myself so much.

A.after B.before C.when D.since

4)Was it not the bell rang the students stood up ?

A.when ; that B.until ; that C.until ; when D.when ; then

a The plane landed at Beijing Airport before we knew it.

重点句型:It was two days before he came to himself. → Soon he died. he gets well. → Soon he will get well

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b Before I could explain, the teacher drove me out of the classroom.

我未来得及作解释,老师就把我赶出教室。(before表示此义,其后常跟could或had time to do)

自从她搬到乡下之后就没来看过我。 It is / has been a year since they got married. 他们结婚已有一年。 until 1)S + V(肯定句)until??

在肯定句中,表示“直到?为止”。主句动词为连续性动词

I will wait(连续性)until he comes back.

2)Not / Never / No+n.??until??。在否定句中,表示“直到?才?”。主句谓语动词为终止性动词。

Until you told me I had no idea of what had happened in the school.

如果not until位于句首时,主句需要部分倒装结构 还可以用于 It is(was)not until?that? 强调“not until?” (主句用正常词序)

3.as soon as, the moment, every / each time, the first time, the last time

1)We called the First-Aid Centre the traffic accident occurred.

A.immediately B.shortly C.quickly D.hurriedly

2) I went to see him, he making experiments on living animals.

A.For the first time ; was busy B.Whenever, devoted to

C.The last time ; was lost in D.Every time ; was deeply in

表示“一?就?”,有多个连词 I will go there as soon as(the meoent / directly / immediately)I have finished my breakfast. 他刚走进房间,电话就响了。 他一听到那个消息,就晕了过去。

注:在hardly?when?;no sooner?than?句型中,when / than前句用过去完成时;后句用一般过去时。

某些表示时间的名词词组,也可引导时间状语从句。every time / each time“每当”;the first time“第一次”;the last time“上一次”。

Every time I met him, I found him to be taller. 每次我见到他,我都觉得他长高了。

The first time I saw her, I fell in love with her. 我第一次见到他,就爱上了她。

二、条件状语从句

1

If he is not in the office, he must be out for lunch.

I will not lend the book to you unless you can return it in time.

★2)引导条件状语从句还有as / so long as(只要),on condition that(条件是?),suppose / supposing(假如),provided(that)假如,in case(万一)

I’ll lend it to you as long as you handle it with care. 只要你小心使用,我会借给你的。

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We will buy everything you produce provided that the price is right.

若价格合适我们会采购你们的一切产品。

Suppose ( supposing) that this is not the right way to the station, what shall we do.

如果这不是去车站的路,我们该怎么办?

In case anything important happens, please call me up.

万一发生重要的事情,请打电话给我。

三、让步状语从句

1.though, although(虽然,尽管)

引导的句子陈述的是基本事实。although语气重,通常置于句首。though可放在句首或句末。 Although / Though it is hard work, yet I enjoy it.

I won’t hire him though he is a talented man. 尽管他很有才华,但我不想雇用他。

注:although/though不能与but连用,但可与yet连用,以加强语气。

此外,表示“虽然”,还有while, as。as必须用倒装结构,把从句的表语、状语或谓语动词放在句首。 While I understand your viewpoint, I don’t agree with you. 虽然我理解你的观点,但我还是不同意。 将下列句子变成as引导的让步状语从句

1)2)3)Though I admire his courage very much, I don’t think he acts wisely.

2.even if / even though(即使)

Even though I fail, I will keep on trying. 即使我失败,我仍会继续尝试下去。

3.Whether?or ?,however / no matter how ?

1)All matter, whether it is a gas, a liquid or a solid, expands as the temperature rises.

不管是气体,液体,还是固体,所有的物体遇热都会膨胀。

I will study abroad whether my parents agree or not.

