1.Mary has a _______ view of our future. But nobody believes what she said.

A. portable B.primary C.possession D.positive

2.Nobody knows his _______ for helping us.

A. motive B.motion C.mood D.moral

3.Both sides agree to establish a _______ zone between the south and north.

A. midst B.mild C.mention D.neutral

4.This is a _______ moment for our research. We should be careful.

A. critical B.belt C.conscience D.copper

5.This textbook is for the _______ students, not for the beginners.

A. observation B.transportation C.advanced D.transfer

6.When I read the newspaper, I always read the _______ first.

A. headlines B.headquarters C.heaven D.horizon

7.They _______ our house at $10,000.

A. count B.vanish C.weave D.assess

8.When he studied at college, Jack was supported by a _______.

A. treatment B.assistance C.scholarship D.protein

9.Even as _______, he made several wonderful inventions.

A.a stock B.a representative C.an undergraduate D.a gulf

10.An emergency _______ is very important in case of fire.

A. exit B.deposit C.discharge D.elaborate


1.D 2.A 3.D 4.A 5.C 6.A 7.D 8.C 9.C 10.A








1.The Foreign Minister made an excellent _______ on the current international situation.

A.committee B.command C.comment D.commission

2.They _______ cattle mainly for the international market.

A.carpenter B.district C.ox D.breed

3.He went to the dance last night but couldn't find a _______ because of his strange clothes.

A.pond B.saddle C.partner D.salad

4.Her father will never _______ of her going to study in the United States alone.

A.prove B.agree C.admit D.approve

5.I wish I could _______ you somehow for your kindness.

A.straw B.issue C.reward D.own

6.Our teacher was _______ by the funny story.

A.naked B.yielded C.amused D.expanded

7.The young people made a new _______ to the governor

A.proposal B.submerge C.tendency D.thread

8.In the film we saw last night, the hero _______ his wife to death with his sword.

A.throat B.thrust C.trust D.thread

9.If there is no other way to save a _______ person in a tall building on fire, fire fighters may spread a net into which the person can jump.

A.volt B.wrapped C.trapped D.deserted

10.Since 1978, many new _______ have been developed in our university to meet

the increasing demands of the students.

A.disciplines B.entrances C.checks D.flames


1.C 2.D 3.C 4.D 5.C 6.C 7.A 8.B 9.C 10.A
























1. 名词

名词可以分为专有名词(Proper Nouns)和普通名词 (Common Nouns),专有名词是某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的名称,如Beijing,China等。普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念的名词,如:book,sadness等。普通名词又可分为下面四类:

1)个体名词(Individual Nouns):表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:gun。

2)集体名词(Collective Nouns):表示若干个个体组成的集合体,如:family。

3)物质名词(Material Nouns):表示无法分为个体的实物,如:air。

4)抽象名词(Abstract Nouns):表示动作、状态、品质、感情等抽象概念,如: work。

个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词(Countable Nouns),物质名词和抽象名词一般无法用数目计算,称为不可数名词(Uncountable Nouns)。归纳一下,名词的分类可以下图表示: _______________________________________ | |专有名词 | |

| 名 | | 个体名词 | |

| | | | 可数名词 |

| | | 集体名词 | |

| |普通名词 | | |

| 词 | | 物质名词 | |

| | | | 不可数名词|

| | | 抽象名词 | |

1.1 名词复数的规则变化

___________________________________________________ 情况 构成方法 读音 例词

__________________________________________________ 一般情况 加 -s 1.清辅音后读/s/; map-maps

2.浊辅音和元音后 bag-bags 读 /z/; car-cars



x等结尾的词 加 -es 读 /iz/ bus-buses watch-watches ___________________________________________________ 以ce,se,ze,


的词 加 -s 读 /iz/ license-licenses

___________________________________________________ 以辅音字母+y 变y 为i

结尾的词 再加es 读 /z/ baby---babies


1.2 其它名词复数的规则变化

1) 以y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数: 如: two Marys the Henrys

monkey---monkeys holiday---holidays

比较: 层楼:storey ---storeys story---stories

2) 以o 结尾的名词,变复数时:

a. 加s,如: photo---photos piano---pianos

radio---radios zoo---zoos;

b. 加es,如:potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes

c. 均可,如:zero---zeros / zeroes

3) 以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时:

a. 加s,如: belief---beliefs roof---roofs

safe---safes gulf---gulfs;

b. 去f,fe 加ves,如:half---halves

knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves

wife---wives life---lives thief---thieves;

c. 均可,如: handkerchief:

handkerchiefs / handkerchieves

1.3 名词复数的不规则变化

1)child---children foot---feet tooth---teeth

mouse---mice man---men woman---women

注意:与 man 和 woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women。 如: an Englishman,two Englishmen. 但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;Bowman是姓,其复数是the Bowmans。

2)单复同形 如:


li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin


a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters


如: people police cattle 等本身就是复数,不能说 a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说

a person,a policeman,a head of cattle,the English,the British,the French,the

Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss 等名词,表示国民总称时,作复数用。 如: The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。


a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,为不可数名词,是单数。 b. news 是不可数名词。

c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。

The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是19xx年组建起来的。

d. 以复数形式出现的书名,剧名,报纸,杂志名,也


"The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book.


5) 表示由两部分构成的东西,如:glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes 若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers

6) 另外还有一些名词,其复数形式有时可表示特别意思,如:goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼

1.4 不可数名词量的表示


a. 当物质名词转化为个体名词时。

比较: Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数) These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数)

b. 当物质名词表示该物质的种类时,名词可数。

This factory produces steel. (不可数)

We need various steels. (可数)

c. 当物质名词表示份数时,可数。

Our country is famous for tea.


Two teas, please.


2) 抽象名词有时也可数。

four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations四个现代化 物质名词和抽象名词可以借助单位词表一定的数量。 如: a glass of water 一杯水 a piece of advice 一条建议

1.5 定语名词的复数


1) 用复数作定语。

如:sports meeting 运动会

students reading-room 学生阅览室

talks table 谈判桌

the foreign languages department 外语系

2) man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。

如:men workers women teachers gentlemen officials

3) 有些原有s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。

如:goods train (货车) arms produce 武器生产

customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush衣刷

4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。

如:two-dozen eggs 两打/(二十四个鸡蛋)

a ten-mile walk 十里路

two-hundred trees 两百棵树

a five-year plan. 一个五年计划

个别的有用复数作定语的,如: a seven-years child

1.6 不同国家的人的单复数

名称 总称(谓语用复数) 一个人 两个人

中国人 the Chinese a Chinese two Chinese

瑞士人 the Swiss a Swiss two Swiss

澳大利亚人the an two

Australians Australian Australians 俄国人 the Russians a Russian two Russians

意大利人 the Italians an Italian two Italians

希腊人 the Greek a Greek two Greeks

法国人 the French a Frenchman two


日本人 the Japanese a Japanese two Japanese

美国人 the Americans an American two Americans

印度人 the Indians an Indian two Indians

加拿大人 the Canadians a Canadian two Canadians

德国人 the Germans a Germans two Germans

英国人 the English an Englishman two


瑞典人 the Swedish a Swede two Swedes

1.7 名词的格

在英语中有些名词可以加"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下:

1) 单数名词词尾加"'s",复数名词词尾没有s,也要加"'s",如the boy's bag 男孩的书包,men's room 男厕所。

2) 若名词已有复数词尾-s ,只加"'",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。

3) 凡不能加"'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如: the title of the song 歌的名字。

4) 在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时,名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词,如:the barber's 理发店。

5) 如果两个名词并列,并且分别有's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。

如:John's and Mary's room(两间) John and Mary's room(一间)

6) 复合名词或短语,'s 加在最后一个词的词尾。

如:a month or two's absence

2. 冠词和数词

2.1 不定冠词的用法

冠词是虚词,本身不能单独使用,也没有词义,它用在名词的前面,帮助指明名词的含义。英语中的冠词有三种,一种是定冠词(the Definite Article),另一种是不定冠词(the Indefinite Article),还有一种是零冠词(Zero Article)。

不定冠词a (an)与数词one 同源,是"一个"的意思。a用于辅音音素前,一般读作[e],而an则用于元音音素前,一般读做[en]。

1) 表示"一个",意为one;指某人或某物,意为a certain。

A Mr. Ling is waiting for you.

2) 代表一类人或物。

A knife is a tool for cutting with.

Mr. Smith is an engineer.

3) 词组或成语。

a little / a few / a lot / a type of / a pile / a great many / many a / as a rule / in a hurry / in a minute / in a word / in a short while / after a while / have a cold / have a try / keep an eye on / all of a sudden

2.2 定冠词的用法



Take the medicine. 把药吃了。


He bought a house. I've been to the house.



the sun, the sky, the moon, the earth

4)单数名词连用表示一类事物,如:the dollar 美元;

the fox 狐狸;或与形容词或分词连用,表示一类人:the rich 富人; the living 生者。

5)用在序数词和形容词最高级,及形容词only, very, same等前面: Where do you live? I live on the second floor. 你住在哪?我住在二层。 That's the very thing I've been looking for. 那正是我要找的东西。


They are the teachers of this school.指全体教师)

They are teachers of this school. (指部分教师)


She caught me by the arm.. 她抓住了我的手臂。

8)用在某些由普通名词构成的国家名称、机关团体、阶级、等专有名词前: the People's Republic of China 中华人民共和国

the United States 美国

9)用在表示乐器的名词之前: She plays the piano. 她会弹钢琴。

10) 用在姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人:

the Greens 格林一家人 (或格林夫妇)

11) 用在惯用语中:

in the day, in the morning (afternoon,evening), the day after tomorrow the day before yesterday, the next morning,

in the sky (water,field,country)

in the dark, in the rain, in the distance,

in the middle (of), in the end,

on the whole, by the way, go to the theatre

2.3 零冠词的用法

1) 国名,人名前通常不用定冠词:England,Mary;


They are teachers. 他们是教师。


Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母。


Man cannot live without water. 人离开水就无法生存。

5)在季节、月份、节日、 假日、日期、星期等表示时间的名词之前,不加冠词; We go to school from Monday to Friday. 我们从星期一到星期五都上课。


The guards took the American to General Lee.


7)在三餐、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前,不加冠词 如:have breakfast,play chess


I can't write without pen or pencil. 没有钢笔和铅笔,我就写不了字。

9)当by 与火车等交通工具连用,表示一种方式时,中间无冠词;by bus,by train;


school,college,prison,market,hospital,bed,table,class,town,church,court 等个体名词,直接置于介词后,表示该名词的深层含义;

go to hospital 去医院看病

go to the hospital 去医院 (并不是去看病,而是有其他目的)


a. 序数词前有物主代词

b. 序数词作副词 He came first in the race.

c. 在固定词组中 at (the) first,first of all, from first to last

2.4 冠词与形容词+名词结构

1) 两个形容词都有冠词,表示两个不同东西。

He raises a black and a white cat. 他养了一只黑猫和一只白猫。

The black and the white cats are hers. 这只黑猫和白猫都是他的。

2) 如后一个形容词无冠词,则指一物。

He raises a black and white cat. 他养了一只花猫。

2.5 冠词位置

1) 不定冠词位置


a. 位于下列形容词之后: such,what,many,half,

I have never seen such an animal.

Many a man is fit for the job.

b. 当名词前的形容词被副词as, so, too, how, however, enough修饰时,不定冠词应放在形容词之后:

It is as pleasant a day as I have ever spent. So short a time.

Too long a distance.

c. quite,rather与单数名词连用,冠词放在其后。

但当rather,quite 前仍有形容词,不定冠词放其前后均可。如:quite a lot

d. 在as,though 引导的让步状语从句中,当标语为形容词修饰的名词时,不定冠词放形容词后:

Brave a man though he is,he trembles at the sight of snakes. 他尽管勇敢,可见到蛇还是发抖。


2) 定冠词位置

定冠词通常位于名词或名词修饰语前,但放在all, both,double,half,twice,three times等词之后,名词之前。

All the students in the class went out. 班里的所有学生都出去了。

2.6 数词



1)基数词写法和读法: 345 three hundred and forty-five;


a. 与of 短语连用,表示概数,不能与具体数目连 用,如scores of people 指许多人;

b. 在一些表示"一排"或"一组"的词组里;

如:They arrived in twos and threes. 他们三三两两的到达了。

c. 表示"几十岁";

d. 表示"年代",用 in +the +数词复数;

e. 在乘法运算的一种表示法里,如:3 x 5 = 15 Three fives is (are) fifteen.


序数词的缩写形式: first---1st second---2nd thirty-first---31st

三、 数词的用法


a. 主语+谓语+倍数(或分数)+ as + adj. + as

I have three times as many as you. 我有你三倍那么多。

b. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ the size (amount,length…) of…

The earth is 49 times the size of the moon. 地球是月球的49倍。 c. 主语+谓语+倍数(分数)+ 形容词(副词)比较级+ than…

The grain output is 8 percent higher this year than that of last year.


d. 还可以用by+倍数,表示增加多少倍

The production of grain has been increased by four times this year.




1/3 one-third ; 3/37 three and three-sevenths.

3. 代词




数 单数 复数

格 主格 宾格 主格 宾格

第一人称 I me we us

第二人称 you you you you

第三人称 he him they them

she her they them

it it they them

如:He is my friend. 他是我的朋友。

It's me. 是我。

二、 物主代词表示所有关系的代词,也可叫做代词所有格。物主代词分形容性物主代词和名词性物主代词二种,其人物和数的变化见下表。

数 单数 复数

人称 第一 第二 第三 第一 第二 第三

人称 人称 人称 人称 人称 人称

形容词性 my your his/her/ its our your their


名词性 mine yours his/hers its ours yours theirs


如: I like his car.


Our school is here,and theirs is there.


三、 指示代词表示"那个"、"这个"、"这些"、"那些"等指示概念的代词。指示代词有this,that,these,those等。

如: That is a good idea. 那是个好主意。

四、 表示"我自己"、"你自己"、"他自己"、"我们自己"、"你们自己"和"他们自己"等的代词,叫做自身代词,也称为"反身代词"。

如: She was talking to herself. 她自言自语。

五、 表示相互关系的代词叫相互代词,有each other 和one another两组,但在运用中,这两组词没什么区别。

如: They love each other. 他们彼此相爱。

六、 不是指明代替任何特定名词的代词叫做不定代词。常见的不定代词有a11,both,each,every等,以及含有some-,any-,no-等的合成代词,如anybody, something,no one。这些不定代词大都可以代替名词和形容词,在句中作主语、宾语、表语和定语, 但none和由some,any,no等构成的复合不定代词只能作主语、宾语或表语;every和no只能作定语。如:

--- Do you have a car? --你有一辆小汽车吗?

--- Yes,I have one. --是的,我有一辆。

--- I don't know any of them. 他们,我一个也不认识。

七、 疑问代词有who,whom,whose,what和which等。在句子中用来构成特殊疑问句。疑问代词都可用作连接代词,引导名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句和表语从句) 如:Tell me who he is. 告诉我他是谁。

八、 关系代词有who,whom,whose,that,which,as等,可用作引导从句的关联词。它们在定语从句中可作主语、表语、宾语、定语等;另一方面它们又代表主句中为定语从句所修饰的那个名词或代词(通称为先行词)。

如: He is the man whom you have been looking for. 他就是你要找的那个人。

3.1 人称代词的用法


John waited a while but eventually he went home.


John hoped the passenger would be Mary and indeed it was she.



When he arrived, John went straight to the bank.



I saw her with them, at least, I thought it was her.

我看到她和他们在一起,至少我认为是她。(her做宾 语,them做介词宾语,her做主语补语)

a. -- Who broke the vase? --谁打碎了花瓶?

b. -- Me. --我。(me做主语补语= It's me.)


3.2 人称代词之主、宾格的替换

1) 宾格代替主格

a.在简短对话中,当人称代词单独使用或在not 后,多用宾语。

---- I like English. --我喜欢英语。

---- Me too. --我也喜欢。

---- Have more wine? --再来点酒喝吗?

---- Not me. --我可不要了。

b.在表示比较的非正式的文体中,常用宾格代替主格。 但如果比较状语的谓语保留,则主语只能用主格。

He is taller than I/me.

He is taller than I am.

2) 主格代替宾格

a. 在介词but,except 后,有时可用主格代替宾格。

b. 在电话用语中常用主格。

---- I wish to speak to Mary. --我想和玛丽通话。

---- This is she. --我就是玛丽。

注意:在动词be 或to be 后的人称代词视其前面的名词或代词而定。

I thought it was she. 我以为是她。 (主格----主格)

I thought it to be her. (宾格----宾格)

I was taken to be she. 我被当成了她。 (主格----主格)

They took me to be her. 他们把我当成了她。 (宾格----宾格)

3.3 代词的指代问题

1)不定代词 anybody,everybody,nobody,anyone, someone, everyone,no one, 及whoever和person在正式场合使用时,可用he, his, him代替。

Nobody came, did he? 谁也没来,是吗?

