高一英语各单元知识点总结及重难点解析Unit7-8(36700字)

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高一英语各单元知识点总结及重难点解析Unit7-8 ☆重点句型☆

1. I can became infected with HIV by swinmaing ...

2. I wish that she were here with me and that we weren't

sick.

3. The most important thing to keep ... is to stay calm.

4. If I had known more about giving first aid, I could

have helped them.

5. Many hospital recommend that we use the letters ...

6. If I were to live long enough to have a job, I would ...

7. As with most diseases and disasters, the young suffer

the most.

8. She might have been hit by a car ...

9. Send whatever you find to the hospital to help ...

10. There we're days when I wished that I were dead so

that I would not have to feel so sick.

☆重点词汇☆

1. deadly a. 致命的

2. quiz n. 小测验;竞赛

3. false a. 错误的,假的

4. virus n. 病毒

5. via prep. 通过,经由

6. blood n. 血

7. prevention n. 防止,预防

8. persuade v. 劝服

9. illness n. 病;(身体)小舒服

10. treatment n. 治疗;对待;处理

11. sex n. 性别;性

12. proper a 正确的,适当的

13. available a. 可利用的;有效的

14. network n. 网络

15. specialist n. 专家

16. fierce a. 野蛮的,凶猛的;激烈的

17. cell n. 细胞;单人牢房

18. radiation n. 辐射,放射

19. recover v. 恢复,康复

20. drown v. 溺死,使淹死

21. scream v. 尖叫,呼啸

22. witness vt. & n. 目击,为……作证;目击者

23. response n. 响应

24. slight adj. 轻微的,纤细的

25. chest n. 胸膛;箱子

26. circulate v. 循环,流通

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27. wound n. 伤口

28. motorcycle n. 摩托年

29. sudden a. 意外的

30。 loose a. 松散的

31. tap n. (水,煤气等)龙头

32. bandage n. 包扎带

33. ambulance n. 救护车

34. choke v. 窒息,哽住,使窒息

☆重点短语☆

1. be / become infected with 受……感染

2. get tested for 测试

3. break down 损坏

4. suffer from 患……病

5. fear of disease 怕疾病

6. lack of 缺乏

7. free from 不受……影响,没有……

8. cheer up 使振奋,使高兴

9. medicine for cold 感冒药

10. last days of one's life 生命的最后日子

11. a great many 许多

12. samples of blood 血样

13. incurable disease 不治之症

14. go to end 结束。到头了

15. on the contrary 相反

16. for the moment 暂时,目前

17. think of...as 把……当作

18. live life to the fullest 生活得充实

19. first aid 急救

20. first of all 首先

21. roll over 翻转

22. die of 死于

23. in honor of 纪念……,庆祝……

24. in case of 以防……

25. keep in mind 记在心上

☆交际用语☆

1. A lot of people can't tell the difference between...

2. Are there many differences?

3. What do you mean by...

4. I'm sorry, I don't quite follow you.

5. Do you use American or British spdling?

6. American spellings ale used more and more in Canada

now.

7. We must carry her to the side of the road.

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8. You should / shouldn't...

9. I ought to go home.

10. Don't try to get up.

☆词汇短语☆

7. available a. 可用的,可达到的,有效的

The books are readily available for reference.

这些书随时可供参考。

Is Mr. Smith available for the opening of the school?

史密斯先生能参加学校的开学仪式吗?

17. breathe, breath

(1) breathe 是动词,呵及物也可不及物。

breathe hard 费力地呼吸

breathe into one's mouth

向某人嘴里吹气

breathe dust / fresh air

吸进灰尘/呼吸新鲜空气

start one's breathing

让某人呼吸起来

(2) breath 是名词。

take a deep breath 深吸一口气

take breath 喘口气;休息一下

hold one's breath 屏住气

lose one's breath 喘不过气来

out of breath 上气不接下气,气喘吁吁

[注意] out of sight 看不见;out of order 出故障;out of

question 没问题;out of control 失去控制;out of

danger 脱离危险;out of work 失业。

8. cheer vt. & vi. 使高兴,使振奋,喝彩

The good news cheers them all.

这个好消息使我们大家很高兴。

The fans cheer (for) their football team.

球迷为他们的足球队加油助威。

主要搭配:

(1) cheer up (使愉快,使高兴)

作及物或不及物用法:

Cheer up! My little man. 别灰心,老弟!

She told a joke, trying to cheer me up.

她讲了个笑话来让我开心。

(2) cheer on (鼓励,鼓劲)

We all cheered the runners on as they rushed to the

tape.

当运动员冲刺时,我们都为他们鼓劲。

5. discourage

使泄气;使失去信心、希望或精神(做某事)

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1) ~ sb. (from doing sth.)

阻拦某人不要做某事

His parents discouraged him from joining the air force.

他的父母劝他不要参加空军。

2) try to stop (sth.)

试图阻止;阻拦;劝阻

The school teachers discourage smoking.

学校老师不赞成吸烟。

3) be discouraged, get discouraged / discouraged adj.

If you meet with any difficulty in your study, don't be

discouraged.

如果你学习中遇到什么困难,不要灰心。

discouraging adj.

a discouraging result, reply 使人泄气的结果、回答

2. false a. 假的,错的,不实的

The report is false. 这份报告不真实。

He is false of heart. 他不忠实。

常见结构 be false to 意为“违背,不忠,欺骗”。

He is false to his country. 他背叛祖国。

She is a girl false to her promise / word.

她是一个不守诺言的女孩子。

【考点8】free 的用法

▲ 构词:

① freedom n. [U]自由

② freely adv. 自由地

▲ 搭配:

① for free 免费(作表语、状语)

② set...free 释放……;使……自由

③ free of charge 免费(作表语、状语)

④ be free from 免于……;不受……;无……的;免去

……的

⑤ have a free talk(with sb)(about sth) 和(某人)就某

事进行自由交谈

⑥ enjoy free medical care 享受公费医疗

⑦ enjoy freedom of speech 享受言论自由

⑧ fight for freedom 为自由而战

▲句型:

① sb be free = sb have free time 有空

② sb be / feel free to do sth 随便干……,随心所欲地干

……。无拘无束地干……

③ free + sb / sth 使……自由

▲ 友情提示:“免费”的其他表示法:

① for nothing (作状语);without payment (作状语);

free(作表语、定语)

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② at one's own expense / charge 自费(作状语)

③ at public expense 公费

④ (enjoy)public health services = (enjoy) free medical

service / care (享受)公费医疗

【考例8】The prisoner was ____.