不论我父母同意与否,我都要出国留学。

2)however / no matter how ?“无论怎么?”。

句子结构However adj / adv S + V;However S + V 无论天有多冷,她总是去游泳。

W’ll have to finish it, 不管花多长时间,我们必须把它做完。 , he wouldn’t listen. 无论我怎么解释,他就是不听。

类似的句子还有:Whatever / No matter what may happen, we won’t change our plan. 需要强调的是在时间、条件、让步状语从句中,动作未发生,需用一般时表示将来时。

四、地点状语从句

地点状语从句的作用,是具体交待主句动作发生的地点。连词用where,句型如下:

1)S + V + where从句

You should put the book where it was. 你应该把书放在原来的地方。

Make a mark where you have any doubts or questions. 有疑问的地方可以做个记号。

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2)

Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者,事竞成。

Where water resources are plentiful,(there)hydroelectric power stations will be built.

哪里水源充足,就把水电站建在那里。

Wherever he went, he was warmly welcome. 无论他走到哪里,都受到热烈欢迎。

五、原因状语从句 引导原因状语从句的连词,有because, as, since和now that。

1)I haven’t seen the film, I can’t tell you what I think of it.

A.As B.For C.With D.Because

2) you have got a chance, you might as well make full use of it.

A.Now that B.After C.Though D.As soon as

3)It must have rained last night, the ground is wet this morning.

A.for B.because C.therefore D.yet

1.

because语气最强,所陈述的理由是全句的重点,所引导的从句多放在句末。回答由why引出的问句,及在强调句中,若强调原因状语从句,只能用because。

He didn’t go out (全句中心)

—— Why were you late ?

—— Because the traffic was too heavy. It was because he was careless that he failed.

since, as引导的原因状语从句,语气比because弱,表述已为大家所知的明显的原因,经常在句首,主句是全句中心。 (全句中心)

由于他工作努力,他可能会成功。

2Since / Now that John has arrived, we can begin. 既然John已经到

3.

for引导的是并列分句。功能ⅰ)对前面的分句加以解释,ⅱ)说明推断的理由,for引导的句子只能后置。

I believe her, for surely she will not lie to me. 天亮了,因鸟儿在鸣叫。

(鸟鸣不是导致天亮的原因,故本句不能用because代替for)

It must have rained last night, for the ground is still wet.

答案:1)A 2)A 本句句义为:既然得了一个机会,你最好充分利用它。3)A

六、目的状语从句

1

从句中谓语通常用may / might, can / could, will / would,

in order that引导的从句可置于句首,也可置于句末。so that引导的从句只能放在主句之后。

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→ In order to make money, he did anything. He told us to keep quiet so that we might not disturb others.

→ He told us to keep quiet not to disturb others.

2

in case, for fear that“以防,以免”。应特别注意从句动词的形式 Take an umbrella in case it rains. 带把伞,以防下雨(从句用一般时) I hid the book for fear that she would see it. 我把书藏起来,以免被她看见。(从句用将来时)

七、结果状语从句

1表达方式:such +n that?;so adj /adv that? so adj + a / an + n that?;so many / much / few / little + n that?

It was such a bad accident that dozens of people were killed.

So fierce was their dog that no one dared to come near. 他们的狗真凶恶,没有人敢走近它。 注:以上句型,若so或such位于句首,主句需部分倒装。

2.so, so that引导的结果状语从句

He made a wrong decision, so(that)half of his lifetime was wasted.

他做了错误决定,结果毁掉了半生。

八、方式状语从句

1.方式状语从句由as引导,词义:1)依照;2)象?一样

I will do as you advice. 我会照你的忠告去做。

Leave it as it is. 把它维持原状好了。

2.两者均可表示“象”,但as为连词,后接从句或介词短语。

like为介词,后接名词或代词 On Friday, as on Monday, the meeting will be at 3:30. 九、状语从句的省略

在状语从句中,若从句主语和主句的主语相同,且谓语部分有be,则从句的主语和be可以省略。表达形式为: , 用现在分词还是过去分词,由该动词与主句主语的关系决定。

第十章 定语从句

定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导。关系词除了起引导作用外,在从句中还担任一定的成份。

1.who, whom引导的定语从句

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who, whom用于代替人。who在定语从句中作主语;whom在定语从句中作动词或介词的宾语,在限制性定语中可以省略,在口语中可用who代替whom。 The man who wrote this book is a friend of mine.