2)动物名词的指代一般用it或they代替,有时也用he, she,带有亲切的感情色彩。

Give the cat some food. She is hungry. 给这猫一些吃的。她饿了。


3.4 并列人称代词的排列顺序

1) 单数人称代词并列作主语时,其顺序为:

第二人称 -> 第三人称 -> 第一人称

you -> he/she; it -> I

You, he and I should return on time.

2) 复数人称代词作主语时,其顺序为:

第一人称 -> 第二人称 -> 第三人称

we -> you -> They

注意: 在下列情况中,第一人称放在前面。

a. 在承认错误,承担责任时,

It was I and John that made her angry.


b. 在长辈对晚辈,长官对下属说话时,如长官为第一人称, 如:I and you try to finish it.

c. 并列主语只有第一人称和第三人称时,

d. 当其他人称代词或名词被定语从句修饰时。

3.5 物主代词


John had cut his finger; apparently there was a broken glass on his desk.


物主代词有形容词性(my, your等)和名词性(mine, yours等)两种,形容词性的物主代词属于限定词。

名词性的物主代词在用法上相当于省略了中心名词的 --'s属格结构,例如: Jack's cap 意为 The cap is Jack's.

His cap 意为 The cap is his.

2) 名词性物主代词的句法功能

a. 作主语,例如:

May I use your pen? Yours works better.

我可以用一用你的钢笔吗? 你的比我的好用。

b. 作宾语,例如:

I love my motherland as much as you love yours.


c. 作介词宾语,例如:

Your should interpret what I said in my sense of the word, not in yours.


d. 作主语补语,例如:

The life I have is yours. It's yours. It's yours. 我的生命属于你,属于你,属于你。

3.6 双重所有格

物主代词不可与 a, an, this, that, these, those, some, any, several, no, each, every, such, another, which等词一起前置,修饰一个名词,而必须用双重所有格。


a, an, this, that +名词+of +名词性物主代词。如:

a friend of mine.

each brother of his.

3.7 反身代词

1) 列表

I you you she he

myself yourself yourselves herself himself

we they it one

ourselves themselves itself oneself


a. 有些动词需有反身代词

absent, bathe, amuse, blame, dry, cut, enjoy, hurt, introduce, behave

We enjoyed ourselves very much last night. 我们昨晚玩得很开心。

Please help yourself to some fish. 请你随便吃点鱼。

b. 用于及物动词+宾语+介词

take pride in, be annoyed with, help oneself to sth.

I could not dress (myself) up at that time. 那个时候我不能打扮我自己。 注:有些动词后不跟反身代词, get up, sit-down, stand up, wake up等。

Please sit down. 请坐。

3) 作表语; 同位语

be oneself: I am not myself today. 我今天不舒服。

The thing itself is not important. 事情本身并不重要。

4) 在不强调的情况下,but, except, for 等介词后宾语用反身代词或人称代词宾格均可。如:

No one but myself (me) is hurt.


a. 反身代词本身不能单独作主语。

(错) Myself drove the car.

(对) I myself drove the car. 我自己开车。

b. 但在and, or, nor连接的并列主语中,第二个主语可用反身代词,特别是myself 作主语。

Charles and myself saw it.


You should be proud of yourself. 你应为自己感到骄傲。

3.8 相互代词

1)相互代词只有each other和one another两个词组。他们表示句中动词所叙述的动作或感觉在涉及的各个对象之间是相互存在的,例如:

It is easy to see that the people of different cultures have always copied each other. 显而易见,不同文化的人总是相互借鉴的。

2) 相互代词的句法功能:

a. 作动词宾语;

People should love one another. 人们应当彼此相爱。

b. 可作介词宾语;

Does bark, cocks crow, frogs croak to each other. 吠、鸡鸣、蛙儿对唱。

说明:传统语法认为,相互关系存在于两个人或物之间用each other, 存在于两个以上人和物之间用one another。现代英语中,两组词交替使用的实例也很多,例如:

He put all the books beside each other.


He put all the books beside one another.


Usually these small groups were independent of each other.


c. 相互代词可加-'s构成所有格,例如:

The students borrowed each other's notes.


3.9 指示代词

1) 指示代词分单数(this / that)和复数(these / those)两种形式,既可作限定词又可做代词,例如:

单数 复数

限定词:This girl is Mary. Those men are my


代词: This is Mary. Those are my


2) 指示代词的句法功能;

a. 作主语

This is the way to do it.


b. 作宾语 I like this better than that. 我喜欢这个甚至那个。 c. 作主语补语 My point is this. 我的观点就是如此。 d. 作介词宾语 I don't say no to that. 我并未拒绝那个。 There is no fear of that. 那并不可怕。 说明1:


(对)That is my teacher. 那是我的老师。( that作主语,指人)

(对)He is going to marry this girl. 他要和这个姑娘结婚。(this作限定词) (错)He is going to marry this. (this作宾语时不能指人)

(对)I bought this. 我买这个。(this指物,可作宾语)


That和those可作定语从句的先行词,但this和 these不能,同时,在作先行词时,只有those可指人,试比较:

(对) He admired that which looked beautiful. 他赞赏外表漂亮的东西。

(对) He admired those who looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的人。(those指人) (错) He admired that who danced well. (that作宾语时不能指人)

(对) He admired those who danced well. 他赞赏跳舞好的人。(those指人)

(对) He admired those which looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的东西。(those指物)

3.10 疑问代词

1) 疑问代词在句中起名词词组的作用,用来构成疑问句。疑问代词有下列几个: 指 人: who, whom, whose

指 物: what

既可指人又可指物: which

2) 疑问代词在句中应位于谓语动词之前,没有性和数的变化,除who之外也没有格的变化。what, which, whose还可作限定词。试比较:

疑问代词:Whose are these books on the desk?


What was the directional flow of U. S. territorial expansion?


限定词: Whose books are these on the desk?


What events led to most of the east of the Mississippi River becoming part of the United States? 哪些事件使密西西比河以东的大部分土地归属于美国?


无论是做疑问代词还是限定词,which 和 what 所指的范围不同。what所指的范围是无限的,而which则指在一定的范围内,例如:

Which girls do you like best?


What girls do you like best?



Whom是who的宾格,在书面语中,它作动词宾语或介词宾语,在口语中作宾语时,可用who代替,但在介词后只能用whom, 例如:

Who(m) did you meet on the street?


Who(m) are you taking the book to?


To whom did you speak on the campus?

你在校园里和谁讲话了?(作介词宾语,置介词 后,不能用who取代。)



For what do most people live and work?


What are you looking for?




I can't make out what he is driving at.


Can you tell me whose is the blue shirt on the bed?


Much of what you say I agree with, but I cannot go all the way with you.


3.11 关系代词

1) 关系代词用来引导定语从句。它代表先行词,同时在从句中作一定的句子成分,例如:The girl to whom I spoke is my cousin. 跟我讲话的姑娘是我表妹。(该句中whom既代表先行词the girl,又在从句中作介词to的宾语。)

2) 关系代词有主格,宾格和属格之分,并有指人与指物之分。在限定性定语从句中,that 可指人也可指物,见表:

限定性 非限定性 限定性

指 人 指 物 指人或指物

主 格 who which that

宾 格 whom that that

属 格 whose of which/whose of which/whose


This is the pencil whose point is broken.


(whose 指物,在限定性定语从句中作定语)

He came back for the book which he had forgotten. 他回来取他丢下的书。 (which指物,在限定性定语从句中作宾语,可以省略)

3) 关系代词which的先行词可以是一个句子,例如:

He said he saw me there, which was a lie.


说明: 关系代词that在从句中作宾语或表语时可省略, 例如:

I've forgotten much of the Latin I once knew.


He's changed. He's not the man he was.


3.12 every , no, all, both, neither, nor


all , both, every, each, either, neither, more, little, few, much, many, another, other, some, any , one, no 以及some, something, anything, everything, somebody, someone, anybody, anyone, nothing , nobody, no one, none, everybody, everyone.等。

2) 不定代词的功能与用法

a. 除every 和no外不定代词既可用作名词,也可用作形容词。every和no在句中只能作定语。

I have no idea about it.

b. all 都,指三者以上。

all 的主谓一致:all的单复数由它所修饰或指代的名词的单复数决定。 All goes well. 一切进展得很好。

all 通常不与可数名词单数连用,如:不说 all the book,而说 the whole book。 但all可与表时间的可数名词单数连用,如 all day,all night,all the year; 但习惯上不说 all hour,all century。

all还可以与一些特殊的单数名词连用,如 all China, all the city, all my life, all the way

3) both 都,指两者。

a. both 与复数动词连用,但 both… and…可与单数名词连用。

b. both, all 都可作同位语,其位置在行为动词前, be 动词之后。如果助动词或情态动词后面的实义动词省 去,则位于助动词或情态动词之前。

Who can speak Japanese? We both (all) can.

4) neither 两者都不

a. neither作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

b. 作定语与单数名词连用,但neither… nor 用作并列连词,可与复数名词连用。其谓语采用就近原则。

c. 可用于下列句型,避免重复。

She can't sing,neither (can) he.

neither 与nor

d. 如前句是否定式从句,则主句用neither,而不用 nor。

If you don't do it,neither should I. 如果你不干,我也不干。

e. 如后连续有几个否定句式,则用nor,不用neither。

He can't sing,nor dance,nor skate.

3.13 none, few, some, any, one, ones

一、 none 无

1) none作主语,多与of 构成短语 none of。 在答语中,none可单独使用。 Are there any pictures on the wall? None.

2) none作主语,谓语动词单复数均可。但如做表语,则其单复数与表语一致。

It is none of your business.

二、few 一些,少数

few 作主语时,谓语动词用复数,多用于肯定句。

三、some 一些

1) 可与复数名词及不可数名词连用。

2) 当做"某一"解时,也可与单数名词连用。(= a certain)

You will be sorry for this some day.


A certain (some) person has seen you break the rule.





a. 肯定疑问句中:说话人认为对方的答案会是肯定的,或期望得到肯定回答时。 Would you like句式中,表委婉请求或建议,如:

Would you like some coffee?

b. 在条件状语从句中表示确定的意义时,如:

If you need some help,let me know.

c. some位于主语部分,

Some students haven't been there before.

d. 当否定的是整体中的部分时,some可用于否定句。如:

I haven't heard from some of my old friends these years.


四、any 一些

1) any 多用于否定句和疑问句和条件状语从句中。


Here are three novels. You may read any. 这有三本小说,你可任读一本。

五、one, ones 为复数形式

ones必须和形容词连用。如果替代的名词时无形容词在前,则用some, any,而不 用ones。

Have you bought any rulers? Yes,I 've bought some. 3.16 “the”的妙用

3.17 anyone/any one;no one/none;every/each

1.anyone 和 any one

anyone仅指人,any one既可指人,也可指物。

2.no one 和none

a) none 后跟of短语,既可指人又可指物,而no one只单独使用,只指人。

b) none 作主语,谓语动词用单,复数均可,而no one作主语谓语动词只能是单数。

None of you could lift it. 你们中没有人可举起它。

---- Did any one call me up just now? --刚才有人打电话给我吗?

---- No one. --没有。

3.every 和each

1) every 强调全体的概念, each强调个体概念。

Every student in our school works hard. 我们学校的学生都很用功。

Each student may have one book.. 每个学生都可有一本书。

2) every 指三个以上的人或物(含三个),each指两个以上的人或物 (含两个)。

3) every 只作形容词,不可单独使用。each可作代词或形容词。

Every student has to take one.

Each boy has to take one.

Each of the boys has to take one.

4) every不可以作状语,each可作状语。

5) every 有反复重复的意思,如 every two weeks等; each没有。

6) every 与not 连用,表示部分否定; each 和not连用表示全部否定。

Every man is not honest. 并非每个人都诚实。

Each man is not honest. 这儿每个人都不诚实。

He is one of the students who help me.

He is the one of the students who helps me.


第一句定语从句与the students 一致。

第二句定语从句与the one 一致。

3.18 both, either, neither, all, any, none

这些词都可用作代词或形容词。其位置都在be 动词之后,行为动词之前或第一助动词之后。

1) both (两者都),either(两者中任何一个), neither (两者都不)。以上词使用范围为两个人或物。

Neither of the two boys is clever. 两个男孩都不聪明。

2) both,either


Both the boys are clever. 两个男孩都很聪明。

Either of the two boys is clever. 两个男孩都很聪明。

There are flowers on both sides of the street.


There are flowers on either side of the street.



3) all (所有的,全部的人或物),any (任何一个), none (都不)。 以上词使用范围为三者以上。

All the flowers are gone. 所有的花都谢了。

I don't like any of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。

I like none of the flowers. 这些花我都不喜欢。

注意:all与none用法一样。跟单数名词,用单数动词;跟复数名词,用复数动词。 All of the students are there.


All (of) the milk is there.


3.19 many, much

Many,much都意为"许多", many + 可数名词,much + 不可数名词。 How many people are there at the meeting?

How much time has we left?

Many of the workers were at the meeting.

Much of the time was spent on learning.

3.20 few, little, a few, a little

(a) few + 可数名词, (a) little + 不可数名词

a few / a little 为肯定含义,还有一点

few / little 为否定含义,没有多少了。

He has a few friends. 他有几个朋友。

He has few friends. 他几乎没有朋友。

We still have a little time. 我们还有点时间。

There is little time left.几乎没剩下什么时间了。


Although he 's wealthy,he spends___ on clothes.

A. little B. few C. a little D. a few

答案: A. spend所指的是钱,不可数,只能用little或 a little. 本句为although引导的让步状语从句,由句意知后句为否定含义,因此应用little表示几乎不。


only a few (=few) not a few (=many) quite a few (=many)

many a (=many)

Many books were sold.

Many a book was sold.


4. 形容词和副词

4.1 形容词及其用法

形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常, 可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。

1) 直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程 度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot 热的。

2) 叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用程度副词修饰。大多数以a开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid 害怕的。

(错) He is an ill man.

(对) The man is ill.

(错) She is an afraid girl.

(对) The girl is afraid.

这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。


something nice

4.2 以-ly结尾的形容词

1) 大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively, ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。

改错:(错) She sang lovely.

(错) He spoke to me very friendly.

(对) Her singing was lovely. (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.

2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词。


The Times is a daily paper.

The Times is published daily.

4.2 以-ly结尾的形容词

1) 大部分形容词加-ly可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively, ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。

改错:(错) She sang lovely.

(错) He spoke to me very friendly.

(对) Her singing was lovely. (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.

2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词。


The Times is a daily paper.

The Times is published daily.

4.3 用形容词表示类别和整体

1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接。如:the dead,the living,the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry The poor are losing hope. 2) 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用。 the British,the English,the French,the Chinese.

The English have wonderful sense of humor.

4.4 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序


限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --出处--材料性质,类别--名词

a small round table

a tall gray building

a dirty old brown shirt

a famous German medical school

an expensive Japanese sports car


1) Tony is going camping with ___ boys.

A. little two other B. two little other C. two other little D. little other two

答案:C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --性质-- 名词"的公式可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有C符合答案。

2) One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace.

A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese D. Chinese stone old

答案A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+质地+用途+国家+名词。

3) ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao?

---- It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the ___days at the seaside.

A. few last sunny B. last few sunny C. last sunny few D. few sunny last




those + three + beautiful + large + square


old + brown + wood + table

4.5 副词及其基本用法



1) 在动词之前。

2) 在be动词、助动词之后。

3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。


a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。 We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us.

b. 方式副词well,badly糟、坏,hard等只放在句尾。

He speaks English well.


1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。

2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用and或but等连词连接。

Please write slowly and carefully.

3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。

注意:副词very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。

改错:(错) I very like English.

(对) I like English very much.

注意:副词enough要放在形容词的后面,形容词enough放在名词前后都可。 I don't know him well enough.

There is enough food for everyone to eat.

There is food enough for everyone to eat.

4.6 兼有两种形式的副词

1) close与closely

close意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地"

He is sitting close to me.

Watch him closely.

2) late 与lately

late意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近"

You have come too late.

What have you been doing lately?

3) deep与deeply

deep意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地" He pushed the stick deep into the mud.

Even father was deeply moved by the film.

4) high与highly


The plane was flying high.

I think highly of your opinion.

5) wide与widely


He opened the door wide.

English is widely used in the world.

6) free与freely

free的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地"

You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like.

You may speak freely; say what you like.