A. set freely B. enjoyed free

C. get freedom D. set free

[考查目标]考查free,freely,freedom等词的运用。

[答案与解析]D set sb free为一个固定短语,表示“释

放某人”。

1. infect

1) 使某人/某物传染,感染

~ sb. / sth. (with sth.);cause sb. / sth. to have a

disease

The laboratory animals had been infected with the

bacteria.

试验室里的动物都受到这种细菌的感染。

Police have sealed off infected areas of the country.

警方已将全国各感染区封锁了。

One of the boys in the class had a fever and he soon

infected other children.

班上的一个孩子发烧了,不久他就传染上了其他孩

子。

2) 使受影响,使受感染

fill (sb.'s mind or spirit) with happy and positive ideas

or feelings

Her cheerful spirits and bubbling laughter infected the

whole class.

她那快乐的情绪和爽朗的笑声感染了全班。

6. lack 缺乏,不足

(1) 名词用法

She has no lack of supporters.

她不缺支持者。(有很多支持者)

The draught was caused by a lack of rain.

这场旱灾是雨水不足造成的。

[注意] lack作可数或不可数名词,lack前面常与for

搭配,表示“缺乏”的原因,此时常用作不可数名词,

如:

We now can't discuss the plan for lack of time.

因时间所限我们现在不能讨论这个计划。

(2) 动词用法

lack 可作及物或不及物动词用,作不及物动词时与

for 搭配表示原因,与in搭配表示“在……方面缺

乏”。

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The young completely lacks experience.

这个年轻人完全缺乏经验。

They lack for money at present.

目前他们缺乏资金。

He is lacking in responsibility.

他缺乏责任心。

【考点2】lack的用法

▲ 搭配:

① for lack of 因缺少

② lack in 缺少

▲ 句型:

① There is a lack of sth 缺少……

② There is no lack of sth = have no lack of sth 不缺

【考例2】(2002上海)Though ____ money, his par-

ents managed to send him to university.

A. lacked B. lacking of

C. lacking D. lacked in

[考查目标] 考查省略句。

[答案与解析]C 当从句的主语和主句的主语相同时.

或从句的谓语是be动词时,可以省略主语和be动词,

本句补全应该为:Though (they were) lacking...

【考点5】manage 的用法

▲ 构词:

① manager n. 经理

② management n. 经营,管理

▲句型:

① manage to do sth 设法做成某事

② I can manage it myself. 我自己能应付/对付过去。

▲辨析:attempt;manage;succeed;try;seek

该组词均含“设法”之意。try表示尽力、设法、试图去

做某事,但未必一定成功,所做之事不一定有困难;try

还可作名词,have a try = try = have a go 试一次;

have another try = try again再试一次;want a go 想试

一次。attempt 是try 的更正式的说法,试图做某事,有

时可以表示“企图”的意思。manage表示设法(得以)完

成(某件困难之事),还可作及物动词,意为“经营,管

理”;不及物动词,意为“能办到”,常用于口语I can

manage (it) myself. 我自己能行。succeed 去做所希望

的事并成功地干了该事,常见结构是succeed in(do—

ing) sth。seek意为“试图、企图干某事”。例如:

The boys attempted to leave for camping but were

stopped by their parents. 男孩子们想去野营但被他们

的父母拦住了。

She succeeded in taking a first-class degree in physics

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tWO years after arriving in Paris. 到巴黎之后,她取得了

一级物理学位。

He tried to do the operation with very little help, but

didn't succeed. 他试图在没有帮助的情况下做这个手

术,但没有成功。

【考例5】He ____ the operation with very little

help.

A. succeeded to do B. attempted to

C. managed to do D. managed doing

[考查目标] 考查同义词的辨析。

[答案与解析]C succeed in doing sth,而 manage to

do sth; attempt 为vt. 后面直接接宾语,而不要接介词。

4. persuade vt.

cause sb. to do sth. by arguing or reasoning with him

说服,劝服;使相信

persuade sb. into / out of sth. 说服,劝服某人做某事

persuade sb. to do sth.

persuade sb. that... 后接宾语从句

Who persuaded you to join this society?

谁说服你参加这个团体?

I am almost persuaded of his honesty.

我几乎相信他是诚实的。

【考点l】persuade的用法

▲ 句型:

① persuade sb (not) to do sth说服某人(不要)干某事

② persuade sb into / out of doing sth (= advise sb not to

do sth)说服某人(不要)干某事

③ persuade sb that... 使人信服……

【考例l】(2001上海)Alice trusts you: only you can

____ her to give up the foolish idea.

A. suggest B. attract

C. tempt D. persuade

[考查目标] 考查动词之间的辨析与实际运用。

[答案与解析]D suggest 不能接 sb. do sth;句子的意

思为:Alice 相信你,只是因为你能说服她放弃愚蠢的

想法。

【考点3】prevent 的用法

▲ 搭配:prevent...from...妨碍;阻碍;防止;预防

▲ 句型:

① prevent sth 阻止……,预防……

② prevent sb's doing sth

③ prevent sb / sth (from) doing sth = stop sb / sth

(from)doing sth = keep sb / sth from doing sth 阻

止/防止某人干……

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▲ 注意:在prevent sb / sth from doing sth和stop sb /

sth from doing sth中,from在主动句中可省略,在被动

句中不能省略;keep sb / sth from doing sth 中 from 的

不可省略。

▲ 辨析:prevent; protect

两词意义相近,但用法和意思略有差别。protect常用

于protect sb / sth from / against sth 结构中,from或

against 后常接名词.不接动词-ing形式。而prevent常

用于prevent sb / sth from doing sth 结构中,而且只能

与from连用,不能与against搭配.from后常接动词一

ing形式,也可接名词。例如:

My parents are trying to prevent me from going abroad.

我父母极力阻止我出国。

His advice prevented me from making a serious mis-

take. 他的忠告使我免于犯下严重的错误。

He raised his arm to protect his face from the blow. 他

伸出胳臂护住脸部免受被拳击打。

【考例3】 No one can prevent the plans ____ out.