Is that the boy2.which引导的定语从句

which指物,在定语从句中作主语或宾语,在限制性定语中作宾语中可以省略。 He is driving a car which can travel 150 miles an hour.

The clock3.that引导的定语从句

that指人或指物,在定语从句中作主语,宾语或表语。 He is a man that / who means what he says. 他是个说话算数的人。

The picturesHe doesn’t seem to be the man 他似乎和过去大不一样。(that代替the man作was的表语)

4.whose引导的定语从句

whose指人,也可指物,在定语从句中作定语。指物时可与of which互换使用。

I have a classmate whose father is a mayor.

I live in the house whose windows face south. We looked at the tower whose tip / the tip of which was golden.

5.关系副词when, where, why引导的定语从句

when, where, why引导的定语从句,分别修饰表示时间、地点、原因的先行词,并分别在从句中作时间、地点、原因状语。关系副词也可以根据在句中的搭配关系,转换成“介词+which”的结构。 I shall never forget the day when / on which I entered the university. For six or seven months in the year no work can be done the rainy season makes it impossible.

A.until B.because C.when D.why

when / where引导的定语从句若过长,为了保持句子平衡,可将其定语从句移至句末。

6.“介词 + 关系代词”引导的定语从句

用在介词后面关系代词是whom, which, whose。 He is telling a story of Lei Feng of whom every one of us is proud. They tired to think of a plan, by which they could complete the task ahead of time. 定语从句中的介词通常置于关系代词之前,也可在关系代词之后。但是含有介词的短语动词一般不可拆开,介词仍放在动词之后。 in which I worked

The company 47

Y你的粗鲁,这我们早就受够了,现又在惹怒我们顾客。

(put up with“忍受”,是固定短语,不可将with与put up拆开)

7.使用定语从句应注意的问题

1)必须用关系代词at的几种情况 .......th......

a)先行词为all;先行词被形容词最高级,序数词,only, very修饰 ...........

All(that)we want is peace and freedom. 我们要的是和平和自由。 这正是我一直渴望得到的书。

b)并列的两个先行词分别表示人或物 c)关系代词在从句中作表语

The modern plane is no longer the machine(that)it was when first invented.

现代飞机不是刚发明的那种飞机了。(that代替the machine,作was的表语)

2)不能用that的两种情况

a)that不能引导非限制定语 b)介词后面不能用that Susan is a man for that I have the greatest respect.(that错,改为whom) 改为who)

3)在非限制定语从句中,关系代词作宾语时不能省略

She introduced me to her husband,

8.as与which用法比较

1)在非限制性定语从句中,as / which均可代替前示或后续的整个句子。 由那个男人说话的样子,可明显看出他是个老师。

但由as引导的定语从句可以前置,而which不可以。

As was expected, he performed the task successfully.

正如所预料的那样,他成功地完成了任务。

2)as作关系代词可用于the same?as, such?as,so +adj. + a(n) + n. as句型中,as在定语从句中可作主语或宾语。

Can you give such lectures as will interest us ? 你能不能作使我们感兴趣那样的讲座?

= Can you give the lectures which will interest us.(as代替lectures,作主语)

Such people as you describe are rare nowdays.你描绘的这种人现在已很少见了。(as代替people,作decribe宾语)

We are facing the same problems as we did years ago. 我们正面临与几年前相同的问题。 = We are facing the problems which we face years ago.(as代替problems,作宾语)

在以上句型中,as不能被which, who, whom替换。

改错:

1)Don’t you think those have made contributions to the people are worth respecting ?