4.7 形容词与副词的比较级


1) 规则变化


构成法 原级 比较级 最高级 一般单音节词 tall(高的) taller tallest

未尾加-er,-est great(巨大的) greater greatest

以不发音的e结尾 nice(好的) nicer nicest

的单音词和少数 large(大的) larger largest

以- le结尾的双 able(有能力的) abler ablest


以一个辅音字母 big(大的) bigger biggest

结尾的闭音节单 hot热的) hotter hottest




"以辅音字母+y" easy(容易的) easier easiest

结尾的双音节词,busy(忙的) busier busiest


少数以-er,-ow clever(聪明的) cleverer cleverest

结尾的双音节词 narrow(窄的) narrower narrowest


其他双音节词和 important(重要的)

多音节词,在前 more important

面加more,most most important 来构成比较级和 easily(容易地)

最高级。 more easily

most easily

2) 不规则变化

原级 比较级 最高级 good(好的)/ better best

bad (坏的)/ worse worst

old (老的) older/elder oldest/eldest

4.8 as + 形容词或副词原级 + as

1)在否定句或疑问句中可用so… as。

He cannot run so/as fast as you.

2)当as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式。

as +形容词+ a +单数名词

as + many/much +名词

This is as good an example as the other is.

I can carry as much paper as you can..

3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在as的前面。 This room is twice as big as that one.

Your room is the same size as mine.

4) 倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ then + of

This bridge is three times as long as that one.

This bridge is three times the length of that one.

Your room is twice as large as mine.

Your room is twice the size of mine.

4.9 比较级形容词或副词 + than

You are taller than I.

They lights in your room are as bright as those in mine.



(错) He is more cleverer than his brother.

(对) He is more clever than his brother.

(对) He is clever than his brother.


(错) China is larger that any country in Asia.

(对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia.


The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing. It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.

4)要注意冠词的使用,后有名词的时候,前面才有可能有名词。 比较:Which is large, Canada or Australia?

Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia? She is taller than her two sisters.

She is the taller of the two sisters.

4.10 可修饰比较级的词

1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even等


3)以上词(除by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。


1) ---- Are you feeling ____?

---- Yes,I'm fine now.

A. any well B. any better C. quite good

D. quite better 答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite修饰原级,well的比较级为better.

2)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected.

A. more B. much more C. much

D. more much

答案:C. much可修饰比较级,因此B,C都说得通,但easier本身已是比较级,不需more,因此C为正确答案。

3)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school.

A. the happiest time B. a more happier time

C. much happiest time D. a much happier time


4.11 many,old 和 far

1) 如果后接名词时, much more +不可数名词

many more +可数名词复数

2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和elder/eldest。 elder,eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。 My elder brother is an engineer.

Mary is the eldest of the three sisters.

3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further. 在英语中两者都可指距离。

在美语中,father 表示距离,further表示进一步。

I have nothing further to say.

4.12 the + 最高级 + 比较范围

1) The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world.

形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。 形容词most前面没有the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。 It is a most important problem.

=It is a very important problem.

注意: 使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。

(错) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers.

(对) Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.

2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost

This hat is nearly / almost the biggest.


a. very可修饰最高级,但位置与much不同。

This is the very best.

This is much the best.

b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。

Africa is the second largest continent.

3) 句型转换:

Mike is the most intelligent in his class.

Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class.

4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so… as"结构表示最高级含义。 Nothing is so easy as this.

=Nothing is easier than this.

=This is the easiest thing.

4.13 和more有关的词组

1) the more… the more… 越……就越……

The harder you work,the greater progress you'll make.

2) more B than A 与其说A不如说B

less A than B

He is more lazy than slow at his work.

= He is less slow than lazy at his work.

3) no more… than… 与……一样……,不比……多 The officials could see no more than the Emperor.

no less… than… 与……一样……

He is no less diligent than you.

4) more than 不只是,非常

She is more than kind to us all.


1)The weather in China is different from____.

A. in America B. one in America C. America

D. that in America

答案:D. 本题意为"中国的天气比美国热。"比较的是天气而不是国家,C不能选。A没有名词,后句成分不全,排除。B和D中,B中的one常用来代替可数名词,而that可车以代替不可数或抽象名词,所以选D。

2)After the new technique was introduced,the factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year before.

A. as twice many B. as many twice C. twice as many D. twice many as

答案C. 此句意为"这个厂1988能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍"。 表示倍数用"倍数+ as + 形容词原形+ as +比较对象"的句型。所以此句答案为C。

This ruler is three times as long as that one.

5. 动词

1) 表示动作中状态的词叫做动词。

2) 根据其在句中的功能,动词可分为四类,分别是:实义动词(Notional Verb)、系动词(Link Verb)、助动词(Auxiliary Verb)、情态动词(Modal Verb)。


We are having a meeting. 我们正在开会。 (having是实义动词。) He has gone to New York. 他已去纽约。


3) 动词根据其后是否带有宾语,可分为两类,分别是:及物动词(Transitive Verb)、不及物动词(Intransitive Verb),缩写形式分别为vt. 和vi.。


She can dance and sing.


She can sing many English songs.


4) 根据是否受主语的人称和数的限制,可分两类,分别是:限定动词(Finite Verb)、非限定动词(Non-finite Verb)例如:

She sings very well.

她唱得很好。(sing受主语she的限制,故用第三人称单数形式sings。) She wants to learn English well.

她想学好英语。(to learn不受主语she的限制,没有词形变化,是非限定动词。


5) 根据动词的组成形式,可分为三类,分别是:单字词(One-Word Verb)、短语动

词(Phrasal Verb)、动词短语(Verbal Phrase)例如:

The English language contains many phrasal verbs and verbal phrases.


Students should learn to look up new words in dictionaries.

学生们学会查字典。(look up是短语动词。)

The young ought to take care of the old.

年轻人应照料老人。(take care of是动词短语。)

6)动词有五种形态,分别是:原形(Original Form)、第三人称单数形式(Singular From in Third Personal)、过去式(Past Form)、过去分词(Past Participle)、现在分词(Present Participle)。

5.1 系动词

系动词亦称联系动词(Link Verb),作为系动词,它本身有词义,但不能单独用作谓语,后边必须跟表语(亦称补语),构成系表结构说明主语的状况、性质、特征等情况。


有些系动词又是实义动词,该动词表达实义时,有词义,可单独作谓语,例如: He fell ill yesterday.


He fell off the ladder.




He is a teacher. 他是一名教师。(is与补足语一起说明主语的身份。)


用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况或态度,主要有keep, rest, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例如:

He always kept silent at meeting. 他开会时总保持沉默。

This matter rests a mystery. 此事仍是一个谜。


用来表示"看起来像"这一概念,主要有seem, appear, look, 例如:

He looks tired. 他看起来很累。

He seems (to be) very sad. 他看起来很伤心。


感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如:

This kind of cloth feels very soft.


This flower smells very sweet.



这些系动词表示主语变成什么样,变化系动词主要有become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run.


He became mad after that. 自那之后,他疯了。

She grew rich within a short time. 她没多长时间就富了。


表示主语已终止动作,主要有prove, trun out, 表达"证实","变成"之意,例如: The rumor proved false. 这谣言证实有假。

The search proved difficult. 搜查证实很难。

His plan turned out a success. 他的计划终于成功了。(turn out表终止性结果)

5.2 什么是助动词

1)协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词(Auxiliary Verb)。被协助的动词称作主要动词(Main Verb)。


He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。


2) 助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来:

a. 表示时态,例如:

He is singing. 他在唱歌。

He has got married. 他已结婚。

b. 表示语态,例如:

He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。

c. 构成疑问句,例如:

Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗?

Did you study English before you came here? 你来这儿之前学过英语吗? d. 与否定副词not合用,构成否定句,例如:

I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。

e. 加强语气,例如:

Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。

He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。

3) 最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would

5.3 助动词be的用法

1) be +现在分词,构成进行时态,例如:

They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。

English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。

2) be + 过去分词,构成被动语态,例如:

The window was broken by Tom.. 窗户是汤姆打碎的。

English is taught throughout the world. 世界各地都教英语。

3) be + 动词不定式,可表示下列内容:

a. 表示最近、未来的计划或安排,例如:

He is to go to New York next week.. 他下周要去纽约。

We are to teach the freshpersons. 我们要教新生。

说明: 这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。

b. 表示命令,例如:

You are to explain this. 对此你要做出解释。

He is to come to the office this afternoon. 要他今天下午来办公室。

c. 征求意见,例如:

How am I to answer him? 我该怎样答复他?

Who is to go there? 谁该去那儿呢?

d. 表示相约、商定,例如:

We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 我们明天早晨7点在校门口集合。

5.4 助动词have的用法

1)have +过去分词,构成完成时态,例如:

He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。

By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work.


2)have + been +现在分词,构成完成进行时,例如:

I have been studying English for ten years.


3)have+been +过去分词,构成完成式被动语态,例如:

English has been taught in China for many years.


5.5 助动词do 的用法

1) 构成一般疑问句,例如:

Do you want to pass the CET? 你想通过大学英语测试吗?

Did you study German? 你们学过德语吗?

2) do + not 构成否定句,例如:

I do not want to be criticized. 我不想挨批评。

He doesn't like to study. 他不想学习。

In the past, many students did not know the importance of English. 过去,好多学生不知道英语的重要性。

3) 构成否定祈使句,例如:

Don't go there. 不要去那里。

Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。

说明: 构成否定祈使句只用do,不用did和does。

4) 放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气,例如:

Do come to my birthday party. 一定来参加我的生日宴会。

I did go there. 我确实去那儿了。

I do miss you. 我确实想你。

5) 用于倒装句,例如:

Never did I hear of such a thing. 我从未听说过这样的事情。

Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English.


说明: 引导此类倒装句的副词有never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well等。

6) 用作代动词,例如:

---- Do you like Beijing? --你喜欢北京吗?

---- Yes, I do. --是的,喜欢。(do用作代动词,代替like Beijing.)

He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he?


5.6 助动词shall和will的用法


I shall study harder at English. 我将更加努力地学习英语。

He will go to Shanghai. 他要去上海。


在过去的语法中,语法学家说shall用于第一人称,will 只用于第二、第三人称。现在,尤其是在口语中,will常用于第一人称,但shall只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第三人称,就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较:

He shall come. 他必须来。(shall有命令的意味。)

He will come. 他要来。(will只与动词原形构成一般将来时。)

5.7 助动词should,would的用法


I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week.



"What shall I do next week?" I asked.


2) would也无词义,是will的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三人称,例如:

He said he would come. 他说他要来。


"I will go," he said. 他说:"我要去那儿。"


He said he would come.


5.8 短语动词

动词加小品构成的起动词作用的短语叫短语动词(Phrasal Verb)。例如:

Turn off the radio. 把收音机关上。(turn off是短语动词)


1) 动词+副词,如:black out;

2) 动词+介词,如:look into;

3) 动词+副词+介词,如:look forward to。构成短语动词的副词和介词都统称为小品词(Particle)。

5.9 非谓语动词



时态\语态 主动 被动

一般式 to do to be done

完成式 to have done to have been done


时态\语态 主动 被动

一般式 doing being done

完成式 having done having been done


时态\语态 主动 被动

一般式 doing being done

完成式 having done having been done

否定形式: not +不定式, not + 动名词, not + 现在分词

6. 动名词

6.1 动名词作主语、宾语和表语


Fighting broke out between the South and the North.



a. 动词后加动名词doing作宾语 V. + doing sth

admit 承认 appreciate 感激,赞赏 avoid 避免

complete 完成 consider 认为 delay 耽误 deny 否认 detest 讨厌 endure 忍受 enjoy 喜欢 escape 逃脱 prevent阻止

fancy 想象 finish 完成 imagine 想象 mind 介意 miss 想念 postpone 推迟 practise 训练 recall 回忆 resent 讨厌 resist 抵抗 resume 继续 risk 冒险

suggest 建议 face 面对 include 包括 stand 忍受 understand 理解 forgive 宽恕 keep 继续


(1) Would you mind turning down your radio a little, please?

(2) The squirrel was lucky that it just missed being caught.

b. 词组后接doing

admit to prefer…to be used to lead to devote oneself to object to stick to busy look forward to(to为介词)

no good, no use, It's worth…, as well as,

can't help, It's no use /good be tired of

be fond of be capable of be afraid of

be proud of think of / about hold off

put off keep on insist on count on / upon

set about be successful in good at take up

give up burst out prevent … from…


Her job is washing,cleaning and taking care of the children.

6.2 worth 的用法

worth,worthy,worth-while都为adj. 意为"值得"。 1. worth: be worth + n. 当名词为金钱时,表示"…… 值得……" be worth doing sth. "……某事值得被做" The question is not worth discussing again and again. 2. worthy:be worthy of +n. 当名词为抽象名词时表示"……值得……" be worthy to be done "某事值得被做" The question is not worthy to be discussed againand again. 3. worth-while: be worth-while to do sth "值得做某事"

worth while: It is worth while doing sth

It is worth while sb to do sth.


It is not ____ to discuss the question again and again.

A.worth B.worthy C.worth-while D.worth while

答案C. 由worth的用法可知,此句只适合词组be worth-while to do sth.。因此选C。

7. 动词不定式

7.1 不定式作宾语

1) 动词+ 不定式

afford aim appear agree arrange ask be decide bother care choose come dare demand desire

determine expect elect endeavor hope fail happen help hesitate learn long mean manage offer ought plan prepare pretend promise refuse seem tend wait wish undertake


The driver failed to see the other car in time.


I happen to know the answer to your question.


2)动词+不定式 ; 动词+宾语+不定式

ask, beg, choose, expect , hate, help intend like, love, need prefer, prepare, promise, want, wish…

I like to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢每件东西都保持整洁。

I like you to keep everything tidy. 我喜欢你年使每件东西都保持整洁。

I want to speak to Tom. 我想和汤姆谈话。

I want you to speak to Tom. 我想让你和汤姆谈话。

3) 动词+疑问词+ to

decide, know, consider forget, learn, remember, show, understand, see, wonder, hear, find out, explain, tell

Please show us how to do that. 请演示给我们如何去做。

There are so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can't make up my mind which to buy.有这么多的录音机,我都拿不定主意买哪一种。


The question is how to put it into practice.


7.2 不定式作补语

1) 动词+宾语+不定式(to do)

advise allow appoint believe cause challenge command compel consider declare drive enable encourage find forbid force guess hire imagine impel induce inform instruct invite judge know like order permit persuade remind report request require select send state suppose tell think train trust understand urge warn


a. Father will not allow us to play on the street.


b. We believe him to be guilty.

我们相信他是有罪的。 Find 的特殊用法:

Find 后可用分词做宾补,或先加形式宾语,再加形容词,最后加带to 的动词不定式。find后也可带一个从句。此类动词还有get,have。

I found him lying on the ground.

I found it important to learn.

I found that to learn English is important.


The next morning she found the man ___ in bed,dead.

A. lying B. lie C. lay D. laying


) to + be 的不定式结构,作补语的动词。

Acknowledge, believe, consider, think, declare(声称), discover, fancy(设想), feel find, guess, judge, imagine, know, prove, see(理解), show, suppose, take(以为), understand

We consider Tom to be one of the best students in our class.



Charles Babbage is generally considered ___ the first computer.

A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented

答案:A. 由consider to do sth. 排除B、D。. 此句只说明发明这一个事实,不定式后用原形即可。而C为现在完成时,发明为点动词一般不用完成时,且此处也不强调对现在的影响,因此不选C。

3) to be +形容词

Seem, appear, be said, be supposed, be believed, be thought, be known, be reported, hope, wish, desire, want, plan, expect, mean…

The book is believed to be uninteresting.


4) there be+不定式

believe, expect, intend, like, love, mean, prefer, want, wish, undrstand

We didn't expect there to be so many people there.我们没料到会有那么多人在哪里。

注意 : 有些动词需用as 短语做补语,如regard, think believe, take, consider. We regard Tom as our best teacher. 我们认为汤姆是我们最好的老师。

Mary took him as her father . 玛丽把他当作自己的父亲。

7.3 不定式主语

1) It's easy (for me) to do that.我做这事太容易了

easy, difficult, hard, important, possible, impossible, comfortable, necessary, better;

the first, the next, the last, the best, too much, too little, not enough

It's so nice to hear your voice.


It's necessary for you to lock the car when you do not use it.


2) It's very kind of you to help us. 他帮助我们,他真好。 Kind, nice, stupid, rude, clever, foolish, thoughtful, thoughtless, brave, considerate(考虑周到的), silly, selfish(自私的)


It was silly of us to believe him. 我们真愚蠢,竟然相信了他。

It seemed selfish of him not to give them anything. 他不给他们任何东西,这显得太自私了。

注意:1) 其他系动词如,look,appear等也可用于此句型

2) 不定式作为句子成分时,动词用单数形式。

3) 当不定式作主语的句子中又有一个不定式作表语时,不能用It is… to…的


(对)To see is to believe. 百闻不如一见。

(错)It is to believe to see.