A. to be carried B. from being carried

C. not to carry D. from carrying

[考查目标] 考查 prevent 短语的搭配与语态的用法。

[答案与解析]B prevent sb. / sth tom doing sth 结合

上下文,the plans应该“被实施”。故动名词用被动形

式。

15. recommend vt.

推荐,介绍;劝告,建议;使可接受;使受欢迎;使成为

可取;托(付);交付

He recommended to try a new medicine.

他建议试服一种新药。

The woman manager recommended her child to her

colleague.

那位女经理把她的孩子托给同事照管。

Your plan has very little t0 recommend it.

你的计划几乎毫无可取之处。

The dying man recommended his soul to God.

这垂危病人把灵魂交付上帝。

10. recover 恢复,病愈

(1) 通常作不及物动词用,名词为recovery。

Her father has fully recovered.

她父亲已完全康复。

(2) 常与from连用,如:

He has just recovered from severe illness.

他大病初愈。

The city is recovering from the effects of the

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earthquake.

这座城市正在从地震中恢复正常。

【考点9】remember 的用法

▲ 搭配:

① be remembered as 作为……而被铭记

② be remembered for... 因为……而被别人记住

▲ 句型:

① remember sth / that clause

② remember to do sth (=don't forget to do sth) 记住要

做某事

③ remember doing sth (have done sth arid remember the

action) 记得曾做过某事

④ remember + wh-clause

⑤ remember me to sb 代我向某人问好

▲辨析:memorize;recall;remember

三词均与“记忆”有关.但memorize意为“记忆。默记”.

指有意识地用心去记。remember意为“记得,想起”,指

回忆或想起某事,表示没有刻意费心去想,有时也表示

有意识地把某事记在心上。recall意为“追忆,回想”,

指有意或努力追忆已忘记的事。例如:

She finally memorized the poem. 她终于记住了那首诗。

I can't recall the exact details of the report. 我记不起报

告的确切细节。

I shall always remember my first day in college. 我将永

远记住我上大学的第一天。

【考例9】(1999上海)

-- Let me tell you something about the journalists.

-- Don't you remember ____ me the story yester—

day?

A. told B. telling

C. to tell D. to have told

[考查目标] remember 在非谓语动词中的用法。

[答案与解析]B remember to do sth 表示“记得要做某

事”;而rememberdoing表示“记得做过某事”。从上下

文看应该是后者。

16. response 回答;答复;反应

I've had no response to my letter.

我还没有回信。

His appeal met with no (little) response.

他的呼吁没有得到任何反应。

in response to [介] 回答……;回应

【考点7】since 的用法

▲ 搭配:ever since自从那时起一直到现在;since then

从那时起,常与完成时连用;比较:from then on从那时

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起.常与一般过去时连用;after that从那以后,表示过

去某一事件后。但并不延续到现在,常与一般过去时连

用。

After that he didn't say anything to other people. 从那

以后,他和其他人什么也没说过。

【考例7】(2004上海) The first use of atomic weapons

was in 1 945,and their power ____ increased enor-

mously ever since.

A. is B. was

C. has been D. had been

[考查目标] 考查时态在具体语境中的用法。

[答案与解析]C ever since暗示应该使用现在完成时

态,强调对现在的影响和产生的结果。

【考点6】stop的用法

▲ 搭配:

① put a stop to 制止

② come to a (sudden,complete) stop (突然) 停了

③ bring sth to a stop 使……停止,使……终止

▲ 句型:

① sb / sth stop

② sb stop sb / sth

③ sb stop to do sth = sb stop and do sth 停止某事而去

做另一件事

④ stop doing sth停止做原来的某事

⑤ sb / sth stop sb / sth (from) doing sth / being done

阻止某人做某事/阻止某事被做

▲辨析1:avoid;prevent;stop

三词均意为“避免”,但avoid意为“避开,避免”,指避开

人为的或自然产生的情况或结果。其后可接名词或动

词。prevent意为“阻止,避免”,多指使用预防性或阻止

性的措施来反对、阻止某事。其后可接名词、代词、动

名词复合结构。常用的句型为:prevent...from。stop

意为“阻止,避免”,与prevent相近,常用的句型为:stop

...(from),在被动句中from不能省略。例如:

I crossed the street to avoid meeting my father. 我穿过

马路以免遇到爸爸。

These rules are intended to prevent accidents. 这些规章

旨在防止事故发生。

Her parents are trying to stop me seeing her. 她父母企

图阻止我见她。

▲辨析2:pause;stop

两词均意为“停止”,但pause表示“停顿”的意思,指暂

时停止。stop表示“停止。阻止”的意思,应用比较广

泛。多用于口语中,其后面跟动名词或动词不定式,所

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表达的意思完全相反(见上)。

【考例6】(MET 1990)She reached the top 0f the hill

and stopped ____ on a big rock by the side of the

path.

A. to have rested B. resting

C. to rest D. rest

[考查目标] 考查 stop 的用法。

[答案与解析]C stop to do 表示“停下来做另外一件

事情”;stopdoing sth 则表示“停止做原来的事情”。从

上下文看应该选用to do sth。

3. via

1) prep. by way of (sth.); through 经由,途经

to travel from Beijing to Shanghai via Tianjin

由北京经由天津去上海

go from London to Washington via New York

2) by means of 通过;凭借

I sent a message to Mary via her brother.