A B C D

2)The computer, it I think is a 20th century important invention has created surprising

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A B C D

technological progress.

3)Living on that island for three years seem to be an unforgettable experience for me.

A B C D

4)The woman we met with her in the street holds an important position in the government

A B C D

office.

5)I will make great efforts to finish all what you require of me.

A B C D

6)The Red Gross is one of the volunteer (自愿者) organizations which purpose is to help the

A B C sick and the needy.

D

7)A B C D

8)A B C D

关于7,8小题注:在this后名词无冠词句子中,若关系在定语从句中作宾语,用the one(which)引导;若从句动词不及物,用where。

Is this hotel the one(which)you stayed in ?

Is this hotel where you stayed ?

将以上句子变成肯定句,句子结构便一目了然。

This hotel is the one(which)I stayed in.

This hotel is where I stayed. 这个旅馆我曾在那里住过。(where引导表语从句)

第十一章 名词从句

名词从句按其句法功能可分为主语从句,宾语从句,表语从句和同位语从句。名词从句的功

能相当于名词词组,在句中可作主语、宾语、表语和同位语。

引导名词从句的连词:

1)连词代词who, whom, whose, which, what, whoever, whichever, whatever等

连词副词when, where, why, how, whenever, wherever, however

2)连接词 whether 若一个名词从句,用连词表达的含义为“是否”,用whether

3)连接词that若一个句子表达含义和句子结构均完整,用连词that。 “that”在从句中不充当任何

成分,没有任何含义。

一、主语从句,在句中充当主语。 isn’t money. 人生最重要的并非金钱。 凡是想看这部电影的人可免费得到一张票。

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It doesn’t matter to me 她是否满意对我而言并不重要。

(whether she is content or not作主语,it在句中作形式主语) That he survived the accident is a miracle. = It is a miracle that he survived the accident.

在这场事故中他幸免于难,真是奇迹。

It is natural . 她为儿子的死而感到悲痛是理所当然的。

It is reported that the number of wild animals in Africa is decreasing. 据报导非洲野生动物的数量正在减少。

注1:it作形式主语是极富交际功能的固定句型。

(1)It is a fact that? 事实是?

It is common knowledge that? ?是常识

It is a pity that? 遗憾的是?

It is a shame that? ?真是可耻

It is a wonder / miracle that ? ?真是个奇迹

(2)It is clear / obvious that ? 很清楚?

It is natural that ? ?很自然

(3)It is said that? 据说?

It is reported that ? 据报导?

It is believed that ? 据认为?

(4)It seems that? 好像是?

It happened that? 碰巧?

It matters that? 要紧的是?

二、表语从句,在句中作系动词的表语。

其结构为:主语 + 系动词 + 表语从句 That is why he was late for school. 那就是他上学迟到的原因。 这就是我20年前出生的地点。

It may be 那可能因为我昨天晚上没睡好。

.问题是他是否能信守诺言。 The trouble is that I have lost my key. 麻烦的是我把钥匙丢了。

三、同位语从句

同位语从句作用是对名词,如fact, idea, hope等,作进一步解释,具体说明名词的实际内容。

1.同位语从句通常由that引导。

Y你必须面对下岗这一事实。 The fact remains that the waste gases from factories pollute the environment seriously.

(为了句子平衡,同位语从句后移)

来自工厂的废气严重污染环境依然是事实。

Word came that the mayor would come to inspect our school the next week.

2.wh连词也可引导同位语从句。 谁能接替他的工作值得考虑。 我们面临着能否坚持到底的问题。 50

四、宾语从句,在句中作动词或介词的宾语。

1.that引导的宾语从句

The teacher taught us老师教导我们要志向崇高。

She didn’t admit(that)她不承认曾帮助过那个罪犯,并且一直与他保持联系。

that引导的宾语从句,that常省略。若一个动词带两个that引导的宾语从句,第一个that可省略,第二个that不能省略,从免引起歧义。

2.wh连词引导的宾语从句

Your success will depend on what you do and how you do it.