7.4 It's for sb.和 It's of sb.

1)for sb. 常用于表示事物的特征特点,表示客观形式的形容词,如easy, hard, difficult, interesting, impossible等:

It's very hard for him to study two languages. 对他来说学两门外语是很难的。

2)of sb的句型一般用表示人物的性格,品德,表示主观感情或态度的形容词,如good, kind, nice, clever, foolish, right。

It's very nice of you to help me. 你来帮助我,你真是太好了。 for 与of 的辨别方法:


You are nice. (通顺,所以应用of)。

He is hard. (人是困难的,不通,因此应用for。)

7.5 不定式作表语


My work is to clean the room every day.

His dream is to be a doctor.

7.6 不定式作定语


I have a lot of work to do.

So he made some candles to give light.

7.7 不定式作状语


To… only to (仅仅为了), in order to, so as to, so(such)… as to… (如此……以便……)

He ran so fast as to catch the first bus. 他飞快地跑以便赶上第一班车。 I come here only to say good-bye to you. 我来仅仅是向你告别。


What have I said to make you angry.

He searched the room only to find nothing.

3) 表原因

I'm glad to see you.


The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to ___.

A. sit B. sit on C. be seat D. be sat on

答案:B. 如果不定式为不及物动词,其后应有必要的介词。当动词与介词连用时,常位于"形容词+动词不定式"结构的末尾。

7.8 用作介词的to

to 有两种用法: 一为不定式+动词原形; 一为介词+名词/动名词, to 在下面的用法中是第二种,即to+ 名词/动名词:

admit to承认, confess to承认,

be accustomed to 习惯于, be used to 习惯于, stick to 坚持, turn to开始,着手于, devote oneself to 献身于, be devoted to 致力于, look forward to 盼望, pay attention to 注意

7.9 省to 的动词不定式

1) 情态动词 ( 除ought 外,ought to):

2) 使役动词 let, have, make:

3) 感官动词 see, watch, look at, notice , observe, hear, listen to, smell, feel, find 等后作宾补,省略to。

注意:在被动语态中则to 不能省掉。

I saw him dance.

=He was seen to dance.

The boss made them work the whole night.

=They were made to work the whole night.

4) would rather,had better:

5) Why… / why not…:

6) help 可带to,也可不带to, help sb (to) do sth:

7) but和except:but前是动词do时,后面出现的动词用不带to的动词不定式。

8) 由and, or和than连接的两个不定式,第二个to 可以省去:

9) 通常在discover, imagine, suppose, think, understand等词后,可以省去to be: He is supposed (to be) nice. 他应该是个好人。


He wants to move to France and marry the girl.

He wants to do nothing but go out.

比较: He wants to do nothing but go out.

He wants to believe anything but to take the medicine.


1) ---- I usually go there by train.

---- Why not ___ by boat for a change?

A. to try going B. trying to go C. to try and go D. try going 答案:D. why not 后面接不带to 的不定式,因此选D。

2) Paul doesn't have to be made ___. He always works hard.

A. learn B. to learn C. learned D. learning

答案:B. make后接不带to 的动词不定式,当其用于被动时,to 不可省略。

7.10 动词不定式的否定式

Tell him not to shut the window…

She pretended not to see me when I passed by. 我走过的时候,她假装没看见。 典型例题

1)Tell him ___ the window.

A. to shut not B. not to shut C. to not shut

D. not shut

答案:B。 tell sb to do sth 的否定形式为tell sb not to do sth. 2) She pretended ___ me when I passed by.

A. not to see B. not seeing C. to not see

D. having not seen

答案:A。 pretend 后应接不定式。其否定形式为pretend not to do sth.。

3)Mrs. Smith warned her daughter ___ after drinking.

A. never to drive B. to never driver

C. never driving D. never drive

答案:A。warn sb to do sth. 的否定形式为warn sb not to do sth. 此处用的是否定词never.

4) The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street,but his mother told him ____.

A. not to B. not to do C. not do it

D. do not to

答案:A。not to 为not to do it 的省略形式。可以只用to这个词,而不必重复整个不定式词组。及物动词do后应有名词、代词等,否则不对,因此B,D不对。

5) The patient was warned ___ oily food after the operation.

A. to eat no B. eating not C. not to eat

D. not eating

答案:C。warn一词要求后用不定式,此处为不定式的被动,否定形式为be warned not to do。

7.11 不定式的特殊句型too…to…

1)too…to 太…以至于…

He is too excited to speak.


---- Can I help you ? 需要我帮忙吗?

---- Well, I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same. 不用了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢您。

2) 如在too前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定, too 后那个词表达一种 委婉含义,意 为"不太"。

It's never too late to mend. (谚语)


3) 当too 前面有only, all, but时,意思是:非常… 等于very。

I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 我非常高兴能帮助你。

He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。

7.11 不定式的特殊句型too…to…

1)too…to 太…以至于…

He is too excited to speak.


---- Can I help you ? 需要我帮忙吗?

---- Well, I'm afraid the box is too heavy for you to carry it, but thank you all the same. 不用了。这箱子太重,恐怕你搬不动。谢谢您。

2) 如在too前有否定词,则整个句子用否定词表达肯定, too 后那个词表达一种 委婉含义,意 为"不太"。

It's never too late to mend. (谚语)


3) 当too 前面有only, all, but时,意思是:非常… 等于very。

I'm only too pleased to be able to help you. 我非常高兴能帮助你。

He was but too eager to get home. 他非常想回家。

7.12 不定式的特殊句型so as to

1) 表示目的;它的否定式是so as not to do。 Tom kept quiet about the accident so as not to lose his job. 汤姆对事故保持沉默是为了不丢掉他的工作。 Go in quietly so as not to wake the baby. 轻点进去,别惊醒了婴儿。 2) so kind as to ---劳驾 Would you be so kind as to tell me the time?


7.13 不定式的特殊句型Why not

"Why not +动词原形"表达向某人提出建议,翻译为:"为什么不……?" "干吗不……?"


Why not take a holiday?


7.14 不定式的时态和语态

时态\语态 主动 被动

一般式 to do to be done

进行式 to be doing

完成式 to have done to have been done

完成进行式 to have been doing

1) 现在时:一般现在时表示的动词,有时与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生,有时发生在谓语动词的动作之后。

He seems to know this. I hope to see you again. = I hope that I'll see you again. 我希望再见到你。

2) 完成时:表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。

I'm sorry to have given you so much trouble.

He seems to have caught a cold.

3) 进行时: 表示动作正在进行,与谓语动词表示的动作同时发生。

He seems to be eating something.

4) 完成进行时:

She is known to have been wreaking on the problem for many years.

7.15 动名词与不定式

1) 动名词与不定式的区别:

动名词表达的是: 状态,性质,心境,抽象,经常性,已发生的

不定式表达的是: 目的,结果,原因,具体,一次性,将发生的

2) 接不定式或动名词,意义相同。

3) 动名词与不定式语义不同的有11 组:

1 stop to do stop doing

2 forget to do forget doing

3 remember to do remember doing 4 regret to do regret doing

5 cease to do cease doing

6 try to do try doing

7 go on to do go on doing

8 afraid to do afraid doing

9 interested to do interested doing

10 mean to do mean doing

11 begin/ start to do begin/ start doing

8. 特殊词精讲

8.1 stop doing/to do

stop to do 停止,中断做某事后去做另一件事。

stop doing 停止做某事。

They stop to smoke a cigarette. 他们停下来,抽了根烟。

I must stop smoking.. 我必须戒烟了。


She reached the top of the hill and stopped ___ on a big rock by the side of the path.

A. to have rested B. resting C. to rest D. rest

答案:C。由题意可知,她到了山顶,停下来在一个路边的大石头上休息。因此,应选择"stop to do sth. 停下来去做另一件事"。而不仅仅是爬山动作的终止,所以stop doing sth.不正确。

8.2 forget doing/to do

forget to do 忘记要去做某事。 (未做)

forget doing 忘记做过某事。 (已做)

The light in the office is stil on. He forgot to turn it off.


He forgot turning the light off.

他忘记他已经关了灯了。 ( 已做过关灯的动作)

Don't forget to come tomorrow.

别忘了明天来。 (to come动作未做) 典型例题

---- The light in the office is still on.

---- Oh,I forgot___.

A. turning it off B. turn it off C. to turn it off D. having turned it off

答案:C。由the light is still on 可知灯亮着,即关灯的动作没有发生,因此用forget to do sth.

而forget doing sth表示灯已经关上了,而自己忘记了这一事实。此处不符合题意。

8.3 remember doing/to do

remember to do 记得去做某事 (未做)

remember doing 记得做过某事 (已做)

Remember to go to the post office after school.


Don't you remember seeing the man before?


8.4 regret doing/to do

regret to do 对要做的事遗憾。 (未做)

regret doing 对做过的事遗憾、后悔。 (已做)

I regret to have to do this, but I have no choice.


I don't regret telling her what I thought.

我不为告诉她我的想法而后悔。 典型例题

---You were brave enough to raise objections at the meeting.

---Well, now I regret ___ that.

A. to do B. to be doing C. to have done D. having done

答案:D。regret having done sth. 对已发生的事感到遗憾。regret to do sth. 对将要做的事感到遗憾。本题为对已说的话感到后悔,因此选D。

8.5 cease doing/to do

cease to do 长时间,甚至永远停做某事。 cease doing 短时停止做某事,以后还会接着做。 That department has ceased to exist forever. 那个部门已不复存在。 The girls ceased chatting for a moment when their teacher passed by. 姑娘们在老师走过时,停了会聊天。

8.6 try doing/to do

try to do 努力,企图做某事。

try doing 试验,试着做某事。

You must try to be more careful.


I tried gardening but didn't succeed.


8.7 go on doing/to do

go on to do 做了一件事后,接着做另一件事。

go on doing 继续做原来做的事。

After he had finished his maths,he went on to do his physics. 做完数学后,他接着去做物理。

Go on doing the other exercise after you have finished this one. 作完这个练习后,接着做其他的练习

8.8 be afraid doing/to do

be afraid to do 不敢,胆怯去做某事,是主观上的原因不去做,意为"怕"; be afraid of doing 担心出现doing的状况、结果。 doing 是客观上造成的,意为"生怕,恐怕"。 She was afraid to step further in grass because she was afraid of being bitten by a snake. 她生怕被蛇咬着,而不敢在草丛中再走一步。 She was afraid to wake her husband. 她不敢去叫醒她丈夫。

She was afraid of waking her husband.


8.9 be interested doing/to do

interested to do 对做某事感兴趣,想了解某事。

interested in doing 对某种想法感兴趣,doing 通常为想法。 I shall be interested to know what happens.

我很想知道发生了什么事。 (想了解)

I'm interested in working in Switzerland. Do you have any idea about that? 我对在瑞士工作感兴趣。你想过这事吗? (一种想法)

8.10 mean to doing/to do

mean to do 打算、想

mean doing 意味着

I mean to go, but my father would not allow me to.


To raise wage means increasing purchasing power.


8.11 begin(start) doing/to do

begin / start to do sth

begin / start doing sth.

1) 谈及一项长期活动或开始一种习惯时,使用doing.

How old were you when you first started playing the piano?


2) begin, start用进行时时,后面动词用不定式to do

I was beginning to get angry。 我开始生起气来。

3) 在attempt, intend, begin, start 后接know, understand, realize这类动词时,常用不定式to do。

I begin to understand the truth。


4) 物作主语时

It began to melt.

8.12 感官动词 + doing/to do

感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel + do 表示动作的完整性,真实性;+doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性

I saw him work in the garden yesterday.


I saw him working in the garden yesterday.(强调"我见他正干活"这个动作) 昨天我见他正在花园里干活。

典型例题 1)They knew her very well. They had seen her ___ up from childhood.

A. grow B. grew C. was growing D. to grow

答案:A。因题意为,他们看着她长大,因此强调的是成长的过程,而非正在长的动作,因此用see sb do sth 的句型。

2)The missing boy was last seen ___ near the river.

A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play

答案A. 本题强调其动作,正在河边玩,应此用see sb. doing sth句型。

9. 分词

9.1 分词作定语


We can see the rising sun. 我们可以看到东升的旭日

He is a retired worker. 他是位退休的工人

分词后置 (i分词词组;ii 个别分词如given, left; iii 修饰不定代词 something等) There was a girl sitting there. 有个女孩坐在那里 This is the question given. 这是所给的问题

There is nothing interesting. 没有有趣的东西



Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists.

Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa.


1) The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century.

A. have written B. to be written C. being written D. written

答案D. 书与写作是被动关系,应用过去分词做定语表被动,相当于定语从句 which is written

2)What's the language ____ in Germany?

A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak

答案B. 主语language与谓语动词之间有被动的含义。

spoken是动词speak的过去分词形式,在句中作定语,修饰主语language, spoken 与 language有被动关系。该句可以理解为:

What's the language (which is) spoken in German?

9.2 分词作状语

As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call.

-> Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.


If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better.

-> Given more attention,the trees could have grown better.



1)_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army.

A. Followed B. Followed by C. Being followed D. Having been followed

答案B. Napoleon 与follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed除表达被动之外,还有动作正在进行之意。 followed by(被…跟随)。本题可改为: With some officials following, Napoleon inspected his army.

2)There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light.

A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed 答案B. 由于声音在闪电后,因此为声跟随着光,声音为跟随的发出者,为主动。用现在分词。

3)_______, liquids can be changed into gases.

A. Heating B. To be heated C. Heated D. Heat

答案C. 本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动,正在进行的;过去分词表被动的,已经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者,是被动的,因而选C。它相当于一个状语从句 When it is heated,…

注意: 选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出,分词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。

(Being ) used for a long time, the book looks old.


Using the book, I find it useful.

在使用的过程中, 我发现这本书很有用。

9.3 连词+分词(短语)

有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚,可在分词前加连词。 连词有: when,while,if though,after, before, as. 但分词的主语和主句的主语必须为同一个,如: While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building.

waiting 和saw 的主语相同。

9.4 分词作补语


I found my car missing. 我发现我的车不见了。

I'll have my watch repaired. 我想把我的手表修一下。

9.5 分词作表语

现在分词: 表示主动,正在进行

过去分词: 表示被动,已经完成

She looked tired with cooking. 她由于忙着做饭,看上去有些疲倦。

He remained standing beside the table. 他依然站在桌旁。

9.6 分词作插入语

其结构是固定的,意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。 generally speaking 一般说来 talking of (speaking of) 说道 strictly speaking 严格的说 judging from 从…判断 all things considered 从整体来看 taking all things into consideration 全面看来

Judging from his face, he must be ill. 从他的脸色看,他一定是病了。

Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs. 总的来说,狗比猪跑得快。 (speaking 并不是dogs 的动作)

9.7 分词的时态


Hearing the news, he jumped with joy. 听到这一消息,他高兴得手舞足蹈。 Arriving there, they found the boy dead. 刚一到那儿,他们就发现那男孩死了。 典型例题

The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long speech for the president.

A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing

答案B. 此处没有连词,不能选D,否则出现了两个谓语动词worked和was

preparing。 只能在B,C中选一个。又因前后两个动作同时发生,且与主语为主动关系,应用现在分词。


While walking in the garden,he hurt his leg. 在花园里散步时他伤了腿。

分词作时间状语,如果先与主动词的动作,且强调先后, 要用having done。 Having finished his homework, he went out.

=As he had finished his homework, he went out.



___ a reply, he decided to write again.

A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received

答案C. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断,分词的动作(接信)发生在谓语动词的动作(决心再写信)之前,因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构成为not +分词,故选C。该句可理解为:Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.

9.8 分词的语态

1)通常,现在分词表示主动,过去分词表示被动,例如: He is the man giving you the money. (= who gave you…) 他就是给你钱的那个人。 He is the man stopped by the car. ( = who was stopped by…) 他就是那个被车拦住的人。 2)不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生 gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned 例: a well-read person. 一个读过许多书的人

a much-travelled may 一个去过许多地方的人

a burnt-out match 烧完了的火柴

10. 独立主格

10.1 独立主格

(一): 独立主格结构的构成:





名词(代词) +介词短语构成。

(二) 独立主格结构的特点:


2)名词或代词与后面的分词,形容词,副词,不定 式,介词等是主谓关系。



The test finished, we began our holiday.

= When the test was finished, we began our holiday.


The president assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.

= After the president was assassinated, the whole country was in deep sorrow.


Weather permitting, we are going to visit you tomorrow.