我托玛丽的兄弟把信带给她。

【考点4】wound 的用法

▲ 构词:wounded adj. 受伤的

▲搭配:receive a wound = be wounded 受伤

▲辨析:damage;destroy;harm;hurt;injure;ruin;

spoil;wound

这几个词都有“伤害”的意思。damage指伤害人或物而

使之失去价值、功能或正常的外观。该词也可作名词,

多用于自然灾害中的损害,相当于harm。destroy指具

体的或抽象的事物受到彻底损坏而很难恢复,故常用

来指“破坏、毁坏、摧毁”。harm常用于口语,一般只作

及物动词,表示对……有害/损害,特指伤及一个人或

其心情、健康、权利、事业等,并使之产生痛苦、损失或

某种不幸遭遇。其名词为harm,只能作不可数名词,意

为“损害、伤害”。hurt一般用语,既可以指肉体上的,

也可以指精神上的,还可表示在事故中受伤。其名词

为hurt,尤指精神上或感情上的伤害,肉体上的伤痛。

injure主要指在事故中受伤。其名词是injury,平时的

大小创伤或伤害,还可指事故中的伤害。rum多用于

借喻中,有时泛指一般的“弄坏了”。spoil“损害,损坏,

破坏”,指原来的质量、结构、安排、打算等遭到损害、破

坏,而使某物无用或不能令人满意。wound常指在战

争、暴力或灾害中受伤,也可指精神上的创伤。其名词

是wound,指战斗中刀或枪的创伤、伤口。例如:

His wife had an accident and damaged her bike. 他的妻

子遇到了意外事故,把自行车弄坏了。

The heavy storms destroyed a good part of our crops.

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几场暴雨把大部分庄稼都毁坏了。

He didn't mean to harm you. 他不是故意伤害你的。

I didn't mean to hurt your feelings. 我本没想要伤害你

的感情。

There were tWO people injured in the car accident. 有两

个人在车祸中受了伤。

He ruined himself by gambling. 他因赌博毁了自己。

Our holidays were spoilt by bad weather. 我们假日的乐

趣被恶劣天气破坏了。

The enemy fired and wounded some of our soldiers. 敌

人开枪伤了我们的战士。

【考例4】(2001上海) A bullet hit the soldier and he was

wounded in ____ leg.

A. a B. one C. the D. his

[考查目标]考查固定搭配。

[答案与解析]C 本题考查动词wound sb. + 介词 in +

the+身体的某一部位的固定搭配。

11. 表示态度、语气的评注性状语归类:

generally speaking 一般说来

strictly speaking 严格说来

honestly speaking 诚实地说来

personally speaking 就我个人而言

exactly speaking 准确地说来

to tell you the truth 说实话

to be honest 老实说

believe it or not 信不信由你

judging from his appearance 从他的相貌来说

上述用法系固定搭配,动词形式不因句子结构而变

化,使用时应特别注意。如:

Personally speaking, he is fit for the work.

我个人认为他胜任这项工作。

To be honest, I don't appreciate the style.

坦率讲,我不喜欢这种风格。

Believe it or not, she'll no long be here.

信不信由你,她不会再来这里了。

[牛刀小试1]

用所给单词的适当形式填空:

(wound, stop, lack, manage, free, prevent, since, re—

member, persuade)

1. You are ____ to express whatever you want to at

the meeting.

2. Do you think we'll ____ to finish the work by

Friday?

3. There is a ____ of skilled labour in that country.

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4. We all tried to ____ him smoking in the room.

but he wouldn't listen t0 us.

5. ____ to mail my letter.

6. -- What was the party like?

-- Wonderful. It's years ____ l enjoyed myself so

much.

7. The number of deaths from heart disease will be re—

duced greatly if people ____ to eat more fruit

and vegetables.

8. No one can ____ the plan from being carried out.

9. Gunmen killed two people and ____ six others in

an attack today.

【短语归类】

【考点l】与as有关的短语

① as with sb / sth / doing 如同……一样

② as for 至于;就……而言

③ as to 关于

④ as far as 就……而论;据……

⑤ as good as 几乎已经,实际已经

⑥ as follows 如下

⑦ as a whole 总的来说

⑧ as a rule 一般说来,通常

⑨ as a / the result of 由于

⑩ as usual 像往常一样

[例句] As with swimming, riding a bicycle does good to

our health. 像游泳一样,骑自行车对我们的健康有好

处。

I enjoy going to the movies.But as for the theater, I

prefer staying at home. 我喜欢看电影,但至于看戏,我

宁可呆在家里。

I want your advice as to what I ought to do with Mr.

Ernest.关于怎样和俄尼斯特先生打交道,我需要你的

高见。

【考例1】I enjoy going t0 the movies ____ the thea—

tres.

A. as for B. as with

C. as to D. as from

[考查目标] 此题主要考查短语的辨义问题。

[答案与解析]B as from 从……时起。题意是:我喜

欢看电影像喜欢看戏剧一样。

【考点2】与 chance 有关的短语

① take every chance 利用机会;碰运气 (=take a

chance, take chances)

② by chance = by accident 偶然地;无意中

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③ by any chance 万一

[例句]Don't take chances by driving too fast. 不要开快

车来冒险。

I'll take my chance of being captured by the enemy. 我

要冒着被敌人抓到的危险碰碰运气。

【考例2】That's a chance I'll have to ____.

A. make B. take

C. try D. play

[考查目标] 此题主要考查固定短语的搭配问题。

[答案与解析]B 在take a chance 短语中,不可用其他

动词。

13. in case of (in case) 以防,假使

In case of her being out, you may leave a massage.

假如她不在家你可留张便条。

What shall we do in case he is absent at the meeting?

万一他不来开会我们怎么办?

Take your raincoat, just in case.

带上雨衣以防下雨。

[注意](1) in case of接名词或相当于名词的成分;in

case引导句子或单独使用,上面句子中just in case

相当于just in case of rain。类似用法还有in this /

that case (要是这样 / 那样的话),如:

In that case,we will not go with you.

要是情况是那样的话,我们就不和你一起去了。

(2) in 与 ease 搭配也常表示“在……情况下”主要有

以下词组:

in any case( 在任何情况下)

in all cases (在所有情况下)

in a particular case (在特殊情况下)

in some case (在某种情况下)

in no case( 在任何情况下都不,决不)

如:In no case, can I lend money to him.

在任何情况下我都不会借钱给他。

12. in honor of (in sb's honor) 为了……纪念/庆祝,对

……表示敬意/欢迎

A banquet was given in honor of the visiting president.

举行宴会欢迎来访的总统。

A birthday party is being planned in our teacher's

honor.

正在为我们的老师筹划一个生日聚会。

试比较:for the honor of... (为了……荣誉)

He will try his best for the honor of his school.

他会为学校的荣誉而努力。

类似用法 in memory of (为了……纪念),如:

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The statue was built in memory of Mr. LuXun.