你是否能成功将取决于你做什么和怎么做。

I doubt whether / if he will come to our help. 他是否能来帮助我们,我感到怀疑。

五、名词从句要注意的问题

改错:

1)

A B C completely mistaken.

D

2)A B C D

3)It makes no difference if my brother knows the details of the plan for tomorrow’s picnic.

A B C D

4)A B C D

5)—— Will you invite all your classmates to your birthday ?

A B

—— Certainly. No matter who comes will be welcome.

C D

6)A man can’t be really happy if that he makes great efforts to do is thought of as of no value.

A B C D

7)A B C D

注1:学习名词从句要注意的首要问题是:要根据句义选择恰当的连词。

第一题C错。how—that 本句句义为:我当初认为李先生应对这次事故负责,现在我明白了,我当初的看法错了。

注2:介词能够带wh引导的宾语,但不能带that引导的宾语从句(介词except除外) 例:It all depends on whether we can get their cooperation.

这完全取决于我们能否得到他们的合作。 I know nothing about him except that he lives next door to us.

我对他一无所知,只知道他住在我们隔壁。(except后的that不能省略)

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第二题A错。see to—see to it 介词后若接that引导的宾语从句,可在介词后加形式宾语it或the fact。

注3:主语从句,表语从句和同位语从句若需表达“是否”,只能用连词whether,不能用if。 在宾语从句中,if和whether通常可以互换使用,但介词或形容词后的宾语从句只能用whether,不用if。

第三题C错。if—whether whether引导的是主语从句

第四题C错。If—whether as to “至于”是介词短语。

注4:whoever与no matter who,whenever与no matter when等词义相同。但在名词从句中只能用whoever, whenever等;在让步状语从句,两者均可。

例:Whoever comes will be welcome. 不管谁来,都表示欢迎。 Whoever引导主语从句。 Whenever / No matter when you come, we will receive you warmly.

不管你什么时候来,我们都会热情接待你。

Whenever / No matter when引导让步状语从句。

第五题C错。No matter who—Whoever

注5:在名词从句中,what可表达。

1) thing(s)which “?的东西”

2) the place which“?的地方”

3)the time which“?时间”,what在从句中作主语、宾语、表语。 ......

第六题C错。that—what(?东西) 本句句义:若一个人尽力所做的事情被认为毫无价值,他是不可能高兴的。

第七题A错。it—what(?的时间) 本句句义:那个病人在通过一段似乎很时间后,终于苏醒过来。

第十二章 倒 装

英语句子的正常语序是:S(主语)+V(谓语)。有时由于句子结构的需要或表示强调,需采取倒装形式。

倒装可分为两种:完全倒装和部分倒装。将谓语动词完全移到主语之前称作完全倒装;只将助动词或情态动词放到主语之前称作部分倒装。

第一节 完全倒装

英语语法汇总

+ V + S

以下几种情况需采取完全倒装:

1.以here, there, now, then等开头的句子。

房子中间放着一张书桌。

谓语 主语

从附近小河那边传来呼救声。

谓语 主语

Here comes the bus. 公共汽车来了。

Then came the hour we had been looking forward to. 我们期盼的那个时刻终于来到了。 52

注1:上述句子动词的时态通常用一般现在时或过去时,不能用进行时。

注2:当主语为人称代词时,不用倒装,用正常语序。

他来了。 这是给你的。

2.表示方位的副词in, out , away, off, down, up等开头的句子。

把上述表示方位的副词位于句首,常使用倒装,目的是为了生动形象地描写这些动作。 Up went the rocket into the air. 嗖地一声火箭上了天。

Down jumped the thief from the house. 小偷从房子上跳下来。

注:在这种结构中,若主语为代词时,则不倒装。

Back they came. 他们回来了。

3.作地点状语的介词短语在句首。

若一个句子的主语较长,为了避免头重脚轻,则采取完全倒装,将作状语的介词短语置于句

首。

状语 谓语 主语 定语

(To the)north of the village stands a high mountain, covered with snow all the year round.