This done, we went home.


The meeting gone over, everyone tired to go home earlier.


He came into the room, his ears red with cold.


He came out of the library, a large book under his arm.


10.2 With的复合结构作独立主格


with +名词(代词)+现在分词/过去分词/形容词/副词/不定式/介词短语 举例: He stood there, his hand raised.

= He stood there, with his hand raise.


The murder was brought in, with his hands ___ behind his back。

A. being tied B. having tied C. to be tied D. tied

答案D. with +名词(代词)+分词+介词短语结构。当分词表示伴随状况时,其主语常常用with来引导。由于本句中名词"手"与分词"绑"是被动关系,因此用过去分词,选D.


1) 独立主格结构使用介词的问题: 当介词是in时,其前后的两个名词均不加任何成分(如物主代词或冠词),也不用复数。但 with 的复合结构不受此限制

A robber burst into the room, knife in hand.

( hand前不能加his)。

2) 当表人体部位的词做逻辑主语时,及物动词用现在分 词,不及物动词用过去分词。

He lay there, his teeth set, his hand clenched, his eyes looking straight up. 典型例题:

Weather___, we'll go out for a walk.

A permitted B permitting C permits D for permitting

答案B. 本题中没有连词,它不是复合句,也不是并列句。 句中使用了逗号,且we 小写,可知其不是两个简单句。能够这样使用的只有独立主格或with的复

合结构。据此判断,本句中使用的是独立结构, 其结构为:名词+分词。 由于permit在这里翻译为'天气允许',表主动,应用现在分词,故选B。

如果不会判断独立结构作状语的形式,不妨将句子改为条件句,例如本句改为If weather permits, we'll go out for a walk. 然后将if 去掉,再将谓语动词改为非谓语动词即可。

11. 动词的时态

11.1 一般现在时的用法

1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。

时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday

I leave home for school at 7 every morning.

2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。

The earth moves around the sun.

Shanghai lies in the east of China.

3) 表示格言或警句中。

Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。


例:Columbus proved that the earth is round..

4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。

I don't want so much.

Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.

比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup.

I am doing my homework now.

第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。再如:Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的now

是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。 11.2 一般过去时的用法


时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。 Where did you go just now?


When I was a child, I often played football in the street.

Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.


It is time for sb. to do sth "到……时间了" "该……了"

It is time sb. did sth. "时间已迟了" "早该……了"

It is time for you to go to bed. 你该睡觉了。

It is time you went to bed. 你早该睡觉了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'

I'd rather you came tomorrow.

4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。 I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。

比较: 一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。

Christine was an invalid all her life.


Christine has been an invalid all her life.


Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.


Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.

( 含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)

注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。

1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。

Did you want anything else?

I wondered if you could help me.

2)情态动词 could, would.

Could you lend me your bike?

11.3 used to / be used to

used to + do:"过去常常"表示过去习惯性的动作或状态,但如今已不存在。 Mother used not to be so forgetful.

Scarf used to take a walk. (过去常常散步)

be used to + doing: 对……已感到习惯,或"习惯于",to是介词,后需加名词或动名词。

He is used to a vegetarian diet.

Scarf is used to taking a walk.(现在习惯于散步) 典型例题

---- Your phone number again? I ___ quite catch it.

---- It's 69568442.

A. didn't B. couldn't C. don't D. can't

答案A. 本句虽没有明确的时间状语,但从语意上看 出,在听的时候没有听懂这个动作发生在过去,因此应用过去时。

11.4 一般将来时

1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。

will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在争求意见时常用于第二人称。

Which paragraph shall I read first.

Will you be at home at seven this evening?

2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。

a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。

What are you going to do tomorrow?

b. 计划,安排要发生的事。

The play is going to be produced next month。 c. 有迹象要发生的事

Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.

3) be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。

We are to discuss the report next Saturday.

4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。

He is about to leave for Beijing.

注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。

11.5 be going to / will

用于条件句时, be going to 表将来

will 表意愿

If you are going to make a journey, you'd better get ready for it as soon as possible. Now if you will take off your clothes, we will fit the new clothes on you in front of the mirror.

11.6 be to和be going to

be to 表示客观安排或受人指示而做某事。

be going to 表示主观的打算或计划。

I am to play football tomorrow afternoon. (客观安排)

I'm going to play football tomorrow afternoon. (主观安排)

11.7 一般现在时表将来

1)下列动词:come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时表将来。这主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning.

When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes.


Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming.

There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing.


When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me.

I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there.

4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等后。

I hope they have a nice time next week.

Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room.

11.8 用现在进行时表示将来

意为:"意图"、"打算"、"安排"、常用于人。常用词为 come, go, start, arrive, leave, stay等。

I'm leaving tomorrow.

Are you staying here till next week?

11.9 现在完成时

现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状 态,其结果的确和现在有联系。动作或状态发生在过去 但它的影响现在还存在;也可表示持续到现在的动作或 状态。其构成: have (has) +过去分词。

11.10 比较过去时与现在完成时




yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语 共同的时间状语:

this morning, tonight,this April, now, once,before, already, recently,lately 现在完成时的时间状语 for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till / until, up to now, in past years, always,


3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live, teach, learn, work, study, know.

过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。


I saw this film yesterday.


I have seen this film.


Why did you get up so early?


Who hasn't handed in his paper?


She has returned from Paris.


She returned yesterday.


He has been in the League for three years.


He has been a League member for three years.


He joined the League three years ago.

( 三年前入团,joined为短暂行为。)

I have finished my homework now.

---Will somebody go and get Dr. White?

---He's already been sent for.

句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如 yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。

(错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.

(对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

11.11 用于现在完成时的句型

1)It is the first / second time…. that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。 It is the first time that I have visited the city.

It was the third time that the boy had been late.

2)This is the… that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时.

This is the best film that I've (ever) seen.


This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。 典型例题

(1) ---Do you know our town at all?

---No, this is the first time I ___ here.

A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming

答案B. This is the first time 后面所加从句应为现在完成时,故选B。

(2) ---Have you ____ been to our town before?

---No, it's the first time I ___ here.

A. even, come B. even, have come C. ever, come D. ever, have come

答案D. ever意为曾经或无论何时,反意词为never,此两词常用于完成时。 This is the largest fish I have ever seen. It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中,从句要用完成时。



(错)I have received his letter for a month.

(对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month.

11.12 比较since和for

Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度。

I have lived here for more than twenty years.

I have lived here since I was born..

My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949.

Some new oilfields have been opened up since 1976.

I have known Xiao Li since she was a little girl.

My brother has been in the Youth League for two years.

I have not heard from my uncle for a long time.

注意:并非有for 作为时间状语的句子都用现在完成时。

I worked here for more than twenty years.

(我现在已不在这里工作。) I have worked here for many years.


小窍门: 当现在完成时+一段时间,这一结构中,我们用下面的公式转化,很容易就能排除非延续动词在完成时中的误使。

1) (对) Tom has studied Russian for three years.

= Tom began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now.

2) (错) Harry has got married for six years.

= Harry began to get married six years ago, and is still getting married now. 显然,第二句不对,它应改为 Harry got married six years ago. 或 Harry has been married for six years.

11.13 since的四种用法

1) since +过去一个时间点 (如具体的年、月、日期、钟点、1980, last month, half past six)。

I have been here since 1989.

2) since +一段时间+ ago

I have been here since five months ago.

3) since +从句 Great changes have taken place since you left.

Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here.

4) It is +一段时间+ since从句

It is two years since I became a postgraduate student.

11.14 延续动词与瞬间动词

1) 用于完成时的区别

延续动词表示经验、经历; 瞬间动词表示行为的结 果,不能与表示段的时间状语连用。

He has completed the work. 他已完成了那项工作。 (表结果)

I've known him since then. 我从那时起就认识他了。(表经历)

2) 用于till / until从句的差异

延续动词用于肯定句,表示"做……直到……" 瞬间动词用于否定句,表示"到……,才……"

He didn't come back until ten o'clock.

他到10 点才回来。

He slept until ten o'clock. 他一直睡到10点。


1. You don't need to describe her. I ___ her several times.

A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet

答案B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响,我知道她的模样,你不用描述。再次,several times告知为反复发生的动作,因此用现在完成时。

2.---I'm sorry to keep you waiting.

---Oh, not at all. I ___ here only a few minutes.

A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be

答案A. 等待的动作由过去开始,持续到现在,应用现在完成时。

11.15 过去完成时

1) 概念:表示过去的过去

----|-------|-----|---->其构成是had +过去分词构成。

那时以前 那时 现在

2) 用法

a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。

She said (that) she had never been to Paris.

b. 状语从句


When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.

c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"

We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.

3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。 He said that he had learned some English before.

By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.

Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party. 典型例题

The students ___ busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she ___ in the office.

A. had written, left B,were writing, has left C. had written, had left D. were writing, had left

答案D. "把书忘在办公室"发生在"去取书"这一过去的动作之前,因此"忘了书"这一动作发生在过去的过去,用过去完成时。句中when表示的是时间的一点,表示在"同学们正忙于……"这一背景下,when所引导的动作发生。因此


注意: had no … when 还没等…… 就……

had no sooner… than 刚…… 就……

He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.

11.16 用一般过去时代替完成时

1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用then,and,but 等连词时,多用一般过去时。

When she saw the mouse,she screamed.

My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it.

2 ) 两个动作相继发生,可用一般过去时;如第一个动作需要若干时间完成,用过去完成时。 When I heard the news, I was very excited.

3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。

Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.

11.17 将来完成时

1) 构成will / be going to do sth. 2) 概念 a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。 b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或一获得的经验。 They will have been married for 20 years by then. You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow.

11.18 现在进行时


a. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。

We are waiting for you.

b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。 Mr. Green is writing another novel.


She is learning piano under Mr. Smith.

c. 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。

The leaves are turning red.

It's getting warmer and warmer. d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。

You are always changing your mind.


My dictionary ___, I have looked for it everywhere but still___ it.

A. has lost, don't find B. is missing, don't find C. has lost, haven't found D. is missing, haven't found.

答案D. 前句是一个仍在持续的状态,应用进行时,由于没有找到,其影响仍然存在,应用完成时,瞬间动词用于否定式时可用于完成时。

11.19 不用进行时的动词

1) 事实状态的动词

have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue

I have two brothers.

This house belongs to my sister.

2) 心理状态的动词

Know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate I need your help.

He loves her very much.

3 ) 瞬间动词

accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse.

I accept your advice.

4) 系动词

seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn

You seem a little tired.

11.20 过去进行时

1) 概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。

2) 过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。

3) 常用的时间状语

this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while

My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself.

It was raining when they left the station.

When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining.


1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger.

A. made B. is making C. was making D. makes

答案C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情,应用过去时。同 时,when表时间的同时性,"玛丽在做衣服时"提供事情发生的背景,因此用过去进行时。

2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep.

read; was falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read;fell 答案B.句中的as = when, while,意为"当……之时"。描述一件事发生的背景时,用过去进行;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。句意为 "在她看报纸时,奶奶睡着了。"句中的 fell (fall的过去时),是系动词,后跟形容词,如:fall sick。 11.21 将来进行时

1) 概念:表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。 She'll be coming soon. I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. 注意:将来进行时不用于表示"意志",不能说 I'll be having a talk with her. 2)常用的时间状语 Soon, tomorrow, this evening,on Sunday, by this time,tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening

By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach.

11.22 一般现在时代替将来时


When, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by the time, if, in case (that), unless, even if, whether, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, immediately

He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京,就去看他姨妈。


(1)He said he________me a present unless I_______ in doing the experiment.

A. had not given; had not succeeded B. would not give; succeed

C. will not give; succeed D. would not give; will succeed.

答案B. 在时间,条件或让步主语从句中一般不用将来时。本题有He said,故为过去式。主句用将来时,故选B. 此处用一般过去式代替了过去将来时。

(2) 表示现在已安排好的未来事项,行程等活动。

The museum opens at ten tomorrow. 博物馆明天10点开门。(实际上每天如此。) 11.23 一般现在时代替过去时

1 )"书上说","报纸上说"等。

The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow.


2) 叙述往事,使其生动。

Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.

11.24 一般现在时代替完成时

1) 有些动词用一般现在时代替完成时: hear, tell, learn, write , understand, forget, know, find , say, remember. I hear (= have heard) he will go to London. I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is. 2) 句型 " It is … since…"代替"It has been … since …" 3) It is (= has been) five years since we last met. 11.25 一般现在时代替进行时

1) 句型:Here comes… ; There goes…

Look, here comes Mr. Li.

11.26 现在进行时代替将来时

1) 表示即将发生的或预定中计划好的活动。

Are you staying with us this weekend? 这周和我们一起度周末吗? We are leaving soon. 我们马上就走。

2) 渐变动词,如:get, run, grow, become, begin及die。

He is dying.

11.27 时态一致

1) 如果从句所叙述的为真理或不变的事实,则永远用现在时。 At that time, people did not know that the earth moves. He told me last week that he is eighteen. 2) 宾语从句中的助动词ought, need, must, dare 时态是不变的。 He thought that I need not tell you the truth. 11.28 时态与时间状语


一般现在时 every …, sometimes, at …, on Sunday,

一般过去时 yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982, just now 一般将来时 next…, tomorrow, in+时间,

现在完成时 for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always, recently 过去完成时 before, by, until, when, after, once, as soon as

过去进行时 this morning, the whole morning, all day, yesterday, from nine to ten last evening… when, while

将来进行时 soon, tomorrow, this evening, on Sunday, by this time, tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening

12. 动词的语态



1)若宾语补足语是不带to 的不定式,变为被动语态 时,该不定式前要加"to"。此类动词为感官动词。

feel, hear, help, listen to, look at, make, observe, see, notice, watch

The teacher made me go out of the classroom.

--> I was made to go out of the classroom (by the teacher).

We saw him play football on the playground.

--> He was seen to play football on the playground.

2)情态动词+ be +过去分词,构成被动语态。

Coal can be used to produce electricity for agriculture and industry.

12.1 let 的用法

1)当let后只有一个单音节动词,变被动语态时,可用不带to 的不定式。 They let the strange go.---> The strange was let go.

2) 若let 后宾补较长时,let 通常不用被动语态,而用allow或permit 代替。 The nurse let me go to see my classmate in the hospital.

----> I was allowed / permitted to see my classmate in the hospital.

12.2 短语动词的被动语态


This is a photo of the power station that has been set up in my hometown. My sister will be taken care of by Grandma.

Such a thing has never been heard of before..

12.3 表示"据说"或"相信" 的词组

believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say, see, suppose, think, understand It is said that… 据说 It is reported that… 据报道 It is believed that… 大家相信 It is hoped that… 大家希望 It is well known that… 众所周知 It is thought that… 大家认为

It is suggested that… 据建议

It is taken granted that… 被视为当然

It has been decided that… 大家决定

It must be remember that…务必记住的是

It is said that she will leave for Wuhan on Tuesday.

12.4 不用被动语态的情况

1) 不及物动词或动词短语无被动语态:

appear, die disappear, end (vi. 结束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place.

After the fire, very little remained of my house.

比较: rise, fall, happen是不及物动词;raise, seat是及物动词。

(错) The price has been risen.

(对) The price has risen.

(错) The accident was happened last week.

(对) The accident happened last week.

(错) The price has raised.

(对) The price has been raised.

(错) Please seat.

(对) Please be seated.

要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意积 累。

2) 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语:

fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to This key just fits the lock.

Your story agrees with what had already been heard.

3) 系动词无被动语态:

appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn

It sounds good.

4) 带同源宾语的及物动词,反身代词,相互代词,不能用于被动语态: die, death, dream, live, life

She dreamed a bad dream last night.

5) 当宾语是不定式时,很少用于被动语态。

(对) She likes to swim.

(错) To swim is liked by her.

12.5 主动形式表示被动意义

1)wash, clean, cook, iron, look, cut, sell, read, wear, feel, draw, write, sell, drive… The book sells well. 这本书销路好。

This knife cuts easily. 这刀子很好用。

2)blame, let(出租), remain, keep, rent, build

I was to blame for the accident.

Much work remains.

3) 在need, require, want, worth (形容词), deserve后的动名词必须用主动形式。 The door needs repairing.= The door needs to be repaired.

This room needs cleaning. 这房间应该打扫一下。

This book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。

4) 特殊结构:make sb. heard / understood (使别人能听见/理解自己),have sth. done ( 要某人做某事)。

12.6 被动形式表示主动意义

be determined, be pleased, be graduated (from), be finished, be prepared (for), be occupied (in), get marries

He is graduated from a famous university.


注意: 表示同某人结婚,用marry sb. 或get married to sb. 都可。

He married a rich girl.