这个雕塑是为纪念鲁迅先生而建的。

14. make sure: to establish something without doubt;

make certain 弄清楚;确保

Make sure he writes it down.

让他一定记下来。

sure adj. (常与of,that连用) 确信的;肯定的

Please make sure that the house is locked before you

leave.

请你确信是锁上房间后才离开的。

I'm not sure about the practicality of their plan.

我还无法确定他们的那个计划的可行性如何。

(与to连用) 一定的;必定的

We are sure to benefit from the new timetable.

我们肯定会得益于新的作息时间表。

There's sure to be a fuss when the owner of the house

finds the window's broken.

房子的主人发现窗子被人打破时准会大吵大闹的。

sure adv. 一定地;必定地;无疑地

It sure was cold.

的确是冷。

The teacher makes sure, too, that the child gets

enough rest and play, along with his education.

教师还要保证每个孩子在接受教育的同时有充分

的时间休息和游戏。

He said he would come with his wife, and sure enough

he did.

他说他会带着妻子一起来的,果然他们来了。

【考点4】make things / matters worse 使事情更糟

① to make matters worse = what's worse = worse still

更糟的是

② what's more = besides 此外;而且

[例句] I realized that anything I could say would only

make matters worse. 我意识到只要我说话就会添乱子。

It got dark, and to make things worse it began to rain.

天黑了,更糟的是又开始下起雨来。

▲ 辨析:make things worse是动词短语,而to make

matters worse是副词短语。

【考例4】He seemed to have no desire to go there;

____, his clothes were not good enough.

A. what's worse B. what's more

C. thus D. therefore

[考查目标] 此题主要考查副词在句意中的理解问题。

[答案与解析]B 题意是:他似乎不想去那里,此外,他

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的衣服也不够好。

【考点3】与 mind 有关的短语

① keep / bear / carry…in mind记住

② have...in mind心中在想

③ have a mind to do sth 打算做某事

④ keep one's mind on / upon 聚精会神

⑤ make up one's mind(s) 下决心

⑥ Out of sight, out of mind. 眼不见,心不烦(谚语)。

[例句] At this point I can't undertake to accept your

suggestion,but l will keep it in mind. 在这一点上,我

不能保证接受你的建议,但我会把它记在心里。

Judging his achievement, we must bear in mind that hc

has had no previous experience of this kind of work. 判

断他的成绩时,我们要记住他以前并没有做过这种工

作的经验。

What do you have in mind? 你在想什么?

【考例3】I could see he was not telling me all be

____ in mind.

A. kept B. had

C. carried D. made

[考查目标]此题主要考查短语的辨义和短语的搭配问

题。

[答案与解析]B C、D两项显然错误。题意是:我能看

出他没有把他所想的告诉我。

【考点5】与moment有关的短语

① for the moment 暂时 = for the present

② for a moment 片刻

③ in a moment 不久,立刻.马上

④ at the moment 此时.现在

⑤ the moment 一……就……= the minute / instant

[例句] We aren't going to make any change for the mo-

ment. 我们暂时不做任何改变。

The new couple are traveling abroad at the moment. 那

对新婚夫妇跟下正在国外旅行。

【考例5】(2001京、蒙、皖春招)

-- Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed

her?

-- Yes, I gave it to her ____ I saw her.

A. while B. the moment

C. suddenly D. once

[考查目标] 此题主要考查连词问题。

[答案与解析]B 先排除C项,因为suddenly是副词,

不能引导从句。从上下句看。所欠的钱已还过,而且

是.一看见她就还了,所以又排除D项,因为once舍有

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条件意味。while强调一段时间。

9. suffer from 受……苦,遭……难,患……病

Most part of the country suffered fromthe heavy flood.

这个国家的大部分地区遭受严重水灾。

His mother suffers from heart trouble.

他母亲患心脏病。

[牛刀小试2]

1. Nothing definite has been arranged ____ its per-

formance.

A. as if B. as for

C. as with D. as to

2. We will ____ a chance on the weather and have

the party outdoors.

A. take B. try

C. get D. make

3. I have tried to keep his advice in ____ when

writing this book.

A. head B. heart

C. mind D. brain

4. I don't mind picking up your things from the store.

____, the walk will do me good.

A. Still B. Worse still

C. Besides D. However

5. He promised to attend to the cause ____ he

reached the office.

A. in a moment B. the moment

C. in case D. as far as

☆词语比较☆

1. persuade, advise

两个词都有“劝”之意,persuade表示结果,advise只

强调动作。

We advised (or: tried to persuade) him to stop talking,

but hc refused.

我们劝(试图劝服)他别谈了但他不听。

I persuade him to stop smoking. tie now looks better.

我劝服他戒了烟。现在他看f:去更健康了。

[注意] persuade 表示“说服某人做/不做某事”除了

persuade sb. to / not to do...结构,还有persuade sb.

into doing sth. / out of doing sth. 如:

He persuaded me into leaving soon.

他劝服我马上离开。

2. dead, deadly, dying

三个词都可以作形容词,但含义各不相同。dead意

为“死了”,反义词是alive,表示死亡状态;deadly意

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为“致命的”表示抽象意义;dying意为“临死的”。

The dog has been dead for hours.

这条狗死了几个小时了。

That is a deadly snake. 这是一条致命的蛇。

The dying man tried to my mmething.

这个快死的人试图想说什么。

[注意] dead,dying可在前面加 the 作名词用;deadly

还有“死气沉沉”之意。如:

The dead (dying) were being taken away from the

spot.

当时死者 (快死的人) 正从现场被抬走。

The lecture is deadly. Many began to leave.

演讲太沉闷了。许多人开始离开。

3. for the moment, for a moment

for the moment 意为“目前,暂时”,for a moment意

为“(过)片刻,一会儿”。

They don't plan to move for the moment.