4.在“Doing / Done(分词) + 状语 + be + 主语”的结构中。该句型实际上就是“主语

+be + doing / done(分词)”结构,为了句子平衡,避免头重脚轻,实行倒装。

Gone forever are the days when we Chinese people used foreign oil.

Seated in the front is an old man in his fifties.

Walking above the crowded streets on top of a building ten storeys high was Philippe Petit.

第二节 部分倒装

英语语法汇总

+ 以下五种情况,句子需采取部分倒装:

1.以neither / nor或so开头的句子

以neither / nor或so开头的句子,用于表示相同的看法,要用部分倒装结构。

so用于肯定句,neither / nor用于否定句。

They can afford to buy a car, so can we(= we can, too).

他们能买得起车,我们也能。

I have never been abroad. Neither has he(= She hasn’t, either).

我从没去过外国,他也没去过。

I know nothing about it, nor do I care(= I don’t care, either).

关于这件事我是一无所知,对此也无兴趣。

注:So在句首,若只是对对方所陈述的内容表示肯定,这时不用倒装。

—— He is a good student.

—— So he is.(= Indeed he is a good student.)

2.具有否定意义的副词或介词短语在句首

具有否定意义的副词有:hardly, never, little, seldom, rarely(很少), scarcely, hardly, not until, no

longer, no where, no sooner…than…等

具有否定意义的介词短语有:at no time, under no conditions, by no means等

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met such a determined person. .

know the whole truth. .

e arrived home when his wife started complaining. 他刚到家,他的妻子就唠唠叨叨.

地抱怨起来。

e finished his talk than a man stood up and put a question to him. 他的讲话刚结.

束,就有人站起来向他提出一个问题。

At no time will China first use unclear weapons. 在任何时候中国决不会首先使用核武器。 .

3.以only所修饰的副词,介词短语或状语从句在句首

Only then did I realize that I was wrong. 到那时我才意识到我错了。 .

Only in this way can we control the environmental pollution. .

Only when you have read the book, can you answer these questions. .

注:若only在句首,强调的不是状语,而是主语,句子不倒装。

只有你了解我。

4.not only 在句首

由并列连词not only?but also?连接的句子,若not only放在句首,则not only所在的句子部

分倒装,but also连接的句子用正常语序。

e teach school, but(also他不但在学校里教书,而且还写小说。 .

注:若not only?but also?连接的是主语,句子用正常语序。

Not only you but also she has to attend today’s meeting.

5.当so?that?和such?that?句中的位于句首

That dog was so fierce that no one dared come near.

= So fierce was that dog that no one dared come near. ..

It was such a bad accident that many people were killed.

t that many people were killed. .

第三节 倒装结构在其他句型中的用法

1.在if引导的虚拟条件状语中,如果从句中有had, were或should可省去if,将这些词提到

句首。

1)与目前事实相反

我要是你,就不会轻易放过他。

2)与过去事实相反

If he had had time, he would certainly have come to lend you a hand.

= Had he had time, he would certainly have come to lend you a hand.

3)将来发生的可能性极小

If there should be a fire, please raise the alarm at once.

= Should there be a fire, please raise the alarm at once. 若万一发生火灾,请立即发警报。

2.as引导让步状语从句,应将表语、状语或谓语移到句首。(见状语从句一章) 54

Though he worked hard, he made little progress.

= Hard as he worked, he made little progress.

注:though引导让步状语从句,也有这种用法。

Though they fought bravely, they had no chance of winning.

3.为了强调宾语,可将宾语移至句首,但句子采取正常词序,不倒装。 —— I’d like to invite you to the concert this evening.

—— Thank you, but I’m not sure (宾语). = Thank you, but I’m not sure at that moment.

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