He got married to a rich girl. 12.7 need/want/require/worth

注意:当 need, want, require, worth(形容词)后面接doing也可以表示被动。 Your hair wants cutting. 你的头发该理了。 The floor requires washing. 地板需要冲洗。 The book is worth reading. 这本书值得一读。 典型例题 The library needs___, but it'll have to wait until Sunday. A. cleaning B. be cleaned C. clean D. being cleaned

答案A. need (实意) +n /to do,need (情态)+ do,当为被动语态时,还可need + doing. 本题考最后一种用法,选A。如有to be clean 则也为正确答案。 典:done,"不可能已经"。must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时)。

13. 句子的种类


1) 陈述句(Declarative Sentences):说明一个事实或陈述一种看法。 Light travels faster than sound. 光比声速度快。 (说明事实)

The film is rather boring. 这部电影很乏味。


2) 疑问句(Interrogative Sentences):提出问题。有以下四种:

a. 一般疑问句(General Questions):

Can you finish the work in time?


b. 特殊疑问句(W Questions; H Questions):

Where do you live? 你住那儿?

How do you know that? 你怎么知道那件事?

c. 选择疑问句(Alternative Questions):

Do you want tea or coffee?


d. 反意疑问句(Tag-Questions):

He doesn't know her, does he?


3) 祈使句(Imperative Sentences):提出请求,建议或发出命令,例如: Sit down, please. 请坐。

Don't be nervous! 别紧张!

4) 感叹句(Exclamatory Sentences):表示说话人惊奇、喜悦、愤怒等情绪,例如: What good news it is! 多好的消息啊!


1) 简单句(Simple Sentences):只包含一个主谓结构句子叫简单句,例如: She is fond of collecting stamps. 她喜欢集邮。

(主) (谓)

2) 并列句(Compound Sentences):包含两个或两个以上主谓结构的句子叫并列句,句与句之间通常用并列连词或分号来连接,例如:

The food was good, but he had little appetite.

(主) (谓) (主)(谓)


3) 复合句(Complex Sentences):包含一个主句从句和一个或几个从句的句子叫复合句,从句由从属连词引导,例如:

The film had begun when we got to the cinema.

主句 从句


(三)基本句型(Basic Sentence Patterns):英语中千变万化的句子归根结底都是由以下五种基本句型组合、扩展、变化而来的:

1)主 + 动(SV)例如:

I work. 我工作。

2)主 + 动 + 表(SVP)例如:

John is busy. 约翰忙。

3)主 + 动 + 宾(SVO)例如:

She studies English. 她学英语。

4)主 + 动 + 宾 + 补(SVOC)例如:

Time would prove me right. 时间会证明我是对的。

5)主 + 动 + 间宾 + 直宾(SVOiOd)例如:

My mother made me a new dress. 我母亲给我做了一件新衣裳。

13.1 祈使句结构


1) 祈使句有两种类型,一种是以动词原形开头,在动词原形之前加do (但只限于省略第二人称主语的句子)。

Take this seat.

Do be careful.


Don't move.

Don't be late.

2) 第二种祈使句以let开头。

Let 的反意疑问句 a. Let's 包括说话者

Let's have another try,shall we / shan't we?

= Shall we have another try?

b. Let us 不包括说话者

Let us have another try,will you / won't you?

= Will you please let us have another try?


Let's not talk of that matter.

Let us not talk of that matter.

13.2 感叹句结构

感叹句通常有what, how引导,表示赞美、惊叹、喜 悦、等感情。

what修饰名词,how 修饰形容词,副词或动词,感叹句结构主要有以下几种: 掌握它的搭配,即掌握了感叹句的重点。

How +形容词+ a +名词+ 陈述语序

How+形容词或副词+ 陈述语序

What +名词+ 陈述语序

What+a+形容词+名词+ 陈述语序

What+ 形容词+复数名词+ 陈述语序

What+ 形容词+不可数名词+ 陈述语序

How clever a boy he is!

How lovely the baby is!

What noise they are making!

What a clever boy he is!

What wonderful ideas (we have)!

What cold weather it is!


What a clever boy (he is)!


1)___ food you've cooked!

A. How a nice B. What a nice C. How nice D. What nice

答案D. 由于How 修饰形容词,副词;what修饰名词。且food为不可数名词,因此A,B 排除。C How + adj. 后面不能再加名词,因此只有D正确,其句型为What + adj. +n. (不可数)

2)___terrible weather we've been having these days!

A. What B. What a C. How D. How a

答案A. weather为不可数名词,B,D排除。C为how + adj. 后面不应有名词。只

有A,符合句型What +形容词+不可数名词。

3) --- _____ I had!

--- You really suffered a lot.

A. What a time B. What time C. How a time D. how time

答案A. 感叹句分两类:

1:What + n.+主谓部分

2:How + adj. / adv. / v.+主谓部分。本题属第一种,但省略了bad,相对于 What a bad time I had! 这是个习惯用语。

13.3 强调句结构

常考的强调句结构是it 引导的句子。

It is (was) 被强调部分+ that (who) + 句子其他部分。


It is from the sun that we get light and heat.

It was not until I had read your letter that I understood the true state of affairs. 典型例题

1) It was last night ___ I see the comet.

A. the time B. when C. that D. which

答案C. 强调句的结构是: It +be +强调部分 + that (who) + 主谓句。 强调句的 连词只有两个,that和who。当强调的部分是人,且为句子的主语时,才用 "who",其余用that。

原句: My father did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening.

强调主语: It was my father who did the experiment in the lab yesterday evening. 强调宾语: It was the experiment that my father did in the lab yesterday evening. 强调时间: It was yesterday evening that my father did the experiment in the lab. (注意不用when)

强调地点: It was in the lab that my father did the experiment yesterday evening.

2)It is ten years ___ Miss Green returned to Canada.

A. that B. when C. since D. as

答案C. 考点是连词用法。 本题易误选为A. that. 其实本句不是强调句。若是,去掉It be… that还应是一个完整的句子。而本句去掉 'It is…that',只剩下ten years Miss Green returned to Canada. 不成句。因此本句不是强调句。

It is /was +时间+ since… 其中is<---> has been was <---> had been.

13.4 用助动词进行强调

强调句还有一种类型,就是用助动词do (did,does) 强调谓语。

She does like this horse. 她的确喜欢这匹马。

Please do take care of yourself. 千万保重。

13.5 反意疑问句

1) 陈述部分的主语是I,疑问部分要用 aren't I.

I'm as tall as your sister,aren't I?

2) 陈述部分的谓语是wish,疑问部分要用may +主语。

I wish to have a word with you, may I?

3) 陈述部分用 no, nothing, nobody, never, few, seldom, hardly, rarely, little等否定含义的词时,疑问部分用肯定含义。

The Swede made no answer, did he / she?

Some plants never blown (开花), do they ?

4) 含有ought to 的反意疑问句,陈述部分是肯定的,疑问部分用shouldn't / oughtn't +主语。

He ought to know what to do, oughtn't he? / shouldn't he?

5) 陈述部分有have to +v. (had to + v.),疑问部分常用don't +主语(didn't +主语)。 We have to get there at eight tomorrow, don't we?

6) 陈述部分的谓语是used to 时,疑问部分用didn't +主语或 usedn't +主语。 He used to take pictures there, didn't he? / usedn't he?

7) 陈述部分有had better + v. 疑问句部分用hadn't you?

You'd better read it by yourself, hadn't you?

8) 陈述部分有would rather +v.,疑问部分多用 wouldn't +主语。

He would rather read it ten times than recite it, wouldn't he?

9) 陈述部分有You'd like to +v. 疑问部分用wouldn't +主语。

You'd like to go with me, wouldn't you?

10) 陈述部分有must 的疑问句,疑问部分根据实际情况而定。

He must be a doctor, isn't he?

You must have studied English for three years, haven't you? / didn't you? He must have finished it yesterday, didn't he?

11) 感叹句中,疑问部分用be +主语。

What colours, aren't they?

What a smell, isn't it?

12) 陈述部分由neither… nor, either… or 连接的并列主语时,疑问部分根据其实际逻辑意义而定。

Neither you nor I am engineer, are we?

13) 陈述部分主语是指示代词或不定代词everything, that, nothing, this, 疑问部分主语用it。

Everything is ready, isn't it?

14) 陈述部分为主语从句或并列复合句,疑问部分有三种情况:

a. 并列复合句疑问部分,谓语动词根据邻近从句的谓语而定。

Mr. Smith had been to Beijing for several times, he should have been in China now, shouldn't he?

b. 带有定语从句,宾语从句的主从复合句,疑问部分谓语根据主句的谓语而定: He is not the man who gave us a talk, is he?

He said he wanted to visit Japan, didn't he?

c. 上述部分主句谓语是think, believe, expect, suppose, imagine等引导的定语从句,疑问部分与宾语从句相对应构成反意疑问句。

I don't think he is bright, is he?

We believe she can do it better, can't she?

15) 陈述部分主语是不定代词everybody, anyone, somebody, nobody, no one等,疑问部分常用复数they,有时也用单数he。

Everyone knows the answer, don't they? (does he?)

Nobody knows about it, do they? (does he?)

16) 带情态动词dare或need的反意疑问句,疑问部分常用 need (dare ) +主语。 We need not do it again, need we ?

He dare not say so, dare you?

当dare, need 为实义动词时,疑问部分用助动词do + 主语。

She doesn't dare to go home alone, does she?

17) 省去主语的祈使句的反意疑问句,疑问部分用will you。

Don't do that again, will you?

Go with me, will you / won't you ?

注意: Let's 开头的祈使句,后用shall we?

Let us 开头的祈使句,后用will you?

Let's go and listen to the music, shall we?

Let us wait for you in the reading-room, will you ?

18) 陈述部分是"there be"结构的,疑问部分用there省略主语代词。

There is something wrong with your watch, isn't there? There will not be any trouble, will there?

19) 否定前缀不能视为否定词,其反意疑问句仍用否定形式。 It is impossible, isn't it?

He is not unkind to his classmates, is he?

20) must在表"推测"时,根据其推测的情况来确定反意疑问句。 He must be there now, isn't he?

It must be going to rain tomorrow, won't it?


陈述部分的谓语 疑问部分 I aren't I

Wish may +主语 no,nothing,nobody,never,

few, seldom, hardly, 肯定含义

rarely, little等否定


感叹句中 be +主语 Neither…nor,

either…or 连接的根 据其实际逻辑意义而定

并列主语 指示代词或不定代词

everything,that, 主语用it

并列复合句 谓语根据邻近从句的谓语而定 定语从句,宾语从句的

主从复合句 根据主句的谓语而定 think,believe,expect,


情态动词dare或need need (dare ) +主语

省去主语的祈使句 will you?

Let's 开头的祈使句 Shall we?

否定前缀不能视为否定词 仍用否定形式

14. 倒装

14.1 倒装句之全部倒装

全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和 一般过去时。常见的结构有:

1) here, there, now, then, thus等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用be, come, go, lie, run。 There goes the bell.

Then came the chairman.

Here is your letter.

2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。

Out rushed a missile from under the bomber.

Ahead sat an old woman.


Here he comes. Away they went.

14.2 倒装句之部分倒装

答案A. 这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结构。 这些否定词包括no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until等。本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time.

2) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is.

A. man did know B. man know C. didn't man know D. did man know

答案D. 看到Not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在C,D 中选一个。 改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将not提前,后面就不能再用否定了,否则意思就变了。

14.3 以否定词开头作部分倒装

如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than

Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender.

Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her.

No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her.


No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily.

A. the game began B. has the game begun

C. did the game begin D. had the game begun

答案D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时,一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。这类表示否定意义的词有never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。

注意:只有当Not only… but also连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的Not only… but also仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。

Not only you but also I am fond of music.

14.4 so, neither, nor作部分倒装

表示"也"、"也不" 的句子要部分倒装。

Tom can speak French. So can Jack.

If you won't go, neither will I.


---Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother?

---I don't know, _____.

A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also 答案:B. nor为增补意思"也不关心",因此句子应倒装。A错在用 don't 再次否定, C neither 用法不对且缺乏连词。 D缺乏连词。

注意: 当so引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为"的确如此"。

Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did.

---It's raining hard. ---So it is.

14.5 only在句首要倒装的情况

Only in this way, can you learn English well.

Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting.


Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed.

14.6 as, though 引导的倒装句

as / though引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前)。


1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词。

2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语, 随实义动词一起放在主语之前。

Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily.


让步状语从句中,有though,although时,后面的主句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用。

14.7 其他部分倒装

1) so… that 句型中的so 位于句首时,需倒装。

So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch.

2) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中:

May you all be happy.

3) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有were, had, should等词,可将if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。

Were I you, I would try it again.


1) Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is

A. man did know B. man knew C. didn't man know D. did man know

答案为D. 否定词Not在句首,要求用部分倒装的句子结构。

2) Not until I began to work ___ how much time I had wasted.

A. didn't I realize B. did I realize C. I didn't realize D. I realize


3) Do you know Tom bought a new car?

I don't know, ___.

A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care

C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also

解析:答案为B. 句中的nor引出部分倒装结构,表示"也不"。由 so, neither, nor引导的倒装句,表示前一情况的重复出现。其中, so用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中。

15. 主谓一致


1) 语法形式上要一致,即单复数形式与谓语要一致。

2) 意义上要一致,即主语意义上的单复数要与谓语的单复数形式一致。

3) 就近原则,即谓语动词的单复形式取决于最靠近它的词语,


There is much water in the thermos.

但当不可数名词前有表示数量的复数名词时,谓语动词用复数形式。 Ten thousand tons of coal were produced last year.

15.1 并列结构作主语时谓语用复数

Reading and writing are very important.

注意: 当主语由and连结时,如果它表示一个单一的概念,即指同一人或同一物时,谓语动词用单数,and 此时连接的两个词前只有一个冠词。

The iron and steel industry is very important to our life.


The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting. A. is B. was C. are D. were

答案B. 注: 先从时态上考虑。这是过去发生的事情应用过去时,先排除A.,C.。本题易误选D,因为The League secretary and monitor 好象是两个人,但仔细辨别, monitor 前没有the,在英语中,当一人兼数职时只在第一个职务前加定冠词。后面的职务用and 相连。这样本题主语为一个人,所以应选B。

15.2 主谓一致中的靠近原则

1)当there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。 There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk..

There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class.

2)当either… or… 与neither… nor, 连接两个主语时,谓语动词与最邻近的主语 保持一致。 如果句子是由here, there引导,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常也和最邻近的主语一致。

Either you or she is to go.

Here is a pen, a few envelops and some paper for you.

15.3 谓语动词与前面的主语一致

当主语后面跟有with, together with, like, except, but, no less than, as well as 等词引起的短语时,谓语动词与前面的主语一致。

The teacher together with some students is visiting the factory.

He as well as I wants to go boating.

15.4 谓语需用单数

1) 代词each和由every, some, no, any等构成的复合代词作主语,或主语中含有each, every, 谓语需用单数。

Each of us has a tape-recorder.

There is something wrong with my watch.

2) 当主语是一本书或一条格言时,谓语动词常用单数。

The Arabian Night is a book known to lovers of English.


3) 表示金钱,时间,价格或度量衡的复合名词作主语 时,通常把这些名词看作一个整体,谓语一般用单数。(用复数也可,意思不变。)

Three weeks was allowed for making the necessary preparations.

Ten yuan is enough.

15.5 指代意义决定谓语的单复数

1) 在代词what, which, who, none, some, any, more, most, all等词的单复数由其指代的词的单复数决定。

All is right. (一切顺利。)

All are present. (所有人都到齐了。)

2) 集体名词作主语时,谓语的数要根据主语的意思来决定。如family, audience, crew, crowd, class, company, committee等词后用复数形式时,意为这个集体中的各个成员,用单数时表示该个集体。

His family isn't very large. 他家不是一个大家庭。

His family are music lovers. 他的家人都是音乐爱好者。

但集合名词people, police, cattle, poultry等在任何情况下都用复数形式。 Are there any police around?

3)有些名词,如variety, number, population, proportion, majority 等有时看作单数,有时看作复数。

A number of +名词复数+复数动词。

The number of +名词复数+单数动词。

A number of books have lent out.

The majority of the students like English.

15.6 与后接名词或代词保持一致

1) 用half of, part of, most of, a portion of 等词引起主语时,动词通常与of后面的名词,代词保持一致。

Most of his money is spent on books.

Most of the students are taking an active part in sports.

2) 在一些短语,如 many a 或 more than one 所修饰的词作主语时,谓语动词多 用单数形式。但由more than… of 作主语时,动词应与其后的名词或代词保持一致。 Many a person has read the novel. 许多人都读过这本书。

More than 60 percent of the students are from the city.百分之六十多的学生都来自这个城市。

16. 虚拟语气

1) 概念


2) 在条件句中的应用


16.1 真实条件句

真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是如果的意思。 时态关系

句型: 条件从句 主句

一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形

If he comes, he will bring his violin.