他们目前不想搬走。

I will stay here for a moment. 我要在这里呆会儿。

4. die of, die from, die for, die in

(1) die of 意为“因……而死”,原因多为来自内部、

情感、冻饿和生病等,如:die of hunger (a fever,

thirst, sorrow, old age) 死于饥饿 (发烧、渴、忧伤、年

老)

(2) die from 意为“由于……而死”,原因通常来自外

部,如:die from wound (lack of food, an accident, over

work, drinking, pollution)死于外伤(缺乏食物、事

故、过度劳动、饮酒、污染)

(3) die for 意为了“为……而死”,如:

The soldier died for his motherland. 他为祖旧捐躯。

(4) die in 意为“死于……”,如:die in battle (战死),

die greatly in debt (死于负债累累),die in office (死

于任职期间)

5. reason, cause, excuse, grounds

(1) reason:理由,原因;指决定做某一件事或采取某

一行动的理由,由此而得出结论或解释。

The reason for my absence was that l was ill. 这儿不能

用because引导。

(2) cause:起因;指引起某种后果的起因。

The cause of the accident was the fact that he was

driving too fast.

事故的起因是他开得太快。

(3) excuse:辩解,借口;指为某一行为所做的解释,可

以是真的,也可以是托词。

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Too much work is no excuse for not studying.

工作太多不能成为不学习的理由。

(4) grounds:根据,理由;有根据的理由。

We have good grounds t。believe his story.

我们有充分的理由相信他的话。

6. still, quiet, silent

(1) still用作形容词,意为“静止的,不动的,平静的”。

keep (stay) still 保持不动

lie (stand) still 躺着(站着)不动

a still lake / evening

平静的湖/寂静的夜晚

用作副词,表示“还,仍旧”,可以修饰形容词、副词比

较级。

be still busy 仍然很忙

win still greater success 取得更火成功

(2) still 侧重“一动不动”,quiet指“安静”,无动作,无

声音,无骚乱,其反义词是noisy (吵闹的、喧哗的);

silent 指不出声,不说话。

对比:sit still 坐着不动

Be quiet, and the class will begin.

请安静,马上就要开始上课了。

Hearing the answer, he was silent for a minute or

more.

听了回答之后,他沉默了一两分钟。

☆句型诠释☆

1. I can became infected with HIV by swimming...

我可能通过游泳感染了 HIV (人体免疫缺损病毒)

... by doing sth. “通过/以……(方式)”是个常见句

型,在第7、8单元中大量使用,如:People transmit

HIV by having unprotected sex, by receiving infected

...By staying Calm we will be...We can also prepare

for an emergency by learning more about...We can do

a lot...by simply asking...等必须熟练掌握。又如:

What do you mean by saying so?

你这么说什么意思?

The little girl made a living by selling newspapers.

小女孩以卖报为生。

2. I wish that she were here with Ine and that we weren't

sick.

我但愿她和我呆在这儿,但愿我们都健康。

该句wish接两个that引导的从句。wish接that引

导的从句通常用虚拟语气,表示强烈的愿望或现实

与事实相反,通过从句中的动词过去某种时态来表

现。

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I wish your prngram would conic truth as soon as

possible.

我希望你的计划能尽快实现。

How she wish that we had told her the news

yesterday! (In fact we didn't tell her yesterday.)

她多么希望我们昨天告诉她这个消息了!

3. There were days when I wished that I were dead so

that I wouldn't have to feel so sick.

那些日子我多么希望我已经死了,这样我就没有必

要忍受那么多的痛苦。

when 这儿接一个定语从句,先行词是days。I wish

后接虚拟语气;so that用了一个目的状语从句。

4. Many hospitals recommend that we use the letters DR

ABC to remember what to do when we have to think

fast.

很多医院建议当我们需要快速思考的时候,我们应

该用DR ABC来提醒我们该做什么。

当 remmmend 后接宾语从句时,从句中通常用

should来表示虚拟语气,should还可以省略。类似的

动词还有suggest,advise,demand,etc.

The teacher recommended that we (should) read the

novel.

老师劝我们读那本小说。

The professor advised his little brother (should) study

harder when he was still young.

那位教授建议他的弟弟趁年轻应该努力学习。

5. As with most diseases and disasters, the young suffer

the most.

就像大多数的疾病和灾难一样,最遭罪的是年轻人。

as with...正如……一样,完整的句子为"As it is the

same with..."。

As with drawing a picture, you should be patient and

careful in doing this job.

正如画画一样,在做这件事时,你应该耐心细致。

6. She might have been hit by a car.

她也许被车撞了。

“情态动词 + 完成时态”用来表示对某一事实的假设

或推测,但不同的情态动词表示不同的程度,肯定

的程度如下:

must have done (肯定已经做了)

may have done (可能已经做了)

codd have done (可能已经做了)

might have done (也许已经做了)

[注意] (1) 这种用法通常不用must表示否定或疑

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问,而用can表示。

He can't have finished the work.

他肯定没有完成这项工作。

Can you have informed her of the time for the meeting?

你肯定通知她开会时间了吗?

(2) shouId have done 表示后悔或责备,意为“本应该

做了(但事实上没做)”,可根据语境判断。

You are late again. You ____ ten minutes earlier.

A. must have come B. should have come

C. could have come D. might have come

【解析】选B 该句表示一种责备,意为“你又迟到

了,你本该早十分钟就到了”,其他选项均表示推测。

7. The most important thing to keep in mind when

dealing with an emergency is to stay calm.

处理紧急情况时要记住的最重要的事就是保持冷

静。

句型中两个不定式to keep,to stay分别作定语和表

语。

The first thing for her to do is to tidy up the meeting

room.

她第一件要做的事就是整理会议室。

What they need at preselat is to have the house painted.

他们目前的要求就是把房子油漆一下。

【句型归纳】

【考点1】1 wish that she were here with me and we

weren't sick. 我希望她还在,我们都没有病。

本句中,要注意动词wish后宾语从句中的虚拟语气。

其用法为:

①表示现存的祝愿和抱歉。从句的谓语用 be 和 were /

was (were更为常用),实义动词用过去式。例如:

I wish they were at home this time. 但愿他们这次在

家。

② 表示对过去事情的遗憾,从句的谓语用过去完成时

或could + 现在完成时。例如:

I wish I hadn't hurt him so much. 真后悔伤他这么

重。

③ 表示对将来事情的愿望.从句的谓语为would /

could / might + 动词原形。例如:

I wish I might be able to come tomorrow. 要是我明

天能来就好了。

【考例l】(2002上海)How I wish every family

____ a large house with a beautiful garden!

A. has B. had

C. will have D. had had

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[考查目标] 本题考查wish后接宾语从句的用法。

[答案与解析]B wish后接宾语从句表示现在的祝愿

时,从句的谓语用be和were (was),实义动词用过去

式。

【考点2】It is safe to be friends with people who are living

with HIV. 与感染了艾滋病毒的人交朋友是安全的。

Cells either divide too fast or at the wrong time, making

it difficult for the body to function properly. 细胞分裂要

么过快,要么在不恰当的时间分裂。使身体机能难以正

常运转。

这两句中。要注意it:第一句作形式主语.作引导词用.