The volleyball match will be put off if it ___.

A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is rained



1) 在真实条件句中,主句不能用be going to表示将来,该用shall, will. (错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it.

(对) If you leave now, you will never regret it.

2) 表示真理时,主句谓语动词便不用shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词形式。

16.2 非真实条件句

1)时态:可以表示过去,现在和将来的情况。它的基本特点是时态退后。 a. 同现在事实相反的假设。

句型 : 条件从句 主句

一般过去时 should( would) +动词原形

If they were here, they would help you.

b. 表示于过去事实相反的假设。

句型: 条件从句 主句

过去完成时 should(would) have+ 过去分词

If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded.

The rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful.

If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going. If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it. 含义:He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it.

If he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress. 含义: He was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress. c. 表示对将来的假想

句型: 条件从句 主句

一般过去时 should+ 动词原形

were+ 不定式 would + 动词原形

should+ 动词原形

If you succeeded, everything would be all right.

If you should succeed, everything would be all right.

If you were to succeed, everything would be all right.

16.3 混合条件句


If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now.


If it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在). 16.4 虚拟条件句的倒装

虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有were, should, 或had, 可将if省略,再把were, should或had 移到从句句首,实行倒装。

Were they here now, they could help us.

=If they were here now, they could help us.

Had you come earlier, you would have met him

=If you had come earlier, you would have met him.

Should it rain, the crops would be saved.

=Were it to rain, the crops would be saved.


在虚拟语气的从句中,动词'be'的过去时态一律用"were",不用was, 即在从句中be用were代替。 If I were you, I would go to look for him.


If he were here, everything would be all right.



_____ to do the work, I should do it some other day.

A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I

答案C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有were, should, had这三个词,通常将if省略,主语提前, 变成 were, should, had +主语的形式。但要注意,在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略连词的倒装形式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式。如我们可说 Were I not to do., 而不能说 Weren't I to do.

16.5 特殊的虚拟语气词:should

1) It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用should 加动词原形, should 可省略。



It is (2)important that…+ (should) do

(3) a pity

(1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested, insisted; + (should) do

(2)important, necessary, natural, strange

a pity, a shame, no wonder

(3)It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.



order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

He insisted that he (should ) be sent there.

注意: 如suggest, insist不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时",即它们用于其本意"暗示、表明"、"坚持认为"时,宾语从句用陈述语气。

The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules.


(错) You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill.

(对) Your pale face suggests that you are ill.

(错) I insisted that you ( should) be wrong.

(对) I insisted that you were wrong.


在suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice等名词后面的表语从句、同位语从句中要用虚拟语气,即(should)+动词原形。

My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference.

I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week.

16.6 wish的用法


真实状况 wish后

从句动作先于主句动词动作 现在时 过去时

(be的过去式为 were)

从句动作与主句动作同时发生 过去时 过去完成时

(had + 过去分词)

将来不大可能实现的愿望 将来时 would/could +


I wish I were as tall as you. 我希望和你一样高。

He wished he hadn't said that. 他希望他没讲那样的话。

I wish it would rain tomorrow. 我希望明天下雨就好了。

2)Wish to do表达法。

Wish sb / sth to do

I wish to see the manager. = I want to see the manager.

I wish the manager to be informed at once. (= I want the manager to be informed at once.)

16.7 比较if only与only if

only if表示"只有";if only则表示"如果……就好了"。If only也可用于陈述语气。

I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒。

If only the alarm clock had rung. 当时闹钟响了,就好了。

If only he comes early. 但愿他早点回来。

16.8 It is (high) time that

It is (high) time that 后面的从句谓语动词要用过去式或用should加动词原形,但should不可省略。

It is time that the children went to bed.

It is high time that the children should go to bed.

16.9 need "不必做"和"本不该做"

didn't need to do表示: 过去不必做某事, 事实上也没做。.

needn't have done表示: 过去不必做某事, 但事实上做了。

John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she didn't need to walk back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她不必步行回家了。

John went to the station with the car to meet Mary, so she needn't have walked back home. 约翰开车去车站接玛丽,所以她本不必步行回家了。 (Mary步行回家,没有遇上John的车。)


There was plenty of time. She ___.

A. mustn't have hurried B. couldn't have hurried C. must not hurry D. needn't have hurried

答案D。needn't have done. 意为"本不必",即已经做了某事,而时实际上不必要。 Mustn't have done 用法不正确,对过去发生的事情进行否定性推断应为couldn't have done, "不可能已经"。 must not do 不可以(用于一般现在时)。

17. 名词性从句

在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句 (Noun Clauses)。 名词从句的功能相当于名词词组, 它在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能,名词从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

17.1 引导名词性从句的连接词


连接词:that,whether,if 不充当从句的任何成分)

连接代词:what, whatever, who, whoever, whom,

whose, which.

连接副词:when, where, how, why


1. 介词后的连词

2. 引导主语从句和同位语从句的连词不可省略。

That she was chosen made us very happy.

We heard the news that our team had won. 比较:whether与if 均为"是否"的意思。 但在下列情况下,whether 不能被if 取代:

1. whether引导主语从句并在句首

2. 引导表语从句

3. whether从句作介词宾语

4. 从句后有"or not"

Whether he will come is not clear.

大部分连接词引导的主语从句都可以置于句末,用 it充当形式主语。 It is not important who will go.

It is still unknown which team will win the match.

17.2 名词性that-从句

1)由从属连词that引导的从句叫做名词性that-从句。 That只起连接主句和从句的作用,在从句中不担任任何成分,本身也没有词义。名词性that-从句在句中能充当主 语、宾语、表语、同位语和形容词宾语,例如:

主语:That he is still alive is sheer luck. 他还活着全靠运气。

宾语:John said that he was leaving for London on Wednesday. 约翰说他星期三要到伦敦去。

表语:The fact is that he has not been seen recently. 事实是近来谁也没有见过他。

同位语:The fact that he has not been seen recently disturbs everyone in his office. 近来谁也没有见过他,这一事实令办公室所有的人不安。 形容词宾语:I am glad that you are satisfied with your job.



It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure. 很清楚,整个计划注定要失败。

It's a pity that you should have to leave. 你非走不可真是件憾事。


a. It + be +形容词+ that-从句

It is necessary that… 有必要……

It is important that… 重要的是……

It is obvious that… 很明显……

b. It + be + -ed 分词+ that-从句

It is believed that… 人们相信……

It is known to all that… 从所周知…… It has been decided that… 已决定…… c. It + be +名词+ that-从句 It is common knowledge that… ……是常识 It is a surprise that… 令人惊奇的是…… It is a fact that… 事实是…… d. It +不及物动词+ that-分句 It appears that… 似乎…… It happens that… 碰巧…… It occurred to me that… 我突然想起……

17.3 名词性wh-从句

1)由wh-词引导的名词从句叫做名词性wh-从句。Wh-词包括who, whom,. whose, whoever, what, whatever, which, whichever等连接代词和where, when, how, why等连接副词。Wh-从句的语法功能除了和that-从句一样外,还可充当介词宾语、宾语补语和间接宾语等,例如:

主语: How the book will sell depends on its author. 书销售如何取决于作者本人。 直接宾语:In one's own home one can do what one likes. 在自己家里可以随心所欲。 间接宾语:The club will give whoever wins a prize.


表语: My question is who will take over president of the Foundation. 我的问题是谁将接任该基金会主席职位。

宾语补足语:She will name him whatever she wants to. 她高兴给他起什么名字就取 什么名字。

同位语: I have no idea when he will return.


形容词宾语:I'm not sure why she refused their invitation. 我尚不能肯定她为什么拒绝他们的邀请。

介词宾语: That depends on where we shall go.


2)Wh-从句作主语也常用先行词it做形式主语,而将wh-从句置于句末,例如: It is not yet decided who will do that job.


It remains unknown when they are going to get married. 他们何时结婚依然不明。 17.4 if, whether引导的名词从句


从属连词if, whether引导的名词从句是由一般疑问句或选择疑问转化而来的,因此也分别被称为yes-no型疑问句从句和选择型疑问从句,其功能和wh-从句的功能相同, 例如:

主语:Whether the plan is feasible remains to be proved. 这一计划是否可行还有等证实。

宾语:Let us know whether / if you can finish the article before Friday. 请让我们知道你是否能在星期五以前把文章写完。

表语:The point is whether we should lend him the money. 问题在于我们是否应该借钱给他。

同位语:They are investigating the question whether the man is trustworthy. 他们调


形容词宾语: She's doubtful whether we shall be able to come. 她怀疑我们是否能够前来。

介词宾语: I worry about whether he can pass through the crisis of his illness. 我担心他是否能度过疾病的危险期。


选择性疑问从句由关联词if/whether…or或whethe…or not构成,例如: Please tell me whether / if they are Swedish or Danish. 请告诉我他们是瑞典人还是丹麦人。

I don't care whether you like the plan or not.我不在乎你是否喜欢该计划。 17.5 否定转移

1) 将think, believe, suppose, expect, fancy, imagine等动词后面宾语从句的否定词转移到主句中,即主句的谓语动词用否定式,而从句的谓语动词用肯定式。

I don't think I know you. 我想我并不认识你。

I don' t believe he will come. 我相信他不回来。


I hope you weren't ill. 我想你没有生病吧。

2) 将seem, appear 等后的从句的否定转移到前面。

It doesn't seem that they know where to go.


It doesn't appear that we'll have a sunny day tomorrow.


3) 有时将动名词,介词短语或整个从句的否定转变为对谓语动词的否定。

I don't remember having ever seen such a man.

我记得从未见过这样一个人。 (not否定动名词短语 having…)

It's not a place where anyone would expect to see strange characters on the street. 在这里,人们不会想到在街上会碰上陌生的人。

(anyone 作主语,从句中的谓语动词不能用否定形式。)

4) 有时状语或状语从句中否定可以转移到谓语动词前。

The ant is not gathering this for itself alone. (否定状语) 蚂蚁不只是为自己采食。

He was not ready to believe something just because Aristotle said so. (否定because状语) 他并不因亚里斯多德说过如何如何,就轻信此事。

She had not been married many weeks when that man's younger brother saw her and was struck by her beauty. (否定状语many weeks) 她结婚还不到几个月,这个人的弟弟就看见她了,并对她的美貌着了迷。

18. 定语从句

定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词或关系副词)引出。

关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which等。

关系副词有:when, where, why等。

18.1 关系代词引导的定语从句


1)who, whom, that


Is he the man who/that wants to see you?


He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.


2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同of which互换), 例如: They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。

Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书。

3)which, that


A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。(which / that在句中作宾语)

The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了。(which / that在句中作宾语)

18.2 关系副词引导的定语从句


1)when, where, why

关系副词when, where, why的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构,因此常常和"介词+ which"结构交替使用,例如:

There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候。 Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地。

Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?


that可以用于表示时间、地点、方式、理由的名词后取代when, where, why和"介词+ which"引导的定语从句,在口语中that常被省略,例如:

His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了。

He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找到他四十年前居住过的地方。

18.3 判断关系代词与关系副词

方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状),也能正 确选择出关系代词/关系副词。

例1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age?

A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

例2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held.

A. where B. that C. on which D. the one

答案:例1 D,例2 A

例1变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.

例2变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held.

在句1中,所缺部分为宾语,而where, that, on which都不能起到宾语的作用,只有the one既做了主句的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选D。 而句2中, 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词where,又因 in the museum词组,可用介词in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词on 用的不对,所以选A。

关系词的选择依据在从句中所做的成分,先行词在从句中做主、定、宾语时,选择关系代词 (who, whom, that, which, whose); 先行词在从句中做状语时,应选择关系副词 ( where 地点状语,when 时间状语,why 原因状语) 。

18.4 限制性和非限制性定语从句

1) 定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分,去掉它主句意思往往不明确;非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明,去掉了也不会影响主句的意思,它与主句之间通常用逗号分开,例如:

This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。(限制性)

The house, which we bought last month, is very nice.这幢房子很漂亮,是我们上个月买的。(非限制性)

2) 当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时,其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的,例如:

Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理·史密斯去年退休了,他曾经是我的老师。

My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。

This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人,我已经读了三遍。

3) 非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数,例如:

He seems not to have grasped what I meant, which greatly upsets me. 他似乎没抓住我的意思,这使我心烦。

Liquid water changes to vapor, which is called evaporation. 液态水变为蒸汽,这就叫做蒸发。


18.5 介词+关系词



3) 某些在从句中充当时间,地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词when 和where 互换。

This is the house in which I lived two years ago.

This is the house where I lived two years ago.

Do you remember the day on which you joined our club?

Do you remember the day when you joined our club?

18.6 as, which 非限定性定语从句

as 和which在引导非限制性定语从句时,这两个关系代词都指主句所表达的整个意思,且在定语从句中都可以作主语和宾语。但不同之处主要有两点:

(1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而which不可。

(2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动词,则从句中的关系代词只能用which.。


As 的用法

例1. the same… as;such…as 中的as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。

I have got into the same trouble as he (has).

例2. as可引导非限制性从句,常带有'正如'。

As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health.

As is know, smoking is harmful to one's health.


18.7 先行词和关系词二合一

1)Whoever spits in public will be punished here.

(Whoever 可以用 anyone who 代替)

2)The parents will use what they have to send their son to technical school.

(what 可以用all that代替)

18.8 what/whatever;that/what; who/whoever

1)what = the thing which;wh atever = anything

What you want has been sent here.

Whatever you want makes no difference to me.

2) who= the person that whoever= anyone who

(错)Who breaks the law will be punished.

(错)Whoever robbed the bank is not clear.

(对)Whoever breaks the law will be punished.

(对)Who robbed the bank is not clear.

3) that 和 what

当that引导定语从句时 ,通常用作关系代词,而引导名词性从句时,是个不充当任何成分的连接词。宾语从句和表语从句中的that常可省略。What只能引导名词性从 句, 用作连接代词,作从句的具体成分,且不能省略。

I think (that) you will like the stamps.

What we need is more practice.

18.9 关系代词that 的用法

a) 在there be 句型中,只用that,不用which。

b) 在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little等作先行词时,只用that,不用which。

c) 先行词有the only, the very修饰时,只用that。

d) 先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时,只用that。.

e) 先行词既有人,又有物时。


All that is needed is a supply of oil. 所需的只是供油问题。 Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。

19. 状语从句

19.1 地点状语从句

地点状语从句通常由where, wherever 引导。

Where I live there are plenty of trees.


Wherever I am I will be thinking of you.


19.2 方式状语从句

方式状语从句通常由as, (just) as…so…, as if, as though引导。

1) as, (just) as…so…引导的方式状语从句通常位于主句后,但在(just) as…so…结构中位于句首,这时as从句带有比喻的含义,意思是"正如…","就像",多用于正式文体,例如:

Always do to the others as you would be done by.


As water is to fish, so air is to man.


Just as we sweep our rooms, so we should sweep backward ideas from our minds. 正如打扫房屋一样,我们也要扫除我们头脑中落后的东西。

2) as if, as though

两者的意义和用法相同,引出的状语从句谓语多用虚拟语气,表示与事实相反, 有时也用陈述语气,表示所说情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。汉译常作"仿佛…… 似的","好像……似的",例如:

They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed.


He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting.


It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon.


说明:as if / as though也可以引导一个分词短语、不定式短语或无动词短语,例如:

He stared at me as if seeing me for first time.


He cleared his throat as if to say something.


The waves dashed on the rocks as if in anger.


19.3 原因状语从句

比较:because, since, as和for

1) because语势最强,用来说明人所不知的原因,回答why提出的问题。当原因是显而易见的或已为人们所知,就用as或 since。

I didn't go, because I was afraid.

Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey.

2) 由because引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗 号,则可以用for来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用for。

He is absent today, because / for he is ill.

He must be ill, for he is absent today.

19.4 目的状语从句

表示目的状语的从句可以由that, so that, in order that, lest, for fear that, in case等词引导,例如:

You must speak louder so that /in order that you can be heard by all.

He wrote the name down for fear that(lest) he should forget it.

Better take more clothes in case the weather is cold. 19.5 结果状语从句

结果状语从句常由so… that 或 such…that引导,掌握这两个句型,首先要了解so 和 such与其后的词的搭配规律。

比较:so和 such

其规律由so与such的不同词性决定。such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so 是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。 so 还可与表示数量的形容词many, few, much, little连用,形成固定搭配。

so foolish such a fool

so nice a flower such a nice flower

so many / few flowers such nice flowers

so much / little money. such rapid progress

so many people such a lot of people

( so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名词性的,只能用such搭配。)

so…that与such…that之间的转换既为 so与such之间的转换。

The boy is so young that he can't go to school.

He is such a young boy that he can't go to school

19.6 条件状语从句

连接词主要有 if, unless, as/so long as, on condition that 等。.

if 引导的条件句有真实条件句和非真实条件句两种。非真实条件句已在虚拟语气中阐述。

unless = if not.

Let's go out for a walk unless you are too tired.

If you are not too tied, let's go out for a walk. 典型例题

You will be late ___ you leave immediately.

A. unless B. until C. if D. or

答案A。 句意:除非你立即走,否则你就回迟到的。可转化为 If you dong leave immediately, you will be late. B、D句意不对,or表转折,句子如为 You leave immediately or you will be late.

19.7 让步状语从句

though, although

注意: 当有though, although时,后面的从句不能有but,但是 though 和yet可连用

Although it's raining, they are still working in the field.


He is very old, but he still works very hard.


Though the sore be healed, yet a scar may remain.

伤口虽愈合,但伤疤留下了。 (谚语)


1) ___she is young, she knows quite a lot.

A. When B. However C. Although D. Unless


2) as, though 引导的倒装句

as / though引导的让步从句必须表语或状语提前(形容词、副词、分词、实义动词提前)。

Child as /though he was, he knew what was the right thing to do.

= Though he was a small child, he knew what was the right thing to do.

注意: a. 句首名词不能带任何冠词。

b. 句首是实义动词,其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语,随实义动词一起放在主语之前。

Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. = Though he tries hard, he never seems…


3) ever if, even though. 即使

We'll make a trip even though the weather is bad.

4) whether…or- 不管……都

Whether you believe it or not, it is true.

5) "no matter +疑问词" 或"疑问词+后缀ever"

No matter what happened, he would not mind.

Whatever happened, he would not mind.

替换:no matter what = whatever

no matter who = whoever

no matter when = whenever

no matter where = wherever

no matter which = whichever

no matter how = however

注意:no matter 不能引导主语从句和宾语从句。

(错)No matter what you say is of no use now.

(对)Whatever you say is of no use now.

你现在说什么也没用了。(Whatever you say是主语从句)

(错)Prisoners have to eat no matter what they're given,

(对)Prisoners have to eat whatever they're given. 囚犯们只能给什么吃什么。 19.8 比较while, when, as

1)as, when 引导短暂性动作的动词。 Just as / Just when / When I stopped my car, a man came up to me. 2)当从句的动作发生于主句动作之前,只能用when 引导这个从句,不可用as 或 while。 When you have finished your work, you may have a rest. 3)从句表示"随时间推移"连词能用as,不用when 或while。 As the day went on, the weather got worse.


19.9 比较until和till

此两个连词意义相同。肯定形式表示的意思是"做某事直至某时",动词必须是延续性的。否定形式表达的意思是"直至某时才做某事"。动词为延续性或非延续性都可 以。 正确使用这两个连词的关键之一就在于判断句中的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。


I slept until midnight. 我一直睡到半夜时醒了。

Wait till I call you. 等着我叫你。

(在肯定句中可用before代替 Let's get in the wheat before the sun sets.) 否定句:

She didn't arrive until 6 o'clock.


Don't get off the bus until it has stopped.


I didn't manage to do it until you had explained how. 直到你教我后,我才会做。


Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened.


2)Until when 疑问句中,until要放在句首。

---Until when are you staying? 你呆到什么时候?

--- Until next Monday. 呆到下周一。


(1)Not until …在句首,主句用倒装。

Not until the early years of the 19th century did man know what heat is.

直到19 世纪初,人类才知道热能是什么。

Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted.


(2) It is not until… that…

19.10 表示"一…就…"的结构

hardly/scarcely…when/before, no sooner…than 和as soon as都可以表示"一…就…"的意思,例:

I had hardly / scarcely got home when it began to rain.

I had no sooner got home than it began to rain.

As soon as I got home, it began to rain.

注意:如果hardly, scarcely 或no sooner置于句首,句子必须用倒装结构: Hardly / Scarcely had I got home when it began to rain.

No sooner had I got home than it began to rain.

20. 连词

连词是一种虚词, 它不能独立担任句子成分而只起连接词与词,短语与短语以及句与句的作用。连词主要可分为两类:并列连词和从属连词。并列连词用来连接平行的词、词组和分句。如:and, but, or, nor, so, therefore, yet, however, for, hence, as well as, both…and, not only…but also, either…or, neither…nor, (and)then等等。 20.1 并列连词与并列结构


1) and 与or


(错) They sat down and talk about something.

(错) They started to dance and sang.

(错) I saw two men sitting behind and whisper there.

(对) They sat down and talked about something.

(对) They started to dance and sing.

(对)I saw two men sitting behind and whispering there. 解析:

第一句: and 连接两个并列的谓语,所以 talk 应改为 talked。

第二句:and 连接两个并列的动词不定式,第二个不定式往往省略to,因此sang 应改为 sing。

第三句:and 连接感观动词saw 后面的用作的宾补的两个并列分词结构,因此whisper应改为whispering。

注意:and 还可以和祈使句或名词词组连用表示条件。(or也有此用法) Make up your mind, and you'll get the chance.

= If you make up your mind, you'll get the chance.

One more effort, and you'll succeed.

= If you make one more effort, you'll succeed.

2) both …and 两者都

She plays (both) the piano and the guitar.

3) not only…but (also), as well as不但…而且)

She plays not only the piano, but (also) the guitar.

注意: not only… but also 关联两个分句时,一个分句因有否定词not 而必须倒装。

Not only does he like reading stories, but also he can even write some.

4) neither…nor 意思为"既不……也不……"谓语动词采用就近原则,与nor后的词保持一致。

Neither you nor he is to blame.

20.2 比较and和or

1) 并列结构中,or通常用于否定句,and用于肯定句。

2) 但有时and 也可用于否定句。请注意其不同特点:

There is no air or water in the moon.

There is no air and no water on the moon.

在否定中并列结构用or 连接,但含有两个否定词的句子实际被看作是肯定结构,因此要用and。


---I don't like chicken ___ fish.

---I don't like chicken, ___ I like fish very much.

A. and; and B. and; but C. or; but D. or;and

答案C。否定句中表并列用or, but 表转折。


(错) We will die without air and water.

(错) We can't live without air or water.

(对) We will die without air or water.

(对) We can't live without air and water.

20.3 表示选择的并列结构

1) or 意思为"否则"。

I must work hard, or I'll fail in the exam.

2) either…or 意思为"或者……或者……"。注意谓语动词采用就近原则。 Either you or I am right.

20.4 表示转折或对比

1) but表示转折,while表示对比。

Some people love cats, while others hate them.


--- Would you like to come to dinner tonight?

--- I'd like to, ___ I'm too busy.

A. and B. so C. as D. but 答案D。but与前面形成转折,符合语意。而表并列的and, 结果的so,原因的as都不符合句意。

2) not…but… 意思为"不是……而是……"

not 和but 后面的用词要遵循一致原则。

They were not the bones of an animal, but (the bones) of a human being. 20.5 表原因关系

1) for


(错) For he is ill, he is absent today.

(对) He is absent today, for he is ill.


2) so, therefore

He hurt his leg, so he couldn't play in the game.


a. 两个并列连词不能连用,但therefore, then, yet.可以和并列连词连用。 You can watch TV, and or you can go to bed.

He hurt his leg, and so / and therefore he couldn't play in the game.

b. although… yet…,但although不与 but连用。

(错) Although he was weak, but he tried his best to do the work..

(对) Although he was weak, yet he tried his best to do the work.

20.6 比较so和 such

其规律由so与such的不同词性决定。such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so是副词,只能修饰形容词或副 词。so 还可与表示数量的形容词many,few,much, little连用,形成固定搭配。 so + adj. such + a(n) + n. so + adj. + a(n) + n. such + n. (pl.) so + adj. + n. (pl.) such +n. (pl.) so + adj. + n. [不可数] such +n. [不可数] so foolish such a fool so nice a flower such a nice flower

so many/ few flowers such nice flowers

so much/little money. such rapid progress

so many people such a lot of people

so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名词性的,只能用such搭配。

so…that与such…that之间的转换既为 so与such之间的转换。

21. 情态动词

21.1 情态动词的语法特征

1) 情态动词不能表示正在发生或已经发生的事情,只表示期待或估计某事的发生。

2) 情态动词 除ought 和have 外,后面只能接不带to 的不定式。

3) 情态动词没有人称,数的变化,即情态动词第三人称单数不加-s。

4) 情态动词没有非谓语形式,即没有不定式,分词,等形式。 21.2 比较can 和be able to

1)can could 表示能力;可能 (过去时用could),

只用于现在式和过去式(could)。be able to可以用于各种时态。

They will be able to tell you the news soon. 他很快就能告诉你消息了。

2)只用be able to

a. 位于助动词后。

b. 情态动词后。 c. 表示过去某时刻动作时。

d. 用于句首表示条件。

e. 表示成功地做了某事时,只能用was/were able to, 不能用could。 He was able to flee Europe before the war broke out.

= He managed to flee Europe before the war broke out.



--- Could I have the television on?

--- Yes, you can. / No, you can't.


He couldn't be a bad man.


21.3 比较may和might

1) 表示允许或请求;表示没有把握的推测;may 放在句首,表示祝愿。 May God bless you!

He might be at home.

注意: might 表示推测时,不表示时态。只是可能性比may 小。

2) 成语: may/might as well,后面接不带to 的不定式,意为"不妨"。 If that is the case, we may as well try. 典型例题

Peter ___come with us tonight, but he isn't very sure yet.

A. must B. may C. can D. will

答案B. 表可能性只能用may. 此句意可从后半句推出。

21.4 比较have to和must

1) 两词都是'必须'的意思,have to 表示客观的需要, must 表示说话人主观上的看法,既主观上的必要。

My brother was very ill, so I had to call the doctor in the middle of the night. 我弟弟病得很厉害,我只得半夜里把医生请来。(客观上需要做这件事)

He said that they must work hard. 他说他们必须努力工作。(主观上要做这件事) 2) have to有人称、数、时态的变化,而must只有一种形式。但must 可用于间接 引语中表示过去的必要或义务。

He had to look after his sister yesterday.

3) 在否定结构中: don't have to 表示"不必"

mustn't 表示"禁止",

You don't have to tell him about it. 你不一定要把此事告诉他。

You mustn't tell him about it. 你一定不要把这件事告诉他。 21.5 must表示推测

1) must用在肯定句中表示较有把握的推测,意为"一定"。

2) must表对现在的状态或现在正发生的事情的推测时, must 后面通常接系动词be 的原形或行为动词的进行式。

You have worked hard all day.You must be tired. 你辛苦干一整天,一定累了。(对现在情况的推测判断)

He must be working in his office. 他一定在办公室工作呢。


He must be staying there.


He must stay there.


3) must 表示对已发生的事情的推测时,must 要接完成式。

I didn't hear the phone. I must have been asleep. 我刚才没有听到电话,我想必是睡着了。

4) must表示对过去某时正发生的事情的推测,must 后面要接不定式的完成进行式。

---Why didn't you answer my phone call?

---Well, I must have been sleeping, so I didn't hear it.

5) 否定推测用can't。

If Tom didn't leave here until five o'clock, he can't be home yet. 如果汤姆五点才离开这儿,他此时一定还未到家。

21.6 表示推测的用法

can, could, may, might, must 皆可表示推测,其用法如下:



I don't know where she is, she may be in Wuhan.



At this moment, our teacher must be correcting our exam papers.




We would have finished this work by the end of next December. 明年十二月底前我们很可能已完成这项工作了。

The road is wet. It must have rained last night.




Your mother must have been looking for you.


5)推测的否定形式,疑问形式用can't, couldn't表示。

Mike can't have found his car, for he came to work by bus this morning. 迈克一定还没有找回他的车,因为早上他是坐公共汽车来上班的。

注意:could, might表示推测时不表示时态,其推测的程度不如can, may。 21.7 情态动词+ have +过去分词

1) may(might) have + done sth, can (could) have + done sth 表示过去,推测过去时间里可能发生的事情。

Philip may (might) have been hurt seriously in the car accident.

Philip can (could) have been hurt seriously in the car accident.

2) must have +done sth,对过去时间里可能发生的事情的推测,语气较强,具有"肯定","谅必"的意思。

---Linda has gone to work, but her bicycle is still here.

---She must have gone by bus.

3) ought to have done sth, should have done sth

本应该做某事,而事实上并没有做。否定句表示"不该做某事而做了"。 You ought to (should) have been more careful in this experiment.

He ought not to have thrown the old clothes away.(事实上已扔了。)

ought to 在语气上比should 要强。

4) needn't have done sth 本没必要做某事

I dressed very warmly for the trip, but I needn't have done so. The weather was hot.

5) would like to have done sth 本打算做某事

I would like to have read the article, but I was very busy then.

21.8 should 和ought to

should 和ought to 都为"应该"的意思,可用于各种人称。

---Ought he to go?

---Yes. I think he ought to.

表示要求,命令时,语气由 should(应该)、had better最好)、must(必须)渐强。

21.9 had better表示"最好"

had better 相当于一个助动词,它只有一种形式,它后面要跟动词原形。 had better do sth

had better not do sth

It is pretty cold. You'd better put on my coat.

She'd better not play with the dog.

had better have done sth表示与事实相反的结果,意为"本来最好"。 You had better have come earlier. 21.10 would rather表示"宁愿"

would rather do

would rather not do

would rather… than… 宁愿……而不愿。

还有would sooner, had rather, had sooner都表示"宁愿"、"宁可"的意思。 If I have a choice, I had sooner not continue my studies at this school.

I would rather stay here than go home. = I would stay here rather than go home. 典型例题

----Shall we go skating or stay at home?

----Which ___ do?

A. do you rather B. would you rather C. will you rather D. should you rather 答案B。本题考查情态动词rather的用法,would rather +do sth 意为"宁愿",本题为疑问句,would 提前,所以选B。

21.11 will和would


1)would like; Would like to do = want to 想要,为固定搭配。

Would you like to go with me?

2)Will you…? Would you like…? 表示肯定含义的请求劝说时,疑问句中一般用some, 而不是any。 Would you like some cake?

3)否定结构中用will,一般不用would, won't you是一种委婉语气。 Won't you sit down?

21.12 情态动词的回答方式

问句 肯定回答 否定回答

Need you…? Yes, I must. No,I needn't

Must you…? /don't have to.


1)---Could I borrow your dictionary?

---Yes, of course, you____.

A. might B. will C. can D. should

答案C.could表示委婉的语气,并不为时态。答语中of course,表示肯定的语气,允许某人做某事时,用can和 may来表达,不能用could或might。复习: will 与you连用,用来提出要求或下命令。should与you 连用,用来提出劝告。 2)---Shall I tell John about it?

---No, you ___. I've told him already.

A. needn't B. wouldn't C. mustn't D. shouldn't

答案A。needn't 不必,不用。 wouldn't 将不, 不会的。 mustn't 禁止、不能。 shouldn't 不应该。本题为不需要,不必的意思,应用needn't。

3)---Don't forget to come to my birthday party tomorrow.


A. I don't B. I won't C. I can't D. I haven't

答案B. will既可当作情态动词,表请求、建议、也可作为实义动词表"意愿、意志、决心",本题表示决心,选B。

21.13 带to 的情态动词

带to 的情态动词有四个:ought to, have to, used to, be to, 如加上have got to ,(=must), be able to,为六个。它们的疑问,否定形式应予以注意:

Do they have to pay their bill before the end of the month?

She didn't use to play tennis before she was fourteen.

You ought not to have told her all about it.

Ought he to see a heart specialist at once.?

ought to 本身作为情态动词使用。其他的词作为实义动词使用,变疑问,否定 时,须有do 等助动词协助。


Tom ought not to ___ me your secret, but he meant no harm.

A.have told B.tell C.be telling D. having told

答案A。由于后句为过去时,告诉秘密的动作又发生在其前因,此地应用过去完成时,但它在情态动词 ought to 后,所以用have。

21.14 比较need和dare

这两词既可做实义动词用,又可做情态动词用。作为情态动词,两者都只能用于疑问句,否定句和条件句。 need 作实义动词时后面的不定式必须带to,而dare作实义动词用时, 后面的to 时常可以被省略。

1) 实义动词: need (需要, 要求)

need + n. / to do sth

2) 情态动词: need,只用原形need后加do,否定形式为need not。 Need you go yet?

Yes, I must. / No, I needn't.

3) need 的被动含义:need, want, require, worth(形容词)后面接doing也可以表示被动:

need doing = need to be done