句型结构为:It is + adj / n (+ for / of sb) to do sth或

lt is + adj./ n + 从句;第二句作形式宾语用。例如:

It's hard to translate this sentence into English. 把这个

句子翻译成英语很难。

It requires patience to teach children. 教小孩子需要耐

心。

We find it hard to deal with him. 我们觉得跟他打交道

很难。

【考例2】Is ____ necessary to complete the design

before National Day?

A. this B. that C. it D. he

[考查目标] 本题考查 it 作形式主语的用法。

[答案与解析]C 本题中,it作形式主语, 指代后面出

现的动词不定式to complete the design before National

Day。而选项A中的this、选项B中的that都是指

示代词。选项D中的he是人称代词,都不能充当形式

主语。

【考点3】Many hospitals recommend that we use letters

DR ABC to remember what to do when we have to think

fast. 许多医院建议我们,在危急时刻采用DR ABC来

记住我们要做的事情。

本句中,recommend后接宾语从句,从句中的谓语动词

要用虚拟语气,即should + 动词原形,其中。should可

省略。这种用法的动词还有:suggest,insist,advise,

order,demand,request,propose等。例如:

The committee has recommended that the training pro—

gramme be improved. 委员会已经建议过培训项目得改

进。

I suggest (that) they (should) not drive too fast. 我建

议他们不要开得太快了。

【考例3】(1994上海) Jane's pale face suggested that

she ____ ill, and her parents suggested that she

____ a medical examination.

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A. be; should have B. was; have

C. should be; had D. was; has

[考查目标] 本题考查 suggest 的用法。

[答案与解析]B suggest是个常用动词,中学里学过

两种含义。一是“to put forward (as a plan, thought)”

(建议;提出),后面跟的宾语从句的谓语一般由should

加动词原形构成,或直接用动词原形;二是"to give an

impression of" (表明;使人认为),后面的谓语动词不用

虚拟语气形式。此题中,编者有意将suggest的两种意

思放在一个句子里,考生只有在理解两个suggest不同

含义的基础上,才能正确选择从句中动词的用法。原

句的意思是:珍妮苍白的脸色说明她病了,她的父母让

她去查查身体。第一个suggest的意思是“表明、说

明”,第二个suggest才有“建议、提出”的含义,所以第

二个suggest后面的从句中的谓语要用虚拟语气结构。

如果不理解句子的意思,只从形式去判断,很容易被选

项A所迷惑。

【考点4】We should never try to revive a person unless we

know how to do it. 除非懂得如何使人恢复知觉,否则

不要轻举妄动。

本句中,unless意为“if...not”,引导条件状语从句,表示

“如果不……就……,除非……”。例如:

You will fall behind unless you work harder. 你如果不

努力,就会掉队。

You'll catch cold unless you put on more clothes. 你会

感冒的,除非你多穿点衣服。

【考例4】(NMET 2004) ____ you call me to say

you're not coming, I'll see you at the theater.

A. Though B. Whether

C. Until D. Unless

[考查目标] 本题考查unless引导条件状语从句的用

法。

[答案与解析]D 选项A中的though表示“虽然”;选

项C中whether表示“是否”,引导名词性从句;选项B

中的until表示“直到”;只有选项D中的unless表示条

件,符合句意“我将在剧院等你,除非你打电话说不来

了”。

[牛刀小试3]

1. The Parkers bought a new house but ____ will

need a lot of work before they can move in. (NMET

2001 )

A. they B. it

C. one D. which

2. I hate ____ when people talk with their mouths

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full. (NMET 1998)

A. it B. that

C. these D. them

3. Parents should take seriously their children's requests

for sunglasses ____ eye protection is necessary

in sunny weather. (2004 上海)

A. because B. through

C. unless D. if

4. ____ be sent to work there? (2002 上海)

A. Who do you suggest

B. Who do you suggest that should

C. Do you suggest who should

D. Do you suggest whom should

5. In fact ____ is a hard job for the police to keep

order in an important football match. (2001 上海)

A. this B. that

C. there D. it

6. The men will have to wait all day ____ the doc-

tor works faster. (NMET 2002)

A. if B. unless

C. whether D. that

【交际速成】

【考点1】如何用英语表达祈使语气

(NMET 1999)

-- Alice, you feed the bird today, ____?

-- But I fed it yesterday.

A. do you B. will you

C. didn't you D. don't you

[答案与解析]B 这道题考查的是祈使句的反意疑问

句。Sit down, will you? You drive the car, will you?

这类语句俯拾即是。故只有B项正确。

【归纳】祈使句的主语是you(听话人).通常不说出.用

以表示请求或命令等。祈使句的谓语动词一律用动词

原形。在英语中用来表达祈使语气常见的方式有:

①肯定结构,例如:

Be careful!小心!

②否定结构,形式为don't…,例如:

Don't be late!不要迟到!

一Mother,I'm going out for a play.妈妈。我要出去

玩。

一Don't be long!别玩太久。

③用let结构,例如:

1.et's starfwork at once.我们马上开始:J:作吧。

④有主语的结构.例如:

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You clean the blackboard.你去擦黑板。

⑤加强语气的结构,例如:

Do come,please!请务必来!

【考点2】怎样用英语表达喜悦或不幸的应答

(NMET 1999)

-- I had a really good weekend at my uncle's. -- ____.

A.Oh, that's very nice of you

B.Congratulations

C.It's a pleasure

D.Oh, I'm glad to hear that

[答案与解析]D这道题考查的是对喜悦的应答用语。

A项表示对别人的夸奖和赞美,英美人士一般以致谢

表达礼貌和自信,或对别人提供帮助表示感谢;B项表

示对别人的成功表示祝贺;C项则表示愿意为你效劳。

根据上下文可知。对方是说“周末在叔叔家过得很开

心”,那么应答者应替对方感到高兴。故只有D项正

确。

【归纳】常见的对喜悦或不幸的应答用语还有:

①I'm sorry to hear that.

②Really?

③I wish…

④lf we/they were to…we/they could…

⑤Is that so?例如:

-- My mother has caught a bad cold. 我妈妈得了重感

冒。

-- I'm sorry to hear that. 真遗憾。

【考点3】怎样用英语表达建议或征求对方意见

(2002北京春招)

-- I've got your invitation.

-- Oh, good. ____.

A. Can you come? B. Thanks a lot.

C. I'll take it. D. May I help you?

[答案与解析]A 此题考查交际语言中表达建议或征

求对方意见的具体运用。A项表示“你能来吗?”,这是

征求对方意见;B项表示“感谢”。但是没有表示邀请;C

项则表示“我买了”。与上文不符;D项表示“有什么要

我做的吗?”。故只有A项正确。

【归纳】交际语言中表达建议或征求对方意见时.常见

的方式有:

① 用Shall开头的一般疑问句。其肯定回答一般可用:

All right()K;Good idea等。

② 用Let's...?表示“让我们(包括双方在内)做某事”。

例如:

Let's go and see the pandas.

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③ 用 Why not...?后接不带to的不定式(即动词原

形),是省略形式。完整句为Why don't you / they /

we…? 意思是“为什么不……?”例如:

Why don't you try again?:Why not try again?

④ 用What about...? 意为“……怎么样?”后可接名词,

代词和动名词。例如:

I'm going to the park. What about you?

⑤ 用had better意为“最好”,“还是……好”,常用于口

语,后接动词原形。例如:

You had better stay at home.

⑥ 用祈使句的“否定形式Don't...”。例如:

Don't play in the street.

⑦ Would you like + 短语?“……怎么样?”后接sth或

to do sth,例如:

Would you like another cup of tea?

⑧ Will you please + 动词原形?“请你……好吗?”例如:

Will you please come tomorrow?

[牛刀小试4]

1. -- Never go out at night, child.

-- ____.

A. You don't know about it

B. I'm so foolish as that

C. Yes, 1 will do

D. I won't

2. -- Don't forget to come to my birthday party tomor-

row.

-- ____. (NMET 1994)

A. I don't B. I won't

C. I can't D. I haven't

3. -- I'm sorry. I broke your mirror.

-- Oh, really? ____. (NMET 1996)

A. It's OK with me B. It doesn't matter

C. Don't be sorry D. I don't care

4. -- Peter was killed in a car accident!

-- ____ I talked with him yesterday morning.

A. What a pity! B. I beg your pardon.

C. Sorry to hear that. D. Is that so?

☆精典题例☆

( ) 1. -- Catherine, I have cleaned the room for you.

-- Thanks. You ____ it. I could managed it

myself. (2005 福建)

A. needn't do B. needn't have done

C. mustn't do D. shouldn't have done

【解析】选D “情态动词 + 完成时态”用来表示对过

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去某一事实的假设或推测,根据上下文可以得知凯瑟琳自

己可以做,所以对方“本不必做”。

( ) 2. Mum is coming. What present ____ for your

birthday? (2005 福建)

A. you expect she has got

B. you expect has she got

C. do you expect she has got

D. do you expect has she got

【解析】选C do you expect 通常被看作插入语,而不

写成Do you expect what she has got,所以后面的宾语从句

仍用陈述语序。

( )3. I always take something to read when I go to the

doctor's ____ I have to wait. (2005 全国II)

A. in case B. SO that

C. in order D. as if

【解析】选A in case引导句子或单独使用,上面句

子中in case I have to wait “以防我去等”,使上下文逻辑通

顺。

( )4. -- I'm afraid Mr. Wood can't see you until 4

o'clock.

-- Oh, ____ I won't wait. (2005 浙江)

A. no doubt B. after all

C. in that case D. in this way

【解析】选C in this / that case (要是这样/那样的

话)。

( )5. He ____ have completed his work; otherwise,

he wouldn't be enjoying hirnself by the seaside.

(2005北京)

A. should B. must

C. wouldn't D. can't

【解析】选A 根据下文“否则他在海边没法玩得痛

快。”可以推出上一句“他本应该要完成他的工作。”should

have done表示后悔或责备,意为“本应该做了(但事实上

没做)”。

( )6. I ____ have been more than six years old when

the aecident happened. (2005 天津)

A. shouldn't B. couldn't

C. mustn't D. needn't

【解析】选B“情态动词 + 完成时态”用来表示对过

去某一事实的假设或推测。尤其用来表示否定的推测则

用"can't / couldn't have done"。本句译为:当事故发生时

我不可能大于六岁。

( )7. -- Do you know where David is? I couldn't find

him anywhere.

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-- Well. He ____ have gone far — his coat's

still here. (2005湖北)

A. shouldn't B. mustn't

C. can't D. woldldn't

【解析】选c同第6题,表示否定的推测。

( )8. If I ____ plane to do anything I wanted to, I'd

like to go to Tibet and travel through as much of

it as possible. (2005湖北)

A. would B. could

C. had to D. ought to

【解析】选B 本题考查if引导的虚拟语气结构。从

I'd like to go...判断,本句为与现在事实相反,故选B。

( )9. -- Don't you think it necessary that he ____ to

Miami but to New York?

-- I agree, but the problem is ____ he has

refused to. (2005 江苏)

A. will not be sent; that

B. not be sent; that

C. should not be sent; what

D. should not send; what

【解析】选B 本题既考查了虚拟语气的用法,又考

查了表语从句的用法。由necessary引导的主语从句或宾

语从句,需要用shouId do,而他是要“被派往”迈阿密,所以

第一空用(should)not be sent,而第二空在be动词之后需

要用一个表语从句,由于句子结构完整,所以用that。

( )10. -- How do you ____ we go to Beijing for our

holidays?

-- I think we'd better fly there. It's much more

comfortable. (2004福建)

A. insist B. want

C. suppose D. suggest

【解析】选A 本题考查insist表示“坚持”时所带的

宾语从句用虚拟,即:insist that sb. (should) do sth. 所以

本题选A。